Psych Exam 7 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
uncontrollable sleep attacks
girl's first menstruation
typically around age 12.5
based on genetics and fat
the acceptability of something
Does Bipolar 2 need hospitalization?
an excitatory neurotransmitter tha helps strengthen synaptic connections b/t neurons
sometimes called psychophysiological death, the unexplained death of someone cursed or hexed, can be a result of actions after hexing, such as denying the person food or water; perhaps due to sympathetic arousal; cause not really known
voodoo death
a technical procedure for investigating unconscious mental processes and for treating psychoneuroses.
john watson
psych based on behavior
Mental Processes
Internal, subjective experiences we infer from behavior.
Systematic Desensitization
Associate fear-inducing stimulus with a non-fear response. Create a hierarchy of anxiety-producing situations/objects. 
The average squared deviations around the mean
What does Gestalt mean?
whole, form, pattern
People with this disorder avoid crowded or public places because they are afraid they might have a panic attack and not be able to cope with it.
threadlike strands of DNA molecules that carry genetic information
a personality trait that enables peopel to preceive stressors as controllable challenges
experimental perspective w/ Skinner and Watson
"rapid eye movement" dreaming occurs, muscles are temporarily paralyzed...ALCOHOL suppresses REM sleep
Stanley Milgram's classic research on obedience showed what percentage of participant administered the highest voltage shock?
manipulate a factor to determine its effect
What is insomnia?
difficulty initiating or maintaining sleep
speed up the activity in the CNS
forecast about the probable course of an illness
two meanings: 1)the adoption of the sex roles of the same-sex parent by a child, 2)in advertising, to identify or relate to a product
7th type of personality development
Generativity vs. self-absorption;middle adulthood
Storage Decay

-Poor durability of stored memories leads
to their decay
-Time between learning and recall makes a difference
hindsight bias
the tendency to believe, after learning an outcome, that one would have foreseen it (I knew it all along)
a research method that utilizes interviews and questionnaires with individuals in the community
critical to myelination of axons in the nervous system,they produce myelin sheaths.
forgetting due to interference from newly learned information
retroactive interference
Identity foreclosure
Reaching firm decisions without much thought
Unintentional recall of past experiences
Types of Encoding
Persisting perceptual disorder
re-experiencing of the perceptual experiences while intoxicated
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
Cognitive therapy
therapy that teaches people new, more adaptive ways of thinking and acting; based on the assumption that thoughts intervene between events and our emotional reactions
Social intelligence
the expertise people bring to their experience of life tasks.
stimulus contiguity
occurence of stimuli together in time and space.
a defense mechanism in which the ego deals with internal conflict and percieved threat by reverting to an immature behavior or earlier stage of developmentuse of baby talk or whining in a child or adult who has already mastered appropriate speech or a return to thumb sucking, teddy bear cuddling, r watching cartoons in response to something distressing.
Schacter's two-factor theory
perceived event then physiological and behavioral responses with cognitive label and interpretation then emotional experience
Tendency for a learner to seek out environmental conditions that are a good match with his or her existing characteristics and behaviors
Baumrind’s Parenting Styles Theory
Parenting varies along two separate 
-degree of comfort and support parents provide
-degree of limit-setting that parents provide
what's scapegoat theory?
theory that prejudice provides an outlet for anger by providing someone to blame
PTSD usually appears within 3 months of the trauma, but sometimes the disorder appears later. PTSD's symptoms fall into 3 categories:
intrusionavoidace hyperarousal
a trait theory that asserts that personality consists of five traits (neuroticism, extraversion, openness, agreeableness, and conscientiousness)
five-factor model
example of classical conditioning
smelling something during pregnancy and feeling sick, continues after birth
How transduction works
A sensory process converts physical energy (like light and sound) into neural messages. It travels along the sensory pathway through the thalamus to the sensory processing areas in the brain.
