Psych Exam 20 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
outgoing projection
Measures opinions, attitudes
Attachment style/ strange situation
transparent structure behnd pupil
changes shape to focus images on retina
The capacity for _____________________________ protects us in daily life from being overwhelmed by all the sensory signals impinging on our receptors.
Selective Attention
Recovering information from memory storage
top of brainstem controls senses
Which Gender is more delicate?
According to ___________ theory, receptor cells for color are linked in pairs, and when one of the cells is activated the partner cells are inhibited?
frueds name for what he did
Defense Mechanisms
unconscious strategies that protect against anxiety and guilt by eitherpreventing threatening material from surfacing from the unconscious or disguising it when it does. Defense mechanisms deflect anxiety or guilt in the short run, but they sap energy. Further, using them to avoid dealing with the source of problems can make those problems worse in the long run.
a noninvasive technique for examining the internal organs of a fetus; it uses sound waves like a radar or sonar scan to create a picture
General inclination to approach and think about learning and problem-solving tasks in a particular way; typically has a motivational component in addtion to cognitive components
the process of observing and intimitating a specific behavior.
visual display of brain structures that detects where glucose goes while the brain performs a specific task
feminine sex hormones that circulate in the bloodstream of both men and women more so in women
Maintenance rehearsal
processing information by repetition of an item over and over
The most potent of the hallucinogens
the achievement of one's full potential through creativity, independence, spontaneity, and a grasp of the real world
Depress activity of the CNS, reducing anxiety but impairing memory and judgment.
An attribute of a psychological test that actually measures what is being used to measure
relay station to cortex for sensory information
Appetizer Effect
small amounts of food actually increase hunger. Small amounts of food consumption are effective in cephalic responses
the transparent structure of the eye that focuses light on the retina
NOTE: The eye records patterns of light and dark, but it deos not "see" a bird flyingThe eardrum vibrates in a particular fashion, but it does not "hear" a symphony
When does babbling occur
Repeating consonant/vowel combinations such as kaka or baba begins in virtually all babies between the ages of 4 and 6 months
vicarious reinforcement
Most likely imitate behaviors that have been rewarding to other people. Less likely to imitate if see unpleasant results. Vicarious reinforcement is the substitution for others experience for selves.
It is useful to explain observed phenomena at a number of different “levels of analysis”:population à group à behavior à brain à cell à molecule-Constitutive: complex phenomena dissected into elementary components-Explanatory: knowledge of components explains whole
Bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by dieting, binge eating, and purging
Skinner box
An apparatus, invented by skinner, used to study the effects of reinforcement on the behavior of laboratory animals.
Generation-Recognition Hypothesis
emphasizes relation between recall and recognition1. generate possible items2. recognize whether correct or incorrect
a condition in which the predictors are highly correlated amongst themselves
Physical Stress Response
Catecholamines : epinepherine and norepinepherine

Cortisol : Glucose (energy)
Feeds into Hippocampus
to strengthen the probability of a response to a given stimulus by giving or withholding a reward
visual cliff
A laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
a person is shown in stimulus usually a picture or word, later they are shown the fragment of the stimulus and asked to complete the fragments
cultural evolution
how cultures evolve over time. shows the cultural differences and how culturals have different views of whats important to intelligence
Carryover effect?
When the first session influences the second
Negative reinforcer
strengthens a response by reducing or removing an undesirable stimulus. EX: snooze button on alarm, aspiring to relieve headache. If I ___, ___will disappear
prototype theory
the theory that concepts are formed around average or typical exemplars rather than lists of single attributes; still described with a list of features but it is not a necessary and sufficient set
evolutionary perspective
the theory focusing on the evolution of behavior and mental processes
Mixed receptive-expressive language disorder
-speaking problems and difficulty understanding speech-children can appear inattentive and/or noncompliant--easily misdiagnosed-ex: visiting a foreign country
Content Coding
What kind of information does it contain?
Consequentiality vs Rehearsal
What is the ego?
-forceful desires for immediate satisfaction.-considers social realities--societ's norms, etiquette, rules, and customs--in deciding how to behave.-often works to tame the unbridled desires of the id.-engages in secondary-process thinking, which is relatively rational, realistic, and oriented toward problem solving.-strives to avoid negative consequences from society by behaving "properly".
transactional leaders
leaders who set clear short-term goals and reward people who meet them
Important to sample from the full range of possible values of both variables. If the range of possible values is restricted, the magnitude of the correlation coefficient is reduced. The problem of restriction of range occurs when the individuals are homog
variability/ dispersion
Stanley Hall
Founder of adolescence . Storm vs. stress 12-23 age. recapitulation, adolescents are vulnerable to ideas, they should be educated.
counsellor initiated termination
good reasons - illness; relocation; end of internship or practicum; extended trip; clinet will do better with someone else - bad - anger; boredom; anxiety
blood brain barriar
PREVENTS STUff in blood from getting into the brain (made of glia)
Two factor theory
Feelings of love consist of: general physiological arousal and a label for that arousal -Theory posits that we can confuse the specific cause of our arousal and may mistake fear or anxiety for “love.”
accessory structures
structures, such as the lens of hte eye that modify a stimulus
What is phonology
Rules governing how sounds should be combined to make words in a language.
central nervous system
part of the nervous system consisting of the brain and spinal cord
criticism of evolutionary theory
Criticism: - Pays too little attention to environment and social factors. - No way to test the theories.
informational social influence
influence of other people that leads us to conform because we see them as a source of information to guide our behavior; we believe their interpretation of an ambiguos situation is more correct than ours
panel study
same people surveyed at 2 or more points in time two wave study
mean length of utterance (MLU)
average length of youngsters spoken statement, measured in morphemes
which people have an elevated risk for developing tay-sachs disease
eastern european jews
peripheral nervous system
all nerves and neurons that are not contained in the brain and spinal cord but that run through the body itself; divided into the somatic nervous system and autonomic nervous system
Mary Whiton Calkins
Female who Harvard would not give her her PhD because she was a woman.
Roger's new theory of a person
emphasized conscious perceptions of the present rather than mereley unconscious residues of the past, interepersonal expereiences encountered across the course of life rather than merely parental relations in childhood, and people capactiy to frow toward psychological maturity rather than merely their tendenct to repeat childhood conflicts.
Society for Industrial and Organizational Psychology (SIOP)
An association to which many I-O psychologists both practicioners and researchers, belong. Designated as division 14 of the American Psychological Assocation.
What does social psychology study?
It scientifically studies how we think about, influence, and relate to one another
1.Leptin:2. Brain in Adolescence3. Direct Effects Model
1. Protein that fat cells release, believed to signal for puberty
2. pruning of unused synapses, esp. in frontal cortex
3. Relationship between puberty and behavior that suggests hormonal and physiological changes are linked to changes in psychological and behavioral.
What is stimulus generalization
Responding to a new stimulus in a way similar to the response produced by an established conditioned stimulus.
What is the clinical presentation of borderline PD?
- considered emotional hemophiliacs or parasites (75% engage in self injurious behavior)
- good prognostic factors are higher IQ, self discipline, social support.
- women > men
What are the three temperaments the Thomas and Chess developed?
1. Difficult (10%): often wail, cry and are negative in new situations, eat and sleep irregularly2. Slow-to-Warm-Up(15%): often inactive, adapt slowly and can be withdrawn and show a negative mood3. Easy(40%): cheerful, adaptable, easily established routines**Mixture (35%)
Peggy cannot see a star as she is looking straight up at it, but she can see it from the corner of her eye. Peggy's vision is most likely
Typical, based on our understanding of peripheral vision
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