Psych Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Preschool
Initiative v. guilt
Elementary school
Industry v. inferiority
Piaget pairs with...?
cognitive development
formal operational
age 12 on
abstract thought
morality
discerning from right an wrong
Erikson
psychologist who was a neofreudian
developed the psychosocial stages
Modifying existing schemas and creating new ones: Dogs vs. Wolves
accommodation
 
accomodation
-a parallel process where individuals change their schemas and the world outside
   -children realize their schemas don't match the external world and they change their schemas in an effort to get the to match!!

***key to develpomental change :-)
preconventional morality
morality inspired by piaget
personal gain or reward
Imprinting?
A behav pattern that promotes survival. Ethologist's term for a relatively sudden & irreversable form learning that can occur only during some critical period of the ind's dev'p. Lorenz & Tinbergen obsed in baby birds. Imprinting ensures that young will stay close to mother. Imprinting takes place during an early, restricted time of dev'p.
 
 
cultural similarities/differences
-facial expressions seem to have relatively stable meanings across cultures. emotions that are different are those like guilt and shame that are culturally defined. 
socialization
the lifelong process of shaping an individual's behavioral patterns, values, standards, skills, attitudes and motives to conform to those regarded as desirable in a particular society 
anxious-ambivalent
appear anxious even when their mothers are near and protest excessively when she leaves, but are not particularly comforted when she return
Tetrogens
Any enviro agents that causes damage during prenatal period.
what teratogen is most likely to reduce oxygen flow, increase CO2, increase odds of prematurity, low birthweight, miscarriage and SIDS?
smoking
OBJECT PERCEPTION
 
 
Spelke
( nativist)
-believes perception is in built knowledge+some experience
believes children can percieve and know what to expect 
ie:can see difference between two objects

-rules are inbuilt
 
 -babies realize that smaller box can't support an unbalances larger box
**supports the belief that reason is present early
 
germinal stage
prenatal stage of 0 to 2 weeks
formal operational period
mental operations applied to abstract ideas; logical, systematic thinking
in what stage is egocentrism, animism, and centration mastered?
preoperational stage
authoritative parents...
set high but realistic and reasonable standards, enforce limits, and, at the same time, encourage open communication and independence
Piaget's Stages of Development
*Sensorimoter (birth-2yrs~transition:18mo-2 yrs)
*Pre- operational (2-7yrs~transition 5-7years)
*Concrete Operational (7-12yrs~transition from 9-11/12)
*Formal operational
 
*Sensorimoter: use sensory and motor schemas to act on the world around them, 
      -motor movements are pivotal for learning about the world.
      Children learn abt the world by engaging in it, it they don't
      or cant due to physical/mental handicaps, intellectual ev.
      will be impaired
  -end of sensorimotor stage is marked bu appearance of intelligent though- (piaget believed infants don't think)
 
 *infants explore their world through senses & motion
primary circular reaction:simple/ repetitive actions organized around the child's own body
secondary: repeating an action in order to trigeer and action outside of one's body: organized around external objects
          (ie:cooing to get affirmation from mother)
tertiary: deliberate experimentation with variations of previous actions
       (ie: kids can't have "stranger anxiety" without having
        object permanance: know mothers face)
 
*Pre- operational: paiget thought kids were capable of intuitive thought (no reasoning)
      [egocentrism:believe every1 sees the world as they do]
*Concrete Operational:youth begin to think logically
     -they go from centration to decentration, egocentrism to
       sociocentrism: can consider others perspectives
      (decentration/sociocentrism make concrete reasoning)
     -youth make inferences abt reality
*Formal Operational: capable of abtract thought
     --characterized by systematic approaches to problems which influences the consequences of a certain occurance
Kohlberg/Moral reasoningpreconventional levelstage 1: punishment orientation
right and wrong is determined by what is punished
Describe Bowlby's "Formation of a Reciprocal Relationship" stage of attachment dev'p.
(18mnths-2yrs and onwards)Seperation protests decrease.According to B, out of their experiences during these increased phases, kids construct an enduring affectionate tie to caregiver that permits them to use the attachment figure as a secure base across time and distance. Internal representation of the parent-child bond serves as an internal working model.
zone of proximal development 
the difference between what a child can do with help and what the child can do without any help or guidance
Piagetsensorimotor period (birth - 2)
coordination of sensory input and motor responses
Describe the 1st stage of prenatal dev'p.
1)Germinal(zygote)fertilization to 2 weeks-rapid cell dividsion-implantation on uterine wall-placenta begins to form.
Withdrawl newborn baby reflex.
Prick soul of foot with pin.Foot withdraws & flexion of knee & hip. Weakens after 10 days.Function: protects infant from unpleasant tactile stimulation.
in what stage is personal fable and imaginary audience mastered?
formal operations stage
How do pharmeceuticals taken by mother effect prenatal dev'p?
Although prescribed by a doctor, studies have found that pain medication given during labor (in larger doses) have been correlated with sluggish, less animated infant behavior during the first few weeks of life. This has a common effect of hindering the parent-infant bond. In addition, these children have been found to have poor motor coordination and cognitive deficits up to a year old.
ego integrity vs. despair
65 to death
need to look back on life and see a sense of fulfillment 
Describe the 2nd stage of prenatal dev'p.
2) Embryonic2nd to 8th week.-rapid differentiation of major body systems. Organ dev'p-particularly vulnerable time to influence upon prenatal enviro. Impaired dev'p here is major and permanant. Nature provides no future opportunity to make such damage up.
Erikson stage 5: identity vs. confusion
"Who am I and where am I going?"
Describe Trimester 2 of the Fetal Stage of prenatal dev'p.
Tri 2: 17th to 20th wks-mov'ts can now be felt by the mom. Baby coated with vernix.By the end of 2nd tri many organs are well dev'ped. Major milestone reached by brain-all neurons are now in place. No more will be produced in the childs life time.
Late adulthood
Integrity v. despair
Kohlberg pairs with...?
moral development
accomodations
mental process that restructures existing schemas so that new information is better understood
harry harlow
studied rhesus monkeys 
discovered contact comfort
Tempermant
Stable individual differences in quality & intensity of emotional reactions
Object Permanence
(Stages)

