Psych 19 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Affects many neurotransmitters
Improves mood and memory temporarily
(+) softhearted, trusting, helpful
operant behavior
unit of behavior
Social/Observational learning
learn by watching...apprenticeship model
repetitive ritualized behavior in which people feel a lack of control over it
unconscious attribution of our negative characteristics to others
example: a man with powerful unconscious sexual impulses toward females complains that other women are always "after him"
corpus callosum
connects the two hemispheres
self-perceived happiness or satisfaction with life
subjective well-being
base of brainstem; controls breathing and heartbeat
The Nervous System
The Body's electrochemical communication systemDivided into two parts: The central nervous system and the Peripheral nervous system
which schedule of reinforcment depends on the number of response the organism makes?
Measuring Peer Acceptance
(2 methods)

1.Nominations technique
-positive nominations (who do you like most?)
-negative nominations (who do you like least?)
2.Rating scale technique – rating children on their “likeability”
Categories of peer acceptance:

Popular-many positive nominations,
few negative
Rejected-few positive nominations, many negative
Controversial-many positive nominations, many negative
Neglected-few positive nominations, few negative
Average Moderate-few extreme ratings
applied research
conducted outside the meets the 4th goal of psychology, to change existing real world problems. 
Tentative attempts to organize and explain a body of data, facts, or observations
What is the Satiety/Satisfaction Center?
Ventro-Medial Hypothalamus
*Long-term declarative memory is classified as either:-semantic-episodic
Procedural memory
variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
neural center located in limbic system that helps process explicit memories for storage
part of the conflict. operates on immediate pleasure
naturalistic observation
a method of gathering scientific knowledge by unobtrusively observing people in their natural environments
Participants subsection
-who was in your sample
-how many
-how you recruited
-mean and SD of age
-breakdown of gender
-participants voluntarily participated
the complete set of observations about which a researcher wishes to draw conclusions
Mirror neurons
neurons that are activated by preforming and action or by seeing another monkey or person preform the same action -found in frontal and parietal lobes
process by means of with congnitive development proceeds, process whereby the environment is interpreted in therms of the schemas the child has atthe time; allow child to think of things as independent
night terrors
abrupt awakenings with panic and intense emotional arousal
unstructured clinical interview
-most common assessment tool-allowing interviewers to express empathy, build rapport, and discover the nature of the client's problem
Self Serving Judgments
-Perceptions or comparisons that enhance the perceived worth of the self
a stimulus following a response that decreases the likelihood that the response will be repeated
Observer Rating
An alternative to self-report. Someone who knows the subject well provides information about them.
behavioral perspectives; skinner's operant conditioning
personality development; reward, punishment
ability of CENTRAL NERVOUS SYSTEM to build new neural connections and strenghten existing connections
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
Drive-Reduction Theory
the idea that a physiological need creates an aroused tension state(a drive) that motivates an organism to satisfy the need
the process of filling in the missing details of what is viewed
action potential
wave of change in the electrical charge across the axon membrane, which moves rapidly from one end of the axon to the other.
Testing threat
A threat to internal validity produced by differences in dropout rates across the conditions in the experiment
problems with DSM classification
over diagnosis, diagnostic labels, subjective and not objective symptoms, political/social implications
Experimental Study (Experiment)
Research study that involves the manipulation of one variable to determine its possible effect on another variable.
Diagnostic and statistical manual of mental disorders(Axis III)
general medical conditions
Electra complex
conflict during phallic stage in which girls supposedly lover their fathers romantically and want to eliminate their mothers as rivals
circadian rhythm
regular body functions on a 24-hour cycle
subjective well being
a combination of cognitive judgement of satisfaction with life the frquent experiences of positive moods and emotiosn and the relatively infrequent experiencing of unpleasant moods and emotions
Functional Modularity
different functions of the body are distributed throughout the brain
Cross-sectional study
individuals of different ages are all studied at the same time (simultaneously)
Learned helplessness
the state of pessimism that results form attributing a negative event to stable, internal, and global factors
information overload
an excess of incoming information that forces one to be selective in the information received and retained
a growth promoting climate requires
genuineness, acceptance, empthay. part of carl rogers person centered perspective
treatment for more severe Alzheimer's
memantine (neuroprotective), can be used alone or added to a cholinesterase inhibitor
an acronym for the four levels of treatment in sexual therapy; permission, limited information, specific suggestions, and intensive therapy
personality paradox
the idea that people seem to behave much less consistently than a trait conception would predict; for example low correlation between acts of honesty in a different situation,
Which of the following is the most basic genetic material?
