psyc test 3 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
midbrain
thalamus/hypothalamus/limbic system
Personality Disorder, DSM-IV
(Butcher, p 376)
Define and contrast: complianceobedience conformity
Insulin
Regulates glucose levels

Pancreas --> bloodstream --> body

Release is sensitive to amount of glucose in the bloodstream AND environmental cues
Ellen is consistently optimistic, talkative, and impulsive. Each of these characteristics most clearly represents a:
trait.
reinforces response after unpredictable # of responses
variable ratio
Attention
LECTURE 11


Tactile discrimination of more detailed objects requires activity of cortical neurons
pupil
adjustable opening in the eye
Functional Fixation
Difficulty conceptualizing that an object typically used for one purpose can be used for another.
Interference
Learning some new information may disrupt retrieval of other information
Pleurisy
inflammation of the pleura; the inflamed pleural layers rub against each other every time the lungs expand to breathe in air; can cause sharp pain with inhalation; most commonly caused by infections such as tuberculosis or pnuemonia
Reflex
innate connection between a stimulus and a subsequent response
_______________may desire long-term relationships but their lack of stable inner self makes it difficult to maintain relationships.
borderline personality individuals
Structuralism [definition]
Wilhem Wundt; emphasized introspective analysis of sensation and perception
Experimental method
the researcher randomly assigns participants to different conditions and ensures that these conditions are identical except for the independent variable. ONLY means of determining causality
cerebral cortex
the outer surface of the forebrain
transduction
The process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity.
The senses
All senses have sensory neurons associated with them. When babies are born, their senses are not as developed as adults'. Their sense organs and their brains are still developing. When born, babies have a good sense of smell, tough and taste. They can tell difference b/w the smell of their parents and that of other people. Their sense of hearing is less developed. Their sense of sight is the least development. They have blurry vision. Normal is 20/20 Better is 20/10 and poor is 20/40. Babies have 20/100. Can see things best 18 inches from their faces. This is probably evolutionary bc we naturally hold babies at about 18 inches from our own faces. By age 2 kids have normal vision.
plagiarism
ethical breach in which person claims credit for another persons idea or research
Bile acid resins
reduce bile recycling, cholesterol gets used up making more bile
Catatonic
Pronounce motor signs, either of an excited or stoporous type of schiso
Two factors are necessary for schizophrenia to develop. The first is a biological vulnerability to schizophrenia; the second is severe life stresses. This explanation is consistent with a(n) ____ perspective.
interactional (diathesis-stress)
responsible for visual and spatial material
 Visuospatial sketchpad
Genotype
Collection of all genes of an individual
Sociology
Focuses on how social and cultural forces influence human (group) behavior
Consciousness
of both external stimuli and your own mental activity
transference
responding to one person (such as a spouse or the psychoanalyst) in a way that is similar to the way one responded to another person (such as a parent) in childhood
Assimilation
Most basica type of learning. When you encounter something new, the first thing you do is relate it to something you already know. You relate it to your previous SCHEMA, or general idea of how something works. For example, if you have only been to fast food restaurants and never fine dining, than when you do go into a regular restaurant for the first time, you will think you should pay first and take your food to your seat. You are basing your assumptions on the schema you have of fast food restaurants.
operational definition
working definition of a complex or abstract idea that is based on how it is measured in research project
Higher order conditioning-
occurs when the conditioned stimulus are linked together to form a series of signals
Implicit Association Test
A covert measure of unconscious attitudes, it is derived from the speed at which people respond to pairing of concepts-such as blacks or whites with good or bad
John Loke believed?
The mind is a blank state!
SMALLER receptive field
LECTURE 11


Size of receptive field associated with GREATER tactile acuity
Natural Selection
The process by which specific genes are favored within a given environment to produce viable offspring (pass along the genes)
Weber's Law
for a difference to be perceptible, two stimuli must differ by a constant proportion, not a constant amount
peripheral nervous system
the bundles of axons that convey messages between the spinal cord and the rest of the body
Four lobes
Each hemisphere of the cortex has four lbes, making eight lobes total in the brain. These lobes can also physically be seen because there are indents separating them but not spaces. The parts are the frontal, temporal, parietal, and occipital.
prefrontal cortex
anterior part of the frontal lobes of the brain (thoughts and actions in accordance with internal goals)
what is post-traumatic stress disorder?
-PTSD
-a pattern of distressing symptoms, such as flashbacks, 
nightmares, avoidance and anxiety responses that recur
after a traumatic experience
Qualities of a good theory:
• Clear and parsimonious• Supported by available data• Helps explain occurrences• Testable and falsifiable
The three fundamental affects that exist between the self and object are:
attachment, frustration and rejection
Humanistic Theory
humans are GOOD; people act bad only because of circumstances
What is "social desirability bias"?
Def. The tendency toward favorable self-presentation that could lead to inaccurate self-reports.
short term memory
active memory that holds a few things briefly
what are compulsions?
a repetitive act that the person feels compelled to carry out, often in response to an obsessive thought or image
Playing a slot machine is an example of which schedule of reinforcement?
variable ratio (VR)
Ascending Reticular Activating System (RAS)
-Sensory input arrives via spinal cord

-Neurons activated by sensory input

-Projections to cortex

-Non-specific (ie, projects all types of sensory info)

-Wakefulness/alertness and sleep
Eysenck’s theory, and describe the three factors
extraversion vs. introversion as a central dimension of human personality. Another prominent trait that is found in nearly all models is Neuroticism, or emotional instability.
what are somatoform disorders?
a disorder in which a person complains of bodily symptoms that cannot be accounted for in terms of actual physical damage or dysfunction
1) IPSP (inhibitory postsyn potential) 2) Reuptake 3) The destruction of a neurotransmitter by an enzyme after its release.
1) An inhibitory hyperpol of the postsyn mem of a synapse caused by the liberation of a neurotransmitter by the terminal button. 2) The reentry of a neurotransmitter just liberated by a terminal button back through its mem, thus terminating postsyn potential. 3) Enzymatic deactivation.
Behavioral model: Pavlov's dog: stimulus generation
response to similar (but not same) stimulus; e.g., ringtone instead of actual bell
What are some advantages to the DSM-IV-TR?
*new studies are improving empirical evidence*categories help clinicians to select the most appropriate treatment*culture-bound syndromes are now included
What is the paradox of well-being?
Older adults are lower on social indicators but they generally have high levels of well-being
What is the second principle of behavioral genetics?
This principle states that traits tend to be influenced by many genes.
What are the 3 basic tenets of Loevinger's Ego Development Theory?
1. Ego: Structure within personality that attempts to synthesize and interpret experiences
2. Involved in ability to regulate impulses, relate to others, achieve self-understanding, think about what is going on around us
3. Primary source of individual differences at all ages past infancy
What is the difference between over 30 mothers and under 30 mothers?
More likely to:
a. Breast feed
b. Be affectionate and sensitive to child's needs
c. Spend time with baby
d. Seek fertility treatment
e. Over 45 - higher multiple birth rates
f. High risks of complications

Less likely to:
a. Regard birth as mistimed
b. Smoke while pregnant
2. State of the gate is determined by the relative activity of LDN v. SDN
LECTURE 12


ONE (2 of 4) assumptions of Gate Theory

- OPEN gate : MORE activity in SMALL diameter neurons

- CLOSED gate : MORE activity in LARGE diameter neurons
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Term:
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