Psych Exam 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
what is hypnosis?
sympathetic, trusting, cooperative, modest
-Serotonin-modulating drugs (fluoxetine, clomipramine) can be efficacious. -Co-existent psychiatric disorders should be treated appropriately.  People can have other problems (i.e. anorexia) that could be underlying stressors… need to treat everythin
tx for BDD
milder symptoms of depressionfor months or years. Not much time with a normal mood.
stage 2, holding onto info
-advocate of methodological behaviorism 
 -idea that psychology should focus exclusively on observable behaviors
-\"what you see is what you get\"
B.F. Skinner
transmits information to other neurons, muscles or glands..each as a single axon
sudden attack of extreme even irresistible sleepiness in the middle of the day
A mental structure for organizing information about the world. PI. schemata.
Positive and negative sxs (greater than one month) decline in overall functioning greater than 6 months
Any consequence that decreased the likelihood that the beavhior will be repeated
Synaptic vesicles
Chambers within the axon terminals
focuses on uncovering the fundamental mental components of consciousness, thinking, and other kinds of mental states.
branchlike extensions of the soma that receive information from other neurons
Human Memory
-retention of information over time
 -all of the information in a person's mind
negative symptoms
characteristics notable for their absense
What does the lymbic system control?
evolutionary perspective
how natural selection of traits promotes certain genes
disturbed perceptions (part of schizoprenia)
-voices making insults or giving orders
-MRI on those who hear voices.. proves voice is really the person talking to themselves
Genetic make-up or structure of the organism
St. Augustine
One cannot doubt own existence, because we are the ones doubting, therefore we must exist
Piriform cortex
area of medial temporal cortex adjacent to the amygdala. PRIMARY OLFACTORY CORTEX
Jean Piaget
an interdisciplinary scholar whose own cognitive development was rapid;studied the reason's for childrens' wrong answers
naturalistic obsservation
measure and record the obeservable behavior of participants as it occurs in the real world.
refers to the uniform procedures used to administer and score a test
Gestalt psychologists used the phi phenomenon to demonstrate that the whole is different from the sum of its parts. Phi phenomenon is the perception of apparent movement between two stationary stimuli. Motion pictures are based on the phi phenomenon. A series of still images that change slightly in each frame are projected on the screen so quickly that the image appears to be moving even when the "moving picture" is not present in between the two pictures.
radio frequency lesions
high-frequency currents are passed through the target tissue from the tip of an electrode. The heat from the current destroys the tissue (irreversible)
forgetting de to the passage of time
display rules
culturally determined rules aout which nonverbal behaviors are appropriate to display
Antianxiety Drugs
Medications used to treat anxiety disorders
What psychiatric illness has the highest mortality rate?
anorexia nervosa
to strengthen the probability of a response to a given stimulus by giving or withholding a reward
part of the brain, works with the cerebellum in coordinating voluntary movement; neural stimulation studied in activation synthesis theory may originate here
Neurotic Needs
Signs of neurosis in Horney's theory, the ten needs are normal desires carried into a neurotic extreme
Anterograde amnesia
involves the loss of memories for events that occurred after the onset of amnesia.
antipsychotic drugs
medications that are used to treat schizophrenia and related psychotic disorders block dopamine receptors
Refractory period
A short rest period b/t action potentials
Mastery-oriented students
students who focus on learning goals because they value acheievement and see ability as improvable
operant conditioning reinforcement
any stimulus that increases the likelihood of a responce you desire.
what's ingroup?
"Us"-people w/ whom one shares a common identity
You are watching an experiment in which a rabbit’s eye blink is being classically conditioned. In the procedure, a tone sounds followed shortly by a puff of air to the eye. However, you notice that the air puff follows a 100-Hz tone but not a 120-Hz ton
d. discrimination
an attitude of complete acceptance towar another person regardless of what she or he has said or done; it is based on the belief in that person's essential goodness
undonditional positive regard
Freud: We are controlled by ID. We seek pleasure. All feelings are determined against your knowledge. Never know if your desires are something you made up or your unconcious
correlation coefficient
indicates the direct and strength of the asscotiation between a second variable
mirror neurons
frontal lobe neurons that fire when performing certain actions or when observing another do so. The brain's mirroring of another's action may enable immitation, language learning, and empathy
sampling frame
the actual population from which the random sampling will be drawn
