Psych 97 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Axon  
pass information
The obedience study
Milgram
peripheral nervous system
neural crest
MEthodological
Provide evidence reguarding effectivness of IV
genital stage
the adult psychosexual stage
Ego
The component of personality, developed through contact with the external world, that enables us to deal with life's practical demands.
natural selection
heritable characteristics with advantage are more likely to be passed down and selected over time
anhedonia
loss of interest or pleasure
aphasia
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding)
Diathesis-stress model
disorder that combines with enviromental stressors to trigger a psych disorder
Motive
A high-level goal fundamental to social survival
Ectomorph
thin, delicate, few muscles, smart, shy, introverted, self-conscious
Synesthesia
Literally, "mixing of senses," meaning individuals experience sounds as colors, or taste as touch sensations of different shapes
prejudice
drawing conclusions about a person, group of people, or situation prior to evaluating in evidence
NOTE:Pessimism is correlated with an external locus of control and feelings of helplessness Optimisim is correlated with an internal locus of control and a greater likelihood of persevernce in the face of adversity
Hypnosis
A procedure where a practicioner suggests changes in feelings thoughts, behavior.
Flat affect
a lack of emotional responsiveness
ego approach
competitive/ being judged favorably relative to others
insight
an understanding of the motivational forces behind one's actions, thoughts, or behavior; self-knowledge
fetus
The developing human organism from 9 weeks after conception to birth
vestibular system
responds to gravity and reports position in space
serial processing
requires executing operations in a single sequence
the idea that individual differences in levels of cortical arousal may underlie differences between extroverts and introverts was proposed by:
Hans Eysenck
Dependency Motivation
The desire to rely on others.
WHAT IS...Conversion Disorder
R/T anxiety, PTSD, voluntary muscles/senses; A loss or change in bodily functions resulting from a psychological conflict

 
 
Behavior Modification
the application of classical and operant conditioning principles to eliminate undersirable behavior and to teach more desirable behavior
Sigmund Freud claimed that his theories of the mind were applicable to all humans. In order to test this claim, you would most likely select a researcher trained in the ________ perspective in psychology.
c. sociocultural
encoding
the processing of information into the memory system
the visible and measurable traits of an organism
phenotype
common misconceptions about heritability
common misconceptions about heritability: heritability dictates how much of a trait is inherited; because a characteristic has an inherited component, it cannot be changed
Intimacy
a kind of closeness characterized by self-disclosure, warmth, and mutual caring
Age of onset of bullimia is typically
15-21
a maladaptive pattern indicated by continued use despite knowledge of having persistent problems caused by alcohol
Alcohol abuse
Mean Square (Within)
Within-groups variaiton (chance) / Within degrees of freedom
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers (mainly those of the corpus callosum) between them.
negative punishment
in operant conditioning, the type of punishment in which the removal of a stimulus (such as taking food or money) when a response occurs decreases the likelihood that the response will recur
Consent form 
-first part of experiment= pass out consent form
-basic procedure
-possible benefits and risks
-contact information
What cells are considered to be the first responders to an injury?
microglia
3rd type of personality development
Initiative vs. guilt;4th-6th years
Psychodynamic Psychotherapies
A general approach to treatment that explores childhood events and encourage individuals to development insight into their psychological problems
representative heuristic
juding the likelihood of things in terms of how well they seem to represent, or match, particular prototypes.
Memory for information, facts and events is _____________while memory for how things get done is known as _____________.
a. declarative; procedural
Need to belong theory
the need for interpersonal attachments is a fundamental motive that has evolved for adaptive purposes
Neural plasticity
The property of dendritic spines: the number and structure of the dentritic spines may be rapidly altered by experience, such as training or exposure to sensory stimuli
mind-body problem
how can 2 separate realms of existence- the mental and the physical- interact?
_____ of subjects occurs when all subjects have and equal chance of being assigned to any grop or condition in the study.
Random Assignment
Japanese vs. American students
shown video
(japanese no reaction, american reaction..until lab coat persona was removed and then japanese showed reaction)
Standard Deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score.
inter-stimulus interval (ISI)
time between the offset of one stimulus and the onset of another stimulus
group
a collection of two or more people who believe they have something in common
Maslow's Hierarchy of Needs
striving for 'self actualization'. 1. physiological desires. 2. safety. 3. social connections. 4. self esteem. 5. self actualization.
feel-good, do-good phenomenon
people's tendency to be helpful when already in a good mood
Wundt's first psychology experiment
first psych textbook, first research laboratory...Bessel did research on reaction time...
Psychopharmacology involves the study of how:physical relaxation reduces anxiety.diseases influence psychological well-being.exercise alleviates depression.psychosurgery and ECT influence emotions.drugs affect mind and behav
drugs affect mind and behavior
semiciruclar canals
tubes in the inner ear whose fluid, when shifted by head movementsw, stimulates nerve cells that tell the brain about those movements
Spontaneous Recovery
The tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period.
the three types of neurons
afferent or sensory; interneurons or associative; efferent or motor
How is longitudinal research negative?
1. Takes many years2. HIgh participation dropout3. Sensitive to developmental influence
differences between implicit and explicit memory
implicit memory when focusing on meaning does not lead to better recall, implicit memory is impacted by peripheral aspects of the stimulus like case or sound; associated with different parts of the brain
 
 
 
Memory and Recall Tasks Illustrated
Dual-Coding Theory
 
 
Memory is enhances by using both semantic and visual codes since either can lead to recall
In vision, the intensity
of reflected electromagnetic waves determines the:





The brightness that will be perceived
Schacter's two-factor theory (Schacter and Singer)
focused on the interplay of thinking and feeling, not on the timing of feelings. They also proposed that emotions have two components, physical arousal and a cognitive label
Which list has jean piaget's stages of cognitive devlopment in correct sequence
sensorimotor, preoperational, concrete operational, formal operational.
2 explanations are used to explain anxiety disorders. They are..
Fear Conditioning and Observational Learning
binocular cues
depth cues, such as retinal disparity and convergence, that depend on the use of two eyes
Virginia is participating in an experiment that replicates Sperling’s study of iconic memory. A visual display of three rows of letters is presented to her very briefly, then a tone is presented to her immediately after the letters. The purpose of the t
b. signal which row she should report.
What are the 5 main characteristics of an antisocial personality disorder?
1. Unlawful behavior; repeated acts that are grounds for arrest2. Deceitfulness, lying, use of aliases, or conning others for pleasure or profit3. Impulsivity; failure to plan4. Recklessness; disregard for the safety of self and others5. Lack of remorse; indifference to hurting, mistreating or violating the rights of others; rationalizing having done soNOTE- The individual is at least 18 with a hx of conduct disorder before 15 yo
Cyclothymic disorder is a mild form of ______________. It must last _____.
Bipolar disorder. (rapid cycling of mild depression and hypomanic episodes for >2y)
What are the two types of Chi square test?
Goodness of fit and Test of Independence
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