Feature detectors
complex objects are made from smaller features
ex: 'T'made from verticle and horizontal features
experimental psychology
the branch of psychology dealing with the study of emotional and mental activity, as learning, in humans and other animals by means of experimental methods.
stimulus generalization
-attacked by dog, be scared of dogs later
Injunctive Norm
A norm that describes what is commonly approved or disapproved in a situation
Person as scientist
Metaphor that suggests that people are active information gatheres and analysts who seek knowledge and understanding as a way of mastering their environment
pleasure principle
1 of 2 major principles that Freud held governed psychological life. The pleasure principle is thought to characterize the id, which seeks to reduce tensions generated by biological urges
Today it is more acceptable to view sexual orientation as a continum from exclusive heterosexulaity to exclusive homosexuality. Who pioneered this?
Alfred Kinsey
Detecting Deception Accuracy
-It is not easy-Only slightly over chance for all but Secret Service Agents (64%)
association areas
areas not taken up by other cortices of brain, responsible for higher level thinking
explicit metacognition
ei should write down or i wont remember
personal space
the buffer zone we like to maintain around our bodies
DSM-IV Classification System
started with the US census in 1840. category for idiocy/insanity
location of mu receptors in brain
thalamus, periaqueductal gray, raphe nuclei, spinal cord, striatum, brain stem, nucleus accumbens, amygdala, hippocampus
what are the effcts of amphetamines
increase metabolism and alertness; elevate mood, cause wakefulness, suppress appetite
the system which consists of a number of glands which secrete chemicals into the bloodstream is called ___.
the endocrine system
Frontal Brain Asymmetry
amount of activity in the left and right part of the frontal hemisphere of the brain. EEG have more left brain activity with pleasant emotions- right brain activity with negative emotions
ainsworth's strange situation test
if you have a secure attachment the kids will go play and explore then go check in before playing more.. kids will protest if mom leaves
Addresses issues in fairness about receiving the benefits of a study as well as bearing the burdens of the risks. Any decision to include or exclude participants from research must be justified on scientific grounds.
Autonomy and respect for persons (Belmont report)
Will hunger persist w/out stomach pains?
Yes, rats removed stomach and they still ate
Goal is to provide insight into the Unconscious conflict
Techniques used in classical psychoanalytical therapy
Why Sperry did the Surgery, and What He Did
Cut connection between hemispheres in order to stop severe epileptic seizures
What is the order of the 5 stages of the sexual response cycle?
1. Sexual desire2. Excitement3. Plateau4. Orgasm5. Resolution
What are the 4 questions of the CAGE exam?
1. Have you ever felt you should cut down on your drinking?2. Have people annoyed you by criticising your drinking?3. Have you ever felt bad or guilty about your drinking?4. Have you ever had a drink first thing in the morning to steady your nerves or get rid of a hangover (eye-opener)?
Unwanted actions
stimulus=electromagnetic energy ("light waves")
stage 1 sleep
theta waves
young, attractive, verbal, intellingent, successful
spiritual practice; various forms exist
The Theory of Planned Behavior
position emission tomography, color coded, radioactive markers to map out chemical activity
skinner's experiments
skinner's experiments extend Thorndike's thinking, especially his law of effect. this law states the rewarded behavior is likely to occur again.
neural networks
interconnected nueral cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning
Either switching theories to explain different situations or building one's own theory of personality from pieces borrowed from many perspectives
Learning that involves association of environmental stimuli and response
the body releases adrenal hormones, sympathetic nervous system in activated
photopigment in rods, break down easily in light
social loafing
phenomenon whereby individuals become less productive in groups
basic defense mechanism that banishes anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories from consciousness
a pattern of increased hostility toward outgroups, accompanied by increased loyalty to one's ingroup
Insecure attachment
emotional bond characteristic of infants who avoid, or show ambivalence toward their parents
central nervous system
brain and spinal cord
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
two-factor theory
Schachter's theory that to experience emotion one must (1) be physically aroused and (2) cognitively label the arousal
Learned Helplessness
A condition in which depressed individuals learn to attribute negative events to their own personal flaws or external conditions that the person feels helpless to change. People with learned helplessness can be thought of as having an extreme form of external locus of control.