a. DNA
regression approach 
uses the score form each predictor in an equation to provide a numerical estimate of the criterion 
Client-centered therapy
Type of therapy with an emphasis on self-understanding and personal growth
Basic Research
the quest for knowledge purely for its own sake
REquires FDA to issue final regulations requiring these color graphics; health warnings will take 15 months after issuance of this final rule
The Tobacco Control Act
fetal alcohol spectrum disorder (fasd)
disorders that occur in women's children that drank alcohol during pregnancies. Form facial deformities, heart defects, stunted growth, and brain damage
all personality theorists must address the conceptual issues of...
philosophical view of the personinternal/external determinants of behaviorconsistency across timeExperience/action and concept of selfStates of AwarenessPast/Present influencesType of Theory: parts or the whole?
Industry vs. role confusion
developing a sense of personal ability and competence: can i learn and develop new skills
anterograde amnesia
a loss of memory for any event that occurs after a brain injusy
we should help those who need our help, even if the costs outweigh the benefits
social responsibility norm
secondary sexual characteristics
visible on the outside of the body and serve as additional signs of sexual maturity (i.e. breast development, pubic hair)
What was the problem with Army Beta?
USELESSdesigned for people who couldn't speak english, but the instructions were in English
Buffer to keep up with high speed inputBuffer allows pattern recognition
4 Questions of Memory
You are trying to figure out which is resturant you want to eat at by weighing the positives and negatives of each option.Which reasoning is this. Be specific.
Informal Reasoning/ Dialectical thinking
What kind of questions will be asked on Dr Chrobak’s exams?
multiple choice questions regarding the book, lectures, film
Repair and restoration theory of sleep
Daily activities wear and tear on the body. Mind needs "down-time" , Theory "brain is working overtime, repairing disorganized circuits and restoring depleted resources"
Why is less alcohol absorbed when person has eaten before drinking?
Does the liver enzyme cytochrom p450 (microsomal ethanol oxidizing system) work more in rare drinkers of chronic drinkers?
Food in the stomach slows movement of alcohol into the intestine, so more alcohol gets degraded before being absorbed.
Chronic drinkers...normally, only 5-10% of alcohol is metabolized by cytochrome p450, but in chronic drinkers 50-60% of alcohol is broken down by this microsomal ethanol oxidizing system.
One day a friend confides in you that she has narcolepsy. You understand this to mean that she
c. has a periodic compulsion to sleep during the daytime.
complex thinking
Resting Potential
-70 miliVolts
EXAMPLES of cannabinols
Marijuana, Hashish
1st amniesia case
removed hippocampus
Mental health professionals who conduct research into the nature and development of mental disorders. Their academic backgrounds can differ; some are trained as experimental psychologists, others as psychiatrists, and still others as biochemists.
affects mood, hunger, sleep, arousal
individuals with one diagnosis frequently have another diagnosis.
Capacity UnlimitedDuration: Life timeForgetting: retreival failureCodes: Unlimited
Polyanna Effect
hemp plant from which marijuana, hashish, and THC are derived.
stress inoculation training
-cognitive therapy
-teaching people to restructure their thinking during stress
-often paired with relaxation therapy
grandiose delusions
Found in paranoid schizophrenia, delusional disorder, and mania, an exaggerated sense of one’s importance, power, knowledge, or identity. See also delusions.
oral stimulation of a man's genitals
Sensitive Period
Genetically determined age range during which a certain aspect of a child's development is especially susceptible to environmental conditions
discrimination or prejudice agaisnt an individual based on physical age.