what is continuous flow of accelerated speech in which a person changes abruptly from topic to topic? play on words..
Flight of Ideas
Thornton and Moore (rate attractiveness w/pictures on wall) - example of __________?
• Thornton & Moore (1993)o 1) Complete ratings of own attractivenesso 2.)Two conditions:• a. model photographs on wall• b. control - no pictures on wallo results:• people rated themselves higher when there were no pictures on wall• men always rated themselves higherexample of “contrast effect” - reason why people resent pretty people
What is Visual Constancy?
Perceiving objects stable or unchanged despite the changes in sensory patterns they produce.
latent content
the acutal wishes and concerns that a dream or behavior is intended to express
Telegraphic Speech
two or three word sentences of young children that contain only most necessary words
proximal - close to the CNS Distal - far from the CNS
Acquisition (operant)
learning of a new response formed b/c of a relationship formed between behavior and consequence.
Autonomy vs. Shame/doubt
2-3 yrs, can i do this myself?
classical conditioning
a type of learning where an organism comes to associate stimuli. a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus (US) begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus. also called pavlovian or respondent.
Two principles that help explain why a person can make out the Big Dipper on a starry night are:
Proximity and closure
Women who take oral contraceptives...
show little fluctuation in sexual interest across the menstrual cycle.
As you walk into the classroom, the teacher is erasing the blackboard. You catch a fleeting glimpse of the words “damage,” “lesions,” “stimulating,” “recording,” and “image” before they are erased. It is immediately clear to you that t
b. brain research.
What are some learning theories that account for attitude change?
Classical conditioning (advertisers pair products with stimuli that elict pleasant emotional responses), operant conditioning (openly express attitude; agreement from other people is reinforcer, disagreement is punishment), observational learning (other people's attitudes may rub off on you).
social loafing
the tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when pooling their efforts toward attaining a common goal than when individually accountable
term used to describe the body's short-term and long-term reactions to stress.
general adaptation syndrome (hans seyle)
If a young child points to his image in a photograph and says "me" after simply looking intently at photos of other children, we might take this behavior as evidence that the child:
has achieved self-recognition.
rapid eye movement (REM)
stage of sleep in which the eyes move rapidly under the eyelids and the person is typically experiencing a dream
Sexual and gender identity disorder
Any of a wide range of difficulties with sexual identity, deviant sexual behavior, or sexual adjustment. (Psychological Disorder)
What is the glucostatic theory of hunger?
it proposes that hunger arises when glucose "thermostats" in the nervous system (glucostats) detect low levels of glucose in the bloodstream.
wild children and lang learning
if found at 6, can be sent to school and learn language, if found at 14, unable to really learn language
Is there a signle cause for Schizophrenia?
no - for any one person it is going to be a combination of many factors (genetic, enviroment, behavior)
male sex hormone
Phencyclidine effects
Belligerence, nystagmus, impulsiveness, homicidality; withdrawal: recurrence of intoxication due to GI tract reabsorption, sudden onset of random and severe violence
emotional release; releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges
inattention to details produces encoding failure (if the mind is elsewhere)
-During cephalic and absorptive phases1)Cephalic-preps for impending influx2)Absorptive-minimize increasing fuel levels, by utilizing and storing them
Long Term Memory
Attic of memory
disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behavior
Anxiety disorders
Types of retrieval
1. recognition
2. recall
the principle (which Piaget believed to be a part of concrete operational reasoning) that properties such as mass, volume, and number remain the same despite changes in the forms of objects
Behavior Modification
Another term for behavior therapy
provides reinforcement based on time elapse
stress-related hormone secreted by the adrenal cortex that facilitates reactions to threat.
stress-fighting, antiinflammatory hormone
Decrease activity in the CNS
Causes: Relaxation and Drowsiness
Agonists of GABA (Major inhibitory neurotransmitter)
waht are dendrites, axons, and terminal buttons?
electrodes, placed on the scalp, measured the electrical activity of a large number of nerve cells. changes in EEG signals that are evolved elicited by the presentation of sensory stimuli are referred to as sensory evoked potentials.
Central Nervous system
Brain and spinal cord
episodic buffer
contains information that represents episodes or events
The interpretation of the sensory information to give it meaning
Positive reinforement
increase a behavior by presenting something desirable when the behavior is performed.
circadian rhythm