The understanding that objects continue to exist even when they cannot be directly perceived.
St. 1 (0-4mo): out of sight, out of mind
St. 2 (4-8 mo): Visual but not manual search for a hidden object (w/eyes not hands)
St. 3 (4-8 mo): Visual but not manual search for a hidden object
St. 4 (8-12mo): Manual search with visible displacement
St. 5 (12-18mo): Invisible displacement (will search for something even if it's fully hidden
St. 6 (18-24mo):  Mature searching (ends Piaget's stage 1- believes infants weren't capable of thought until the second stage)
 
  
 
schemas
mental structures or programs that guide a developing child's thoughts
overregularization
when grammatical rules are incorrectly generalized to irregular cases where they do not apply (ex. “The girl goed home.” “I hitted the ball.”)
authoritarian parents...
set arbitrary rules, expect unquestioned obedience from children, punish misbehavior (often physically), and value obedience
 
Cognitiv Development:
*shemas:
-smallest mental unit that rep understanding of the world
*Piaget believed schemas were derived from inborn from organization as ppl interact w/ their environment
assimiliation
mental process that modifies new info to fit into existing schemas
proximodistal trend
the center-outward direction of motor development
Secure attachment type.
Characterizes children who are distressed by parental seperations & easily comforted when the parent returns. (65%)
easy babies are...
(thomas and chess's temperament categories)
predictable and seldom fuss
 
 
Piaget's 
Cognitive Development Theory
-has cognition as central
    -hierarchal (stages): each stage more complex than previous
    -universal: no matter who you arre or where you live, every1
     goes through stages
    -invariant: each stage has to go in a certain order: 1 followed
     by 2, 3, 4 etc.
rites of passage
social rituals that mark the transition betwen developmental stages 
Kohlberg/Moral reasoningpostconventional levelstage 6: individual principles and conscious orientation
right and wrong is determined by abstract ethical principles that emphasize equity and justice
Clinical Method
Came into prominence with Piaget. W/ this method the agenda is nolonger strictly the child's b/c specific questions are left open ended and responses are carefully studied. Piaget used this response to explore the previously ignore thought processes of the child.
slow-to-warm-up babies...
(thomas and chess's temperament categories)
react warily to new situations, but eventually come to enjoy them
what teratogen is most likely to lead to facial deformities, mental retardation, and behavior problems?
alcohol
Cephalocaudal pattern of dev'p.
An organized pattern of physical growth & motor control that proceeds from head to tail (top-down). Motor control of the head is achieved before control of the arms and trunk. Control of the arms and trunk are achieved before control of the legs.
Object Permanence
(from a cultural perspective)
 
Zambian babies' object permanence is similar to Western babies despite lack of experience w/ objects
--Zam. babies held on mothers back for 18 mo. (limits exposure. causes NO delay to object permanence dev.

**(we know object permanence is mostly maturational)
Marciaidentity statuses(4) identity diffusion
absence of struggle for identity, with no obvious concern about it
Describe the strange situation test?
Developed by Mary Ainsworth who worked with Bowlby. Procedure involved short seperation from mom & reunions with the parent to assess quality of attachment bond. Most widely used technique for measuring quality of attachment b/w 1-2 yrs of age.
Moro's newborn baby reflex.
Hold infant horizontally on back & let the head drop slightly or produce a sudden loud sound against the surface supporting the infant.Infant makes an "embracing" motion of arching back, extending legs, throwing arms outward & then bringing them toward the body.-disappears at 6 monthsIn the past it may have helped the infant cling to the mother.
telegraphic speech
(language development)
use of short sentences which follow a rigid word order and contain only essential content words, leaving out plurals, possessives, conjunctions, articles, etc.
Eriksonstage 4: industry vs. inferiority
"Am I competent or am I worthless?"-learn to function socially beyond family
Describe Bowlby's "Attachment in the making" stage of attachment dev'p.
(6wks to 6-8mnths)Infants start to respond differently to a familar caregiver than to a stranger. Infant's dev'p expectation that a caregiver will respond when signalled. Babies still do not protest when seperated from parent, despite the fact that they can distingush them from other people.
a disoriented/disorganized infant is an infant who:
(Ainsworth's attachment categories)
shows distress when mom leaves, then alternates between happy, indifferent, and angry when mom returns. these infants often look away from mom, or look at her with an expressionless face
Body Righting newborn baby reflex.
Rotate shoulder or hips. Rest of body turns in the same direction. Disappears at 12 months. Supports postural control.
Eriksonstage 6: intimacy vs. isolation
"Shall I share my life with another or should I live alone?"
What are the three stages of prenatal development?
1. germinal stage (first 2 weeks)
 ~ conception, zygote
2. embryonic stage (beginning of week 3 thru week 8)
 ~amniotic sac, placenta, umbilical cord
3. fetal stage (beginning of week 9 until birth)
 ~rapid growth/development of organs/systems/body structure
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