Psych Assessment Test Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Structure vs. Objective
Structure-Unambiguous-DirectObjective-Can score the test so that scoring is perfectly reliable.
K-Scale
-To measure defensiveness-More sophisticated than L.-Tested by psychiatric patients but endorsed themselves asx normal. False Normals.-Add .5% of K scale to account for defensiveness
universe
test situations that influence scores
Convergent Validity
-Correlationwith another independent measure of the same trait.-Do scores on one test converge with scores on another test.
__________ are criterion-referenced tests.
Domain-referenced tests
severity error
resulting from overly sever raters
discriminant evidence
validity coefficient showing no relationship between test scores on the constructed test differ from validated test they should differ from
error variance
variance from irrelevant, random sources
validation
the process of gathering evidence about validity
validation studies
studies of a test's validity
Costa & McCrae’s Five Factor Model
1. Extroversion2. Agreeableness3. Conscintiousness4. Neuroticism5. Openness to Experience
The Bender-Gestalt requires the examinee to perform which task?
Copy figures
construct validity
a judgment about the appropriateness of inferences drawn from test scores regarding individual standings on a variable called a construct
factor analysis
a class of mathematical procedures designed to identify factors or dimensions on which people differ
coefficient of stability
estimate of test-retest reliability obtained from tests separated by more than 6 months
Social Desireability
Tendency to endorse items that describe yourself as “socially desireable”.
Combining Items
Cummulative model-When item scores are added together to get a total. -Appropriate when dimensional or continuous (shyness)Class Model-Assumes a categorical or qualitative attribute. -You either are or are not. No degree of membership.-Configuration of scores / meeting certain criteria. (DSM)
Item Analysis
Choosing items that have good psychometric characteristics.-Items contributionto Reliability (Internal Consistency)-SPSS – Corrected Item Total Correlation-SPSS - Cronbach Alpha if deleted
The WAIS-IV test is commonly used with:
adults.
The psychological assessment most commonly used and best suited for drawing conclusions about the location and nature of brain damage is:
the Halstead-Reitan Battery.
The Bouchard and Gue (1981) correlation of IQ scores between identical twins raised apart is:
D) 0.67.
The Hiskey-Nebraska test assesses cognitive abilities with 12 nonverbal subtests administered to children between the ages of:
3 and 16.
Inter-item consistency
the degree of correlation among all the items on a scale
content validity
describes a judgment of how adequately a test samples behavior representative of the universe of behavior that the test was designed to sample
heterogeneity
the degree to which a test measures different factors
coefficients of generalizability
representation of the influence of particular facets on the test score
static characteristic
trait, state, or ability presumed to be relatively unchanging
hit rate
proportion of people a test accurately identifies as possessing or exhibiting a particular trait
External Validity
-Concerns the relation of the test scores to criteria that we want to predict, aka validity.-Relation between test score & construct should be the same.
Dynamic assessment uses which strategy to help the examinee produce the correct response?
Testing of limits
Many children with autism have a comorbid disorder of:
mental retardation.
Scores that use an examinee's own answers to interpret strengths and weaknesses are called:
ipsative scores.
What personality assessments served as a basis for the Big Five personality factors?
Catell's 16-factor system
Sternberg's triarchic theory describes which three components of intelligence?
Analytic, creative, and practical
Normative scores are an example of:
an inter-individual approach.
The ratio IQ was replaced by the:
deviation IQ
generosity error
error resulting from the tendency of a rater to be generous
miss rate
proportion of people the test fails to identify a having a particular characteristic
Spearman-Brown formula
allows a test developer or user to estimate internal consistency reliability from a correlation of two halves of a test
method of contrasted groups
prove validity by demonstrating that scores on the test vary in a predictable was as a function of membership in some group
Response Style (defensive, open)
-Consistent pattern that would affect how the person responds to many different tests. -An aspect of their personality.-Need for social approval may affect how they respond to a test. **
Set & Style In Common
-Represent Non-Substantive basis to the test respons.-Outside of “construct” that is influencing the results.