myelin sheath
insulated cover formed by glia
Descartes maintained that one should not
accept something as truth unless one was absolutely certain of it. This belief is called:

behavioral tendencies that define the person and are consistent with impressions of them over time
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Experimental research
examines cause and effect manipulated by the researcher
-Dependent Variable
the condition (usually a behavior) that is affected by the independent variable
people prefer to comply with requests made by people that they like
Most of the holiday gifts mervin bought this year cost more than they did last year. So he concludes that inflation is increasing. Is he using inductive, deductive, or dialectical reasoning?
Who did a study on insight learning?
Retroactive Interference
New info interferes with the old
Ex: New knowledge of new names might interfere with old names from high school
Languages you learned in high school might be harder to remember if you learn a new language in college
the decline in responsiveness to a stimulus that is repeatedly presented
a small brain structure lying just below the thalamus connected to the pituitary gland and the limbic system, that is especially important for the regulation of motivation, emotion, and the internal physiological conditions of the body
Personal attributions
explanations that refer to internal characteristics, such as abilities, traits, moods, and effort
Inability to percieve a stimulus in the presence of another stimulus.
REM sleep
rapid irregular shallow breathing , eyes jerk rapidly, muscle movements paralyzed, dreams are recalled if woken up
*Stores and manipulates visual and spatial information
Central Executive
more capable than once thought

1. can recognize mom's voice
2. can recognize mom's smell
3. can respond to emotional stimuli
social psychology
the psychological study of social behavior, esp. of the reciprocal influence of the individual and the group with which the individual interacts.
control condition
the condition of an experiment that contrasts with the experimental condition and serves as a comparison for evaluating the effect of the treatment
axon terminals
end of the axon, actual connection location
transmissible, slowly progressive, degenerative, and fatal disease affecting the central nervous system of adult cattle....
Bovine Spongiform Encephalopathy (Mad Cow Disease)
developmental onset
age/ stage at which disorder was caught
t statistic
t= (M-μ)/ SM
Use to compare a mean with a population value when population variance  and standard error of the mean is not known
blind children
would think that they would develop language slower but they don'; use words like "look" and "see" as early adn systematically as seeing children - difference in understanding "look" - "look up" means reach up
failure to move forward from one stage to another as expected
illusory correlation
An overestimate of the association b/w variables that are only slightly or not at all correlated
Claiming Competece (brag)
-Simply saying things to seem confident-They are not always tolerated
Charles Spearman
Who was the first influential factor analyst?
Ratio Level Scale
Interval level properties plus true zero point (e.g., weight or temperature on the Kelvin scale).
stimulus generalization
tendency to respond to stimuli similar to the CS is called generalization. Pavlov conditioned the dog's salivation by using miniature vibrators on the thigh. When he subsequently stimulated other parts of the dog's body, salivation dropped.
Drug Antagonists
reverse the effect of the target drug
e.g., naloxone (naltrexone) for heroin (BLOCKS endorphin receptors)
The soma, dendrites, axon are all part of a
decay theory
theory that argues that the passage of time causes forgetting
Conditioned Stimulus (CS)
stimulus that evokes a response after conditioning
basilar membrane
the floor of the fluid filled duct that runs through the cochlea
Facial feedback hypothesis
Proposal that muscles in the face deliver signals to the brain that are then interpreted, depending on the pattern as a subjective emotional state. ex: smiling alters amount of air that goes into your nose; these changes can affect the temperature of the brain which might affect mood
The viewpoint that the most important aspects of our behavior are learned from other persons in society - family, friends, and culture.
a division of the peripheral nervous system that transmits commands to the voluntary skeletal muscles and receives sensory information from the muscles and the skin
somatic nervous system
public goods dilemma
a dilemma in which individuals must contribute to a common pool to maintain the public good, such as paying taxes
The laboratory based experiment
Observes effects of treatments on behavior
the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
Erikson's Eight Stages of Development
1. Trust Versus Mistrust (hope)
2. Autonomy Versus Shame (will)
3. Initiative Versus Guilt (purpose)
4. Industry Versus Inferiority (competence/self-esteem)
5. Identity Versus Identity Diffusion (fidelity)
6. Intimacy Versus Isolation (love)
7. Generativity Versus Self-absorption (care)
8. Integrity Versus Despair (wisdom)
What are episodic memories?
