PSYC435-Q4 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
fundamental attribution
 identifying answers
o Recognition
a plaque promoting hormone
large crevices in the brain
non-manipulated variables
classification variable
IV but difficult to draw causal relationships
alleviating depression is associated with 
Psychology [definition]
The science of behavior
provides ability to have rapid, well-timed movements
contact with extremely cold objects, or watching others freeze
Why can't some variables be manipulated
Transforming information into a form that can be stored in memory
part of forebrain (prosencephelon) and diencephalon (along with thalamus); if damaged, can alter behavior such as drinking, temp regulation, and sexual behavior
Gate Theory

Way of conceptualizing pain

- Accounts for physical and psychological aspects of pain

- Provides explanation for pain the absence of tissue damage, and tissue damage that does not cause pain
Morphine (agonist)
1st ant/ag for Endegenous Opioids
Pretest-posttest design
experimenters measure the dependent variable twice once before the IV is manipulated and again afterward
Sensory Adaptation
Senses adapt to stimulus
ex. wearing watch, ring, bra, necklace etc.
Fixed Ratio
A specified number of correct responses must occur before a reinforcer is presented to the learner.
According to Freud, boys are most likely to experience the Oedipus complex during the _____ stage.
What is the therapeutic goal of Behavioral Therapy?
two or more individuals who interact and are independent
somatic system
consists of nerves that transmit sensory info toward the brain and muscles
Electroconvulsive Therapy
small electric current produces a brief seizure. used to treat major depression
NO Topographical

Type of organization of olfactory information at olfactory bulb
An anatomical term pertaining to the middle; in or toward the middle; nearer the middle of the body.

Within a multi-layered structure, the center layer.
swelling where the spinal cord enters the skull; regulates heartbeat and breathing
Selective Reuptake Serotonin Inhibitors
prevent preynaptic neuron from uptaking serotonin so more is available to the postsynaptic neuron
size constancy
Ability to perceive objects as the same size no matter how near or far away they are from us.
Timmy, the youngest child of a high school athletic director, was able to roll over at 3 months, crawl at 6 months, and walk at 12 months. This ordered sequence of motor development was largely due to:
directionality problem
when 2 variables are correlated, dont know which causes which
memory for skills and actions; usually automatic, effortless to recall; conscious effort may reduce recall
procedural memory
Psychosocial Approaches for Alzheimer's
Cognitive Remediation - enhance everyday activities, specific memory retrainingTreat for Neuropsychiatric Symptoms - psychoeducation for caregivers; behavioral management
Concentrative Meditation
Mental exercise based on attending to a single object
Lock and Key Principle

Principle applies to olfactory receptors

- One type of volatile chemical activates one type of olfactory receptor
evidence for the tendency to separate figure from ground
reversible figures
THe average age of individuals who achieved a particular level of performance on a test is considereed to be their
mental age
nomothetic approach
an approach to the study of individual differences that seeks general laws about how an aspect of personality affects behavior
The process of encoding refers to:
getting information into memory
kohlberg's 3 levels of moral development
preconventional, conventional, and post conventional
Dependant Personality Disorder
(butcher, p. 390)
• clinging & submissive
• fail to get appropriately angry with others because of a fear of losing their support
• comorbidity Dx: mood, anxiety, and avoidant disorders
• 2 to 4% of the pop'n 
• common in women
* one or two individuals they do NOT avoid
What are types of soft science?
behavior, attitudes, emotions. (sociology, and pyscology)
Sensory Receptors--Bipolar Cells--Ganglion Cells

What is the chain of reaction of the voltage change during visual detection of the retina?

(receptors--to what cells--to what cells?)
being able to see alternative uses for an object
functional flexibility
neodisassociative theory
a view of hypnosis in which it is asserted that some individuals are capable of separating one part of their conscious minds from another part.
What is dopamine , what does it do , and what is it's connection with Michael J. Fox?
freud's psycodynamic theory, id, ego, superego
freud's theory, personality consists of three major systemsis-present at birth, wants to aviod pain and attain pleasureego-takes info from bothsuperego-morality and parental authority. reasoning, good excuse
declarative knowledge & procedural knowledge
-Competencies involve what two types of knowledge?
brain + spinal cord =
central nervous system >>> (+ nerves = peripheral nervous system)
What is the difference between continuous and intermittent reinforcement?
Def. Reinforcement given after every behavior vs. Reinforcement given randomly after a behavior.
nodes of ranvier
tiny areas on the surface of the soma that're sensitve to nuerotrasmitters
What did Lehman find about the relationship between age and creativity?
1. Analyzed significant contributions by age and discipline
2. Found peak productivity between 30-35
3. Peak varies by discipline (higher in diplomacy, lower in sciences, athletics)
name the four different types of touch senses/
pressure, warm, cold, pain
Pattern of Pathology of Dementia (Alzheimer's)
Starts in transentorhinal area of the brea (hippocampus); proliferation starts years before symptom onset1st symptoms = inability to store new short-term memoriesIncrease in symptoms is associated with increased neuronal deathUpper brain (Parietal Lobe) preservation may account for some preserved abilities
What is the 7+/- 2 Rule?
The ability to remember [short term] between 5 and 9 chunks, the average is 7.
example of when to use multiple regression
predicting college GPA from SAT and High school grades, motivation, and study hours
How did Clever Hans give the appearance of answering questions, & how did Oskar Pfungst unveil Hans's methods?
tapping his hoofs + head movements; fitted Hans w/ blinders so that he couldn't see anyone
How have mortality rates in the least-developed countries changed over time?
1. Fewer under 5 deaths, more deaths over 65, causes greatest world shift
Which of the following persons is most clearly acting aggressively?
a child who tries to hit another child with a rock
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