Proactive Interference
Occurs when previously learned things interfere with the retention of new information
atypical antipsychotics
work by blocking serotonin and dopamine to treat the for positive and negative symptoms of schizophrenia
depletes 5-HT in  humans
ATD (acute tryptophan depletion)
cocktail of large, neural amino acids that compete with tryptophan for entry into the brain, blocks entry
transient and reversible
Abrupt arousal from sleep with piercing scream or cry (intense fear...does not recall dream)
the proces that allows testscores to be interpreted by providing test norms
-An INACTIVE substance given in the place of a drug in research or by physicians who wish to treat a complaint by suggestion.-Placebo effect: changes in behavior due to participant's expectations that a drug will have some effect.
tendency to be more confident than correct -- over estimate the accuracy of one's beliefs and judgement
an emotional pattern associated with unequal activation of the left and right frontal lobes
cerebral asymmetry
Clusters of cell bodies and dendrites.
Gray Matter
i) Channel instinctual demands into a socially acceptable behavior. (Typically one that is de-sexualized)
ii) I.e. Lifting weights when you are angry.
Sport Psychologists
Help people improve their performance in sports
Alcohol suppreses the ___ ____ system
central nervous
Reference citations
Use the author- date citation method
physical dependence
a physiological need for a drug, marked by unpleasant withdrawal symptoms when the drug is discontinued
predictable-world bias
predisposed to find order in our world, so that we are inclined to see or anticipate order when it doesn't exist
Sensation vs. Perception
Sensation is only concerned with detection of present objects in the direct environment. Perception is more about constructing a mental representation of the stimulus. In nonsocial perception, this boils down to the perception of things like distance and motion. In social perception, this entails the perception of things like another person's beliefs, feelings, and desires. Perception, viewed as a cognitive activity, ends with the identification and classification of the object.
What advantage does a myelinated axon have?
Faster neuroconduction
tendency to focus on just one feature of a problem
consequences of resisting normative social influence
attention, and influence attempts
possible rejection and isolation 
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic repsonse to some stimulus
Researchers argue that the ________ evolved to allow women to ensure the safety of their offspring.
b. tend-and-befriend response
the tendency to be in social contact with others
Temporal Lobe
Large lateral cortical regions of each cerebral hemisphere, continuous with the partietal lobes posteriorly, and separated from the frontal lobe by the Sylvian fissure
-auditory information, sense of smell, aspects of learning and memory
theory suggesting that people help others becuase of empathy with their needs
cooperation ch 18
A _____ is an in-depth investigation of an individual subject.
Case Study
International Phenomenom
It happens -- Regression to the mean
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations
Case Studies
a technique in which one person is studied in depth over an extended period of time, usually b/c the person is unique in some wayex: Phineas Gage = railroad spike thru frontal lobe - personality changed
ex: H.M. = severe seizures, back lobe removed (Hippocampus) - loss of memory
ex: Anna O - Freud based many theories off of her
one of the first theorists to propose that personality consisted of a combination of trait and that these traits were preexisting dispositions of the individual was:
Gordon Allport
conceptual groups- prototype
the most definitive member of a group
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
the most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders, this test is now used for many other screening purposes
bottom up processing
Little ideas to Big; stimulus to recognition (opposite is top down)
Central Tendency
Measure of the "central" scores in a data set, or where the group tends to cluster.
level of mental activity that is not currently conscious but of which we can easily becone conscious
unconscious level
Operant Conditioning
A type of learning in which the consequences of an organism's behavior determine whether it will be repeated in the future.
content validity
the extent to which a test measures or predicts what it is supposed to be
Missatribution of Dissonance Arousal
By providing subjects with a possible reason for their arousal, the arousal pills, the subjects do not feel the need to change their attitudes or feel dissonance
if you have tone as CS with shock as US and then tone and light as CS with half as bad shock as US, what does light as CS do?
Memory and Recall Tasks Illustrated
Chase and Simon - Chess Players Research

Players were able to remember pieces when places meaningfully, whereas none were able to more than others when placed randomly

Expert knowledge helps memory of relevant but not irrelevant information.