the biological clock; regular bodily rhythms (for example, of temperature and wakefulness) that occur on a 24-hour cycle
Freudian Slips
errors in speech that reveal unconscious thoughts
no-self; the doctrine that there is, in reality, no fixed, stable, enduring self (although the illusion of one may be constructed from fleeting impressions)
social facilitation
the presence of others enhances performance on easy tasks but impairs performance on difficult tasks- dominant response
(defined by Kagan) 
temperament refers to stable behavioral and emotional reactions that appear early and are influenced in part by genetic constitution 
Live Model
Individual whose behavior is directly obseved in one's immediate environment
Humanistic Perspective
self actualization- a state of self fulfillment in which we realize our full potential
sensorimotor stage 
stage in Piaget's theory characterized by a focus on the here and now without the ability to represent experiences mentally
REM sleep
rapid eye movement where dreams occur
Stage 4
slower and more regular, least responsive to outside stimuli; deep sleep
Laboratory research
Research conducted in an environment that can be regulated and in which participants can be carefully observed.
Part of the forebrain; behind the thalamus; master control center for emotions and many basic drives such as hunger, thirst, sex, and aggression; regulates the body's internal environment, including temperature control; influences important aspects of behavior
Construct Validity
The tendency for an operational definition and a property to have a clear conceptual relation.
Behavior that operates on the environment, producing consequences
Operant Behavior
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine
Biological Psychology
A branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
to learn how to people produce useful behaviors
Two old stages
young-old: 60-79, good health, live comfortably
old-old: over 79 yrs, poor health, poor, old-age disabilities
Bandura's theory of personality:
Reciprocal Determanism
Environment, behavior, and cognitive factors all work together to determine personality.
Activation-synthesis hypothesis
The idea that dreams represent the brain's attempt to make sense of the random patterns of neural activity generated during sleep
Mere Exposure Effect
The phenomenon that repeated exposure to novel stimuli increases liking of them.
A particular sequence of base pairs on a chromosome, a unit of heredity that represents a recipe for the body pg 122
the body's mechanism for dealing with invading microorganism such as allergens
immune system
bipolar mood disorder
the person experiences both manic episodes and depressive episodes
Resistance to Change
-usually strong, even with trivial issues.
- resistance related to--> centrality to self-concept
the process by which we transform what we perceive, think, or feel into an enduring memory
congnitive neuroscience
study of the interaction of though processes and brain function
blind spot
The point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
Antisocial Personality Disorder
Frequently lie to and con others, ignore social norms, lack remorse. (Ex. Ted Bundy & other serial killers) 
def. of arson
setting fires without or with an intend to defraud, a house, building, car, or another person’s property.
All or none principle
Go or don't go concerning neurons
finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat
anorexia nervosa
an eating disorder in which a person (usually an adolescent female) diets and becomes significantly underweight, yet, still feeling fat continues to starve.
why are people prejudiced?
-evolutionary: be on guard against hostile other tribes
-conflict over resources: prejudice usually less severe wealthier countries
- social dominance
What is the clinical presentation of hallucinogen use disorder intoxication?
- tachycardia, hypertension, sweating, blurry vision, pupillary dilation, and tremors.
euphoria and psychdelic effects occur
- not physically addictive but psychological dependence can occur.
humanisitic perspective GAD
GAD arises when people stop looking at themselves honestly and acceptingly.
Sexual motivation in humans?
Unlike animals who are motivated from hormones, we base our sexual motivation mostly from our own control, also motivated from testosterone levels, touch and smell
Seven Recommendations to Improve Student Learning
1. Space learning over time
2. Interleave worked example solutions and problem-solving exercises
3. Combine graphics with verbal descriptions
4. Connect and integrate abstract and concrete representations of concepts
5. Use quizzing to promote learning
6. Allocate study time efficiently
7. Build explanations by asking deep questions
Recall 1st Disneyland, but not first diaper
Reminiscence Bump (age 10-30)
What are some reasons for Prejudice?
1. Prejudice arises when groups realistically compete for scarce, tangible resources.
2. If there were enough resources to go around, Prejudice would die.
3. People are prejudiced because it makes them feel good about themselves to know that their group is better than another group.
lateral geniculate nucleus
way station for info on optic nerve in thalamus, info then goes to visual cortex in the occipital lobe
Fitness Problems (5)