episodes from your life; events that you experienced in a specific time or place; thinks that happen to you personally
Change Blindness
-focus so much on one thing that you don't notice things that change around you
EX: city street experiment
-Basic knowledge structures we tie together with memory fragments when remembering 
-Example: remembering an office as having books in it when there really weren't any, just because that's what you're used to seeing and expect to be in an office
(Long-Term Memory) Factors Affecting Storage
Companionship Support
being able to rely on each other as companions in social activities
translation in the endoplasmic reticulum.
mrna from the nucleas are trnaspformed into codons , which are directly placed in polypeptide chains.
Nonsmoker's bill of rights
The right to clean air, speak out (discomfort), right (take actions to discourage smokers from polluting atmosophere)
PNS peripheral nervous system
carrys out the commands of the CNS to execute various muscular and glandular activities
how is the nervous system organized?
the nervous system is organized into two parts. the central nervous system, which consists of the brain and spinal cord. and the peripheral nervous system, which is made up of nerves that radiate throughout the body, linking all of the body's parts to the
a person, after drinking several cups of strong coffee, develops coffee nerves, or jitters. this probably is due to
the ability of caffeine to inhibit enzymes which break down excitory neurotransmistters
On an EEG what do high spikes indicates
Amplitude, More neurons at the same time
-Monoamine agonist
short-term effects
--increased arousal (sympathetic NS)
--appetite suppression
--high overdose risk
long-term effects
--highly addictive
preview, read, think, review
a. Different circumstances demand different homeostatic set points and that maintaining whatever an optimal set point might be typically demands far-flung regulatory changes throughout the body instead of just local adjustments
"morphine within"- natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control and to pleasure
Instruction of critical thinking,  based on-
                                                               i.      Set of skills or strategies exists that students can learn to recognize and apply                                                              ii.      Skills are applied appropriately, students will become more effective thinkers                                                             iii.      Good for distinguishing among fact or opinion, using probability                                                            iv.      Good thinking skills- transcontextual skills
abnormal behavior's statistical average
statistically rare
Group Therapy
support groupsfamily therapymarital therapy
Photoreceptors that detect color, operate under normal daylight conditions, and allow us to focus on fine detail.
feelings, often influenced by our beliefs, that predispose us to respond in a particular way to objects, people, and events
temporal lobe
middle bottom (speach, hearing, memory)
5 Hypotheses
1.Situations are Powerful2.We often don't know why people do what they do3.We often don't know what we don't know4.It is amazing that we are as accurate as we are about why people do what they do and about what kind of people they are5.People have two fundamental social motivations
panic disorders
sudden episodes of intense dread
two routes of persuasion
central route
peripheral route 
Permissive Parents

low control/high warmth
few or no restraint combined with unconditional love
little guidance offered to children
children may be rebellious, aggressive, impulsive
Learning/memory changes that do not require/involve conscious use of memory
an anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
Fluid Intelligence
Aspects of innate intelligence, including reasoning abilities, memory, and speed of information processing, that are relatively independent of education and tend to decline as people age
Kurt Lewin-Gastalt
Valence, types of conflict (approach-approach ext)
Learn something about the reserach process (psyh students)
Token Economy
An operant technique applied to groups, such as classrooms or mental hospital wards, involving the distribution of "tokens" or other indicators of reinforcement contingent on desired behaviors. The tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food or other reinforcers.
schizoid personality disorder
Personality disorder defined by emotional aloofness, indifference to the praise, criticism, and feelings of others, maintenance of few, if any, close friendships, and solitary interests.