Homeostasis based drive theories
body tendency to maintain a constant internal environment Negative feedback systems are built to maintain a constant environment. All systems have 1. a sensor 2. a comparator which compares set point with temp 3. effector, which makes change if needed
Socrates and Plato
they saw mind and body as separate and saw knowledge as built within us
fixed interval schedule of reinforcement
schedule of reinforcement in which the interval of time that must pass before reinforcement becomes possible is always the same
What is a receiver?
The person to whom the message is sent.
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
Can a person believe that psychological and medical science is very important in solving health problems, and also believe in the importance of spiritual awakenings for mental and physical health?
Class discussion:- Yes. It is possible to believe in both. (One person mentioned that it doesn't matter if spiritual awakenings are real or not, what matters is that it works.)
What is Bipolar II? Average age of onset?
Alternation of major depression with hypomania. Onset: 22 yo
T/F James agrees with the problems with falling in love
False, he argues that they aren't true
Define a theory and its four main characteristics
A formal statement of how or why events are related- organize info meaningfully- testable- supported by research- simplest theory used to explain a phenomenon
Moral authority

Morality principle: enforces moral standards and values
develops during middle childhood
identification with same sex parents
morals, values, little angel on shoulder, what is right/good, how to make important decisions, rationalize
Skills-Based Model
-individual attributes
-leadership outcomes
-career experiences
-environmental influences

*leadership is available at least in some level to everyone
occipital lobes
helps control vision
adapting one's current understandings (schemas) to incorporate new info
diminishing of a conditioned responseoccurs in classical conditioning when an unconditioned stimulus does not follow a conditioned stimulus-occurs in operant conditioning when a responsee if no longer reinforced
Positive punishment
Add something negative/bad/unpleasant as a result of an incorrect behavior
Ex: Spanking, parking ticket
Provides information concerning attitudes and behaviors
Survey Method
retention of encoded info over time
a group of severe disorders characterized by diagnosed and delusional thinking, disturbed perceptions, and inappropriate emotions and actions
The process through which people select, monitor, and adjust their strategies in an attempt to control the impressions people form of us
depolarization-induced suppression of inhibition
-especially in hippocampus
short-term decrease in presynaptic GABA

the process of eliciting a desired response by rewarding behaviors that are increasingly similar to 
that response
Random Assignment
Assigning participants to experimental and control groups by chance, thus minimizing pre-existing differences between those assigned to the different groups. 
NOTE:When we can control our envrioment, we fell happier, and are more likely to persevere under difficult circumstances When we have little or no control over what happens to us, we can become resigned and hopeless
Birth to 12-18 monthsInfants gain sexual gratifaction with sucking. Conflict with weeing of the breast
What are teh 2 tetracyclics
mertazapine, trazadone
Experimental Methodology
-to explore cause and effect
-manipulation of independent variable
a relationship between persons in which the condition of one induces a parallel or reciprocal condition in another
A disorder that appears in childhood and is marked by deficient communication, social interaction, and understanding of others' states of mind
the number of cycles the wave completes in a gicen time
Personality is the unique pattern of enduring thoughts, feelings, and actions that characterize a person.
amy believes that God is punishing her, and sees evidence of this punishment in everyday events such as the way objects are positioned in the sink and the programs that are playing on TV amy would most likley be diagnosed with ___ schizophrenia
Preoccupied with fear of having a serious illness
 Observational Learning & Aggression
Albert Bandura
child showed video of an adult being aggressive towards a BoBo doll
kids put in room w/ BoBo doll - found that they beat up BoBo doll
media violence & aggression
parametric studies 
studies in which an experimenter systematically manipulates the independent variable to observe its effects on the dependent variable
attribution theory
we explain someone's behavior by crediting the situation or behavior
what is the right brain best in?