· Centers for Disease Control (CDC) indicate that
fewer than 10% of all Americans exercise enough to attain fitness benefits

· 1/3 of all high school aged kids do not engage
in regular physical fitness activity

· 31% of men are obese and 71% are overweight

· 33% of women are obese and 62% are overweight

· $5.6 Billion could be saved annually if 1 in 10
inactives would take up a regular program of walking

Relationships after 1 year of marriage (5 things)
o 1) lower satisfaction with the relationshipo 2) fewer shared pleasurable experienceso 3) more shared instrumental activitieso 4) more ambivalence about the relationshipo 5) Lower passionate love
What is the Assimilation process?
how to fit new information into the present system of knowledge
The effectiveness of a drug depends on __________ and ______________.
different cites of action, the affinity of the drug
What is the clinical presentation of exhibitionism?
- represents 1/3 of sexual offenders
- 2 groups:
1. inhibited temperament, expose flaccid penis
2. aggressive temperament, expose erect penis and masturbate
The monkeys that were part of Cheney and Seyfarth’s research seemed to
b. be able to modify danger calls depending on their audience.
Syntactic Information
-grammatical structure
Somatic Nervous System
Voluntary Movement
Humanistic model
(self actualization)conditional acceptance causes the person to develop a distorted self concept and worldviewtreatment: nondirective therapist shows unconditional positive regard, genuineness, and empathic udnerstandingtherapy goals: develop self awareness, self acceptance, and self determination
how disorder came to be
the gradual weakening and dissapearance of a conditioned response tendency
-vast majority of neurons
-receive input from and send their output to other neurons
permits scientists to temporarily enhance or depress activity in a specific area of the brain
The transparent structure behind the pupil that changes shape to focus near or far objects on the retina
Without __________________ you will not acquire tacit knowledge.
Contextual Intelligence

Operant Conditioning
Reinforcement (pos. & neg.)
increase desirable behavior
"the process by which the probability of a response is increased by the presentation of a reinfocer"
can be positive (adding something) receiving a pay check
"reinforcement in which an appetitive stimulus is presented"

can be negative (taking something away)turning off beeping by fastening seatbelt
"reinforcement in which an aversive stimulus is removed"
Secondary Self-conscious emotion
empathy, jealousy, embarrassment, pride, shame, guilt
show up by age 2
not in animals, not cross culture, not innate
requires self awareness, self conscious emotions
Yerkes-Dodson law
a psychological principle that dictates that behavioral efficiency increases with arousal up to an optimum point, after which it decreases with increasing arousal
the nurse displaces feelings caused by past experiences onto the patient
cognitive strategies or “rules of thumb” used as shortcuts to solve complex mental tasks. Do not guarantee correct solution. i.e. working backwards on a maze (if you don’t know where to start)
Reduces swelling and inflammation and soreness
one's feelings of high or low self-worth
An _____ molecule may be similar enough to the neurotransmitter to mimic its effects or it may block the neurotransmitter's reuptake. AGONISTS EXCITE.
What do psychologists call the thinking processes that lie outside of our awareness but can be brought into awareness if needed?
Subconscious process
the exaggerated sense of many groups, especially national and ethnic groups, that they are different from others, leading to conflict among groups
a bacterial infection of the bladder (often caused by the bacterium Escherichia coli
free association
in psychoanalysis, a method of exploring the unconscious in which the person relaxes and says whatever comes to mind, no mater how trivial or embarrassing
psychological intensity
aspect of sensory coding, difference between loud noise and soft noise or subtle scent of lavender and dense cloud of lavender - in most cases intensity is coded via the rate of firing by neurons in a sensory system
Naturalistic Observation Study