Define Internal Consistency
Extent to which items are interrelated in the cumulative. Do items “hang together”
What is comprised of arithmetic, digit span, and letter-number sequencing subtests?
Working Memory Index
Holland's model, which forms the theoretical underpinnings of the General Occupational Themes, serves as the basis of which test?
The Strong Interest Inventory
central tendency error
reluctance of rater to give score in the positive or negative extremes
halo effect
for some raters, some ratees can do no wrong
internal consistency estimate of reliability / estimate of inter-item consistency
estimate of reliability without using alternate forms or test-retest reliability. This test involves measuring the internal consistency of test items.
Set vs. Style
-Set meets a need in that moment-Style is how the person generally reacts.
10 Clinical Scales
Hs (1) - HypochondriasisD (2) - DepressionHy (3) - HysteriaPd (4) - Psychopathic deviateMf (5) - Masculinity/FemininityPa (6) - ParanoiaPt (7) - PsychastheniaSc (8) - SchizophreniaMa (9) - HypomaniaSi (0) - Social
The Hiskey-Nebraska test assesses children with the use of 12 subtests, including:
puzzle blocks, picture analogies, and memory for color.
The Strong Interest Inventory differs from Kuder's Occupational Interest Survey in what way?
It provides specific occupational results.
What tests should only consist of easy test items?
A speed test
The school psychologist's primary role in the school system is to:
consult, evaluate, and make recommendations.
What is an example of computerized adaptive testing?
The GRE General Test
Odd-even reliability
a way of splitting a test in which all of the even numbered items comprise one set of scores and the odd numbered items comprise the other.
Criterion Validity - Concurrent
does criterion exist at the same point in time. eg test score & interview at the same time
Steps in Interpreting MMPI
1) Note test taking behaviors 2) Score & Plot the Profile3) Evaluate validity of the results 4) Compare profiles against code types5) Individuate6) Write the report
Problems w/ MMPI
1) Passage of time has made some items obsolete2) Objectionable content – sexist/racist items3) Small sample not demographically representative.
Adaptive behavior can be measured by:
both the Vineland Adaptive Behavior Scale and informal observations.
Likert-scale variables allow for the use of all of the following mathematical operations, except:
A) addition and subtraction. B) subtraction only. C) addition (summation) only. xxD) division.
The Mini-Mental State Examination assesses all of the following cognitive functions except:
A) attention. B) praxis. xxC) affect. D) language.
standard error of measurement SEM
the tool used to estimate the extent to which an observed score deviates from a true score
Test ConstructionSubstantive or Construct View
-Used when items we are measuring is a psychological construct.-Substantive Validity-Does test capture universe of interest-Does it have adequacey of coverage in proper proportion.-Is it a good model of the construct.-Does is have the right number of items for each feature.
The MMPI-2 K scale was developed to:
remove variability by reducing the number of false negatives occurring.
What is the impact of experimenter bias on a study?
The study exhibits low internal validity.
Current research has proven that the Rorschach:
has good validity ratings, especially after the introduction of standardized scoring.
The test that produces the best prediction of future intelligence and cognition is:
the Fagan Test of Infant Intelligence.
How to do split half reliability
a. Divide test if half and score both parts, do they correlate.b. Odd/Even Method – sum of #’s 1,3,5,7,9 etc. so order of items is not as important.
Fluid intelligence can be measured by which of the following tasks?
xxA) Matrices and figural analysis B) Vocabulary C) Language mechanics and general information D) General information and paired associates
The deviation IQ differs from the ratio IQ in that it:
can be applied to different age groups.
inflation of rang / inflation of variance
If the variance of either variable in a correlational analysis is inflated by the sampling procedure, then the resulting correlation coefficient tends to be higher
Which of the following traits is not a part of the Big Five Personality Inventory?
A) Neuroticism B) Extraversion C) Openness to experiencexx D) Ingenuity
The IQ scores of adopted children and their adoptive parents are:
less similar than the IQ scores of adopted children and their biological parents.
The federal law to protect the right to free education for children with disabilities was first created:
in 1975 under the name Education for All Handicapped Children Act.
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Term:
Definition:
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