Somatic NS
- controls voluntary muscle movements- part of PNS
Keyword Method
Mnemonic technique in which an association is made between two ideas by forming a visual image of one or more concrete objects (keywords) that either sound similar to, or symbolically represent, those ideas
-enjoy being with people, full of energy
-they like to talk, assert themselves
How do we form impressions, make judgements, etc in so little time with little effort?
Moderate Retardation
IQ: 35-50 (10% of Retarded People)
Possible can hold jobs in controlled environments, ability is limited, can live in group homes
-May be difficult to detect in women.
Motor Neurons
Neurons that transmit commands from the CNS to the muscles, glands, and organs.
First line Rx for depression and anxiety?
occurs when an event following a response weakens the tendency to make that response.
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs. they are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment.
Interneurons or Associative
Carry impulses within brain and spine
Negative Reinforcement
increasing the strength of a given response by removing or preventing a painful stimulus when the response occurs
elaborative encoding
the process of actively relating new information to knowledge that is already in memory
pragmatic thought
a structural advance in which logic becomes a tool for solving real-world problems.
the time in life when an individual first shows sexual attraction and becomes capable of reproduction
chris is visiting her physician for a routine prenatal care, she is in her 15th week of pregnancy. what term would he doctor use to describe the developing human
What is deep structure
The underlying representation of meaning in a sentence.
cogito ergo sum (descartes)
i think, therefore I am
free association
a technique used in psychoanalysis to explore the contents of the unconscious; patients are asked to freely express whatever thoughts and feelings happen to come into their minds
Releases a number of hormones that influence other glands
Pituitary Gland
molecular genetics
the subfield of biology that studies the molecular structure and function of genes
The ______ is the most primitive part of
the brain and contributes primarily to basic life support for the body.

Physical Dependence
Refers to the changes in bodily processes that make a drug necessary for minimum daily functioning
The major factor determining the rate of alcohol metabolism is the activity of the enzyme
alcohol dehydrogenase
Insight therapy
trying to make the patient more aware of what's going on, what their motives and desires are
Conditioned response, (CR)
A basic form of learning, sometimes referred to as Pavlovian conditioning, in which a neutral stimulus is repeatedly paired with another stimulus (called the unconditioned stimulus, UCS) that naturally elicits a certain desired response (called the unconditioned response, UCR). After repeated trials the neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus (CS) and evokes the same or a similar response, now called the conditioned response (CR).
argues that the mind was too complicated to be analyzed as a series of elements; should examine the function of the mind
principle of psychology
What can happen to a conscience (5 steps)
wounded defiledweakevilseared
Dual Encoding Theory
Holds that memory is enhanced by forming semantic and visual codes, since either can lead to recall
the belief that the presence of others in a situation makes one less personally responsible for events that occur in the situation
A procedure in which an area of the brain
is removed is known as:

Retograde amnesia
lack of memory for events that occured just before brain trauma
signal detection theory
A theory predicting how and when we detect the presence of a faint stimulus amid background noise
Mind/Body Problem
The issue of how the mind is related to the brain and body
While at the art museum, Juán learns a neat trick. If he stares at a painting for a few minutes, then looks away at a blank wall, he “sees” colors that are opposite to those in the original painting. Juán has discovered the
d. negative afterimage.
Say the first thing that comes to your mind.
Free Association
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing
What is the treatment for postpartum major depression?
Same as nonpuerperal major depression
what is the definition of psychopathology?
the scientific study of mental, emotional, and behavioral disorders. also abnormal or maladaptive behavior
short term memory (working memory)
the memory store that is considered to be the main workplace of the mind; among other things, it is the seat of conscious thought and reasoning
In signal detection theory, a “payoff matrix” is
b. a reflection of anticipated gains and losses associated with a decision.
What is the etiology of tourette's disorder?
genetic: highly familial OCD and ADHD, and PANDAS
neurobiological: abnormalities in nigrostriatal pathways
What did Gestalt psychologists suggest abotu perception?
that it is more than the sum of its parts (we often see patterns that aren't actually there, they aren't part of the sensations we recieve)ex: see a dead kitten on the side of the road and it is actually a t-shirt
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