observe individual or group behavior in its typical setting
what's sensory adaptation?
diminished sensitivity as a consequence of constant stimulation
what type of psychology lacked scientific basis and was very subjective
humanistic psychology
the process through which either the storage or the retrieval of information is impared by the oresence of other information
*What is projection?
having difficulty facing something within themselves and projects it out onto others. if you lie a lot, you tend to not trust other people because you project it out onto others
Phrenology (gall)
bumps in the skull indicate overdeveloped brain regions
descriptive norms
- information about what people commonly do in a situation
- ex. many students wear jeans to class
physiological psychology
the branch of psychology concerned with the relationship between the physical functioning of an organism and its behavior.
Case Study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles.
conformity and obediance tests found
experiements explroe underlying processes that shape the behaviors found. in any society, great evils sometime grow out of peoples compliance with lesser evils
Alternate-form reliability
The extent to which a test, measurement, or classification system produces the same scientific observation each time it is applied. reliability types include test-retest, the relationship between the scores that a person achieves when he or she takes the same test twice; interrater, the relationship between the judgements that at least two raters make independently aboout a phenomenon; split half, the relationship between two halves of an assessment instrument that have been determined to be equivalent; alternate-form, the relationship between scores achieved by people when they complete two versions of a test that are judged to be equivalent; and internal consistency, the degree to which different items of an
general sexual changes
boys get more androgens (testosterone) for muscle growth and body size
girls get more estrogen for breast and uterus maturation, fat accumulation, and to regulate menstruation
Similarity, Contrast and Contiguity
The primary laws of association
autonomic nervous system
controls self regulated action of internal organs and glands
Thinking & Intelligence
Gambler's Fallacy
incorrectly believing that a chance process is self-correcting in that an event that has not occurred for a while is more likely to occur
Spatial Intelligence
abiltiy to form spatial images and find ones way around enviroments
Cue-Word method
Give subject one word, describe memory to that word/date of memory/ detail. Exclude recency memoriesHigh recall for
Operational definition
A concrete definition of a research variable in terms of the procedures needed to control and measure it.
a factor specific to that test or subtest
Basal Ganglia
A set of subcortical structure that directs intentional movement.
temporal lobe
a region of the cerebral cortex responsible for hearing and language
cognitive psychology
the scientific study of all the mental activities associated with thinking, knowing, remembering, and communicating
Gray’s Approach-Inhibition Theory behavioral inhibition system
The behavioral inhibition system (BIS) involves brain regions that affectsensitivity to potential punishment and the motivation to avoid punishment.Introverts would have a sensitive BIS system. Those with an active BIS tend to experience negative emotions.
What is the term used to describe the intentional destruction of the brain?
What kind of psychosis do ~10% 0f Crystal Meth uses get?
Frank psychosis
7. Consumer Psych
Studies the nature of the human consumer (why we buy things)
REciprocal determinism (Bandura)
idea that your personality is shaped by interactions between thoughts, behavior, and enviroment all interacting together
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished
preoperational stage
Pretend play and make-believe play in this stage
conduction deafness(hearing loss)
problems with conduction of waves from outside to inner ear
Sample and Population
Sample is a random selection from the Population you are studying
Associated features of Panic:Substance use/dependence
Many who develop substance abuse problems are those who have to leave the house for things like work, school; substances help them cope with the traumatic experience of having to go outside.
Women tend to develop agoraphobia, men tend to turn to substance abuse.
The most prominent part of the brain in humans
forebrain and cortex
Trace conditioning and coma patients
Coma patients showed eye muscle response while anesthetized patients didn't.Evidence of consciousness
Condry and Ross (1985) Study
-investigated the influence of gender labels on adults perceptions of aggression in children-video of 2 kids playing rough in snow whose genders are concealed. Participants told kids were either 2 boys, 2 girls, a boy target w/ girl recipient, OR a girl target w/ boy recipient.-after video, they asked to rate behavior of target child by a) how aggressive they are and b) extent to which target’s behavior was just active, playful and affectionate.-results showed ppl felt the acts were less aggressive when the kids were both boys. And boys rough playin with girls was taken as aggressive behavior. And also was aggressive when it was a girl targets regardless of whether she was w/ a boy or girl.Basically this study shows boys and girls are judged differently in terms of what constitutes aggression.
Erickson's Theory of Socioemotional Development
psychosocial stages are the key to development
Theory of Mind: False Beliefs Task

• Virtually all 3-year-olds will mistakenly believe 
that someone who does not see the switch 
will look for the object in the new location
-they assume that everyone shares their beliefs
-they think that others won’t have false beliefs
• By 4.5-5 years, children understand that not 
all knowledge is shared
-individuals may have different beliefs and 
different information available to them
pattern described by Freud in which a boy has sexual desire for his mother nad wants to eliminate his fathers competition for her attention
Electra complex ch 14
What is the function of the interneuron?
Relay information from the sensory neuron to the motor neuron.
What are the criteria for Major Depression?
severe symptoms of depression lasting at least 2 wks; sometimes briefly appear to be psychotic
We cannot possibly attend to all of the stimuli that we are exposed to. But we seem to be genetically predisposed to notice some stimuli. What kind of stimuli does that include?
loud noises = indicate something imporant or dangerous Novel stimuli
Kinship selection - definition + 3 predictions
o help those who share our genes - critical that our genetic material is passed along to next generation• not conscious, but happens anyway - biologically basedo Predictions• 1) Greater genetic similarity, more help• 2) More help of genetically similar others in life-threatening situations• more likely than if person needs help in non-threatening way• 3) More help of young, healthy genetically similar others
what does it mean when there is a skew of 1? and of zero?
1= one animal does all the reproducing, zero= all animals reproduce equally
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