Psych 105 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
expressing emotions
first psychologist
william james
conclusion regarding factual evidence
Howard Gardner
1943-present; Field: intelligence; Contributions: devised the theory of multiple intelligences (logical-mathematic, spatial, bodily-kinesthetic, intrapersonal, linguistic, musical, interpersonal, naturalistic)
common trait
possessed by many people
distinguishing one illness from another
Attempts to reduce conscious experience to its basic elements (Introspection)
Reproductive strategy in which parental investment is shared, but not always equal
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the researchers are unaware if the research participants have recieved the treatment or placebo.
Subtypes of Schizophrenia:
catatonic type
unresponsive to surroundings, purposeless movement, parrot-like speech
Attachment styles: percentage breakdown
o Secure: 56%o Anxious-ambivalent: 21%o Avoidant: 23%
AMPA and Kainate
-Glutamate receptors
-allow NA+ passage
Stimulus Generalization
the tendency for stimuli similar to those used during learning to elicit a reaction similar to the 
learned response
-the CR can also be elicited by stimuli that 
are similar to the CS
What geese Dream of
maize; wish fulfillment
Behavior motivated by an unselfish concern for the welfare of others
episodic memories
memories of personally experienced events and the contexts in which they occurred
What anti-HTN drug can cause depression?
Cell Body
-aka soma
-senses the stimulation intensity
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
The widely used American revision of Binet's original intelligence test
Define attitudes
Attitudes = evaluative reactions to people, issues, or objects.
When anxiety is so distressing uncontrollable or persistent that is results in a maladaptive behavuor the person is said to have an anxiety disorder if that anxiety takes the form of an irrational fear of a specific object or situation the disorder is cal
a phobia
helplessness theory
individuals who are prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal, stable and global
Olfactory bulb
a brain structure that receives messages regarding olfction
Psychological or physical suffering of the victim is sexually exciting
Semantic memories
generic, categorical memories such as the meaning of words and concepts
relational aggression
form of indirect aggression, prevalent in girls, involving spreading rumours, gossiping, and nonverbal putdowns for the purpose of social manipulation
tendency for stimuli similar to the conditioned stimuli to elicit similar responses
personal beliefs that are firmly held in spite of their absurd nature.
What is the dopamine hypothesis?
too much dopamine
Displaced agression
redirecting aggression to a target other than the actual source of ones frustration
Long-term potentiation (LTP)
enhanced neural processing that results from strengthening of synaptic connections
About ___ of Americans abstain from alcohol
B.F. Skinner was the person who theorized_____________________ conditioning in which voluntary responses are controlled by their consequences.
Frustration Aggression Principle
The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger which can generate aggression.
A _____________ is a unit of meaning made up of concepts that express a unitary idea.
Compromise Theory
-basic code is propositional (for long term storage)
-people use propositional code to create depictive codes
-depictive codes can be scanned, zoomed, etc
the belief that body and soul are separate and antagonistic
stimulus discrimination
the tendency to stop making a generalized response to a stimulus that is similar to the original conditioned stimulus because the similar stimulus is never paired with the unconditioned stimulus
Person-Situation Controversy
The question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors
Dependent Variable
the changed condition due to the independent variable (the then statement)
gender identity
our sense of being male or female
Tardive dyskinesia
a side effect of some antipsychotic medications that produces involuntary movements of the lips, tongue, face, legs, or other parts of the body
at __ mos., there is no gender difference in the amount of emotion discussed by children
Prefrontal Cortex
lesions produce flat emotions, site of “lobotomy” or “transorbital leucotomy” surgery
Artificial Selection
Selecting some animals to breed but not others based on desirable characteristics
body's resting rate of energy expenditure
basal metabolic rate
theories and research
the first is an explanation that predicts behavior and the next is a way of testing
Kathryn's grandma says that if Kathryn uses the old-family recipe for Irish Soda Bread, then she is guaranteed to have delicious results. Kathryn's grandma is encouraging her granddaughter to:
Use an algorithm
rorschach inkblot test
a projective personality test in which individual interpertations of the meaning of a se of unstructured inkblots are analyzed to identify a respondent's inner feelings and interpret his or her personality structure. not reliable or valid
Washburn's physiology of hunger
balloon in stomach (inflated to measure contraction so pressure on balloon) showed stomach contractions accompany feelings of hunger cuz he had contraction when he pressed the button
Support for Embryo

Placenta – connects embryo to the uterine wall
Umbilical cord – Connects placenta and embryo.
– Connect embryo and mother‟s blood supplies
– Allows embryo to take in nutrients, oxygen, and antibodies
– Allows developing embryo to eliminate waste products
REM rebound
tendency to increase time spent in REM sleep after REM deprivation
an anxiety disorder characterized by repetitive, unwanted and distressing actions and or thoughts
obsessive compulsive disorder (OCD)
anxiety disorder involving fear and avoidance of heights, animals, and other specific stimuli and situations
social phobia ch 15
DARE contains components of earlier prevention models like
social influence model
affective education
kenneth clark and mami phipps clark
research on stereotypes, prejudice, and self-esteem in black children that was used in desetregation court cases before the supreme court.
Test-retest procedure
the test is simply given a second time and the scores from the two tests are compared; the greater the similarity, the higher the reliability
declarative knowledge
knowing a thing, like a name or a fact
Give an example of an injuctive norm?
expect monogamy in marriage
Developmental Research Designs: Cross-Sectional
- Individuals of different ages are compared at one time
- i.e. Compare a sample of 15-year-olds with a sample of 19-year-olds to examine possible age differences in identity commitments
- Inter-individual differences
How long until DT appears
2 - 5 days after last drink
Give an example of the misinformation effect
Partcipants viwed a simulated automobile accident at an intersection with a stop sign. After the viewing, half the participants recieved a suggestion that the traffic sign was a yeild sign. When asked later what traffic sign they remembered seeing at the intersection, those who has been given the suggestion tended to claim that they saw a yield sign. They are not lying, their memory is jsut faulty
Vygotsky's 3 phases of children's dev. of behavior and problem-solving
1)their behavior is controlled by other people's statements 2)private speech 3)internalized private speech
What were the results of Twin Studies?
Genes matter!!!
Growing up together = less of a factor
Shared family environment = barely a factor
genetics + environment + experiences = psnality
40% + 5% + 45% = 100%
At the grocery store you notice a woman looking at various parts of her body and then picking up certain grocery items. Curious about her behavior, you ask her what she is doing. She says that she prefers not to use shopping lists, but rather “stores”
a. the method of loci.
Keegan notices that his favorite 55-cent candy bar seems lighter than usual and so he checks the label and finds that it is lighter by an ounce. He decides to buy a larger candy bar instead and doesn't notice that the the 99-cent candy bar also is lighter
the larger a weight is, the greater the change must be before one can detect a difference.
B. Autonomy vs. shame and doubt stage
the period during which according to Erikson, toddlers[ages 1 and a half to 3 years] develop independence and automony if exploration and freedom are encouraged, or shame and self-doubt if they are restricted and overprotected
what is true regarding treatments for psychological disorders?
a disorder or symptom may occur as a result of the treatment itself
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