Wernicke\'s Patients
impairments; area
fluent but nonsensical speech; problems with comprehension
damage in posterior region of superior temporal gyrus
Alfred Kinsey
Published two volumes on sexual behavior
smallest unit of sound that is recognizable as speech rather than as random noise
Aspirin blocks the ____ of pain causing ____
TThe appearance of an extinguished response afer a period of non-exposure to the condition stimulus albeit that the response is weaker is
spontaneous recovery
parietal lobes
the portion of the cerebral cortex lying at the top of the head and toward the rear; receives sensory input for touch and body position
A tendency to solve problems using procedures that worked before on similar problems is called:
Mental Set
Phonological loop
deals with sound info: short term store, and memory traces
Research term: reduction
The basic and most elementary explanation for a phenomenon.
External Validity
A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and dependent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way.
Occurs when our response to an event increases rather than decreases with repeated exposure. Ex) if you’re exposed repeatedly to a loud noise, you’re likely to become sensitized to the noise.
Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (SSRIs)
a category of antidepressant medications that prolong the effects of serotonin in the synapse
Preoperational Stage
2 to 7 years. Lacks operations: ability to transform or manipulate mental representations. Marked by egocentrism (child's inability to take the perspective of another individual) and centrism (liquid in the two types of cups)
Context Dependency
environmental context can act as a cue- memory is best when retention is tested in the same contex
Reproductive Success
Ability of an animal to produce offspring
type of conformity where you act and agree with social pressure
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Tracy does not have an unusually high IQ, but at work she was quickly promoted because she knows how to set priorities, communicate with management, and makes others feel valued. Tracy has ___________________ about how to succeed on the job.
Tacit knowledge
selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors SSRIProzac, Paxil, Celexa
block reuptake of serotonin=more more serotonin in the synapse. the great amount makes a better chance of recognizing and using this neurotransmitter in sending the desired signal
facial feedback hypothesis
the hypothsis that changes in facial expression can lead to corresponding changes in emotion
myelin sheath
, consisting of a layer of cells containing fat, encases and insulates most axons. By insulating axons, myelin sheaths speed up transmission of nerve impulse 
Nerves=bunches of axons
Cell body
widest part of the neuron. It contains the cell nucleus and other basic machinery common to all bodily cells
the Freud's theory, the last stage of psychosexual development during which mature sexual feelings toward others begin to emerge, and the ego learns to manage and direct these feelings
genital stage
study of the relationship between behavior and the physical environment
helping behavior ch 18
The use of marijuana decreases verbal exchanges, but increases
nonverbal social interactions
Evaluation apprehension
a concern about how one appears in the eyes of others; that is, about being evaluation
monocular distance cues
cues for depth dependent on what one eye sees
What did Maslow's theory say?
once we became self-actualized we would no longer feel shame, guilt, or hatredwe would accept the world the way it is and see human nature as inherently good
The Process of Identity Development
- Exploration: Individual is choosing among meaningful alternatives
- Commitment: Individuals show a personal investment in what they are going to do
- Identity status is a function of the two
- See notes for table
Cognitive Dissonance Theory
The theory that we act to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) we feel when two of our thoughts (cognitions) are inconsistent. For example, when our awareness of our attitudes and of our actions clash, we can reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
What is the main task of psychoanalysts?
deciphering symbols of the dreams
Parasympathetic Nervous System
one of the 2 systems that compose the autonomic nervous system. Arises from both the cranial nerves and the sacral spinal cord.
What stance did Freud take on aggression?
Aggression is instinctive, and present at birth. 
Hydraulic Model = just like water, aggression cannot be compressed
Catharsis = acts of aggression reduce aggressive drives
After an emergency has passed, the parasympathetic nervous system calms you down by
d. inhibiting the release of epinephrine and norepinephrine.
Dr. Wittmann believes that how humans see colors can be explained completely by the trichromatic theory. She therefore believes that color photoreceptors:
occur in three types, which correspond to the colors red, green, and blue.
what are two reasons why the hindsight bias occurs?
1) people reinterpret pre-outcome info based on their knowledge of the outcome2) people generate explanations that would not have occurred to them if they hadn't known the outcome
John thinks, "All students with high IQs get good grades. Samantha gets good grades. Therefore Samantha has a high IQ." Is there a problem with his reasoning?
Yes, it may not be true that all people who do well academically have high IQs.
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