Psych Final 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Occipital Lobe
vision
Moniz
invented prefrontal lobotomy
synapse
gap b/w 2 neurons
Extinction
To stop the learned behavior
code Gnereal Medical Condition associated with dementia on what axis?
3
Stimulants
Opposite of depressants
Increase CNS activity --> Energy + Confindence
 
 
humanism
theo. orientation emphasizes unique qualities of humans, especially their freedom and their potential for personal growth
variable schedule
reinforcer is unpredictablevariable ratio (VR):get reinforcer after about every x responses, graphed steep slopevariable interval (VI): get reinforcer after about every x seconds, plus one response, graphed moderate slope
persistence
unwanted memories (haunted images of sexual assault)
withdrawal
the discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug
Archival Method
Examination of systematic data originally collected for other purposes (such as marriage licenses or arrest records)
Glutamate
-Most important excititory NT in brain
-primary NT for fast chemical signaling between cells
-ALL NEURONS have receptors for it
-Changes in signalling major mechanism for learning and memory
-if too excessive can cause exitotoxicity
Intrinsic rewards


doing something 
simply for the pleasure of doing it
Neurotransmitters
Chemical messengers that cross the synaptic gaps between neurons.  When released by the sending neuron, neurotransmitters travel across the synapse and bind to receptor sites on the receiving neuron, thereby influencing whether that neuron will generate a neural impulse. 
Simple Phobias
specific fears; heights, closed spacies, disease, death, etc
Projection
Attribute of one's own unacceptable urges to another(gossip)
Multidirectionality
development involves both growth and decline; as people grow in one area, they may lose in another and at different rates
Nervous System
the body's speedy electrochemical communication network, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous system
introvert
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
catharsis
Emotional release - in psychology, the ________ hypothesis maintains that releasing aggressive energy relieves aggressive urges
olfactory cilia
hair-like structures in upper portion of nasal passages, help with smell
Id
The id operates on the pleasure principle, seeking immediate satisfaction of lifeinstincts, regardless of society’srules or the rights or feelings of others.
prejudice
a positive or negative evalutaion of another person based on his or her group membership
emotion
a response of the whole organism; physiological arousal, expressive behaviors, conscious experience
CO-MORBIDITY for Bulimia
Depression, anxiety, substance abuse, personality disorders, sexual/physical abuse
Operant Conditioning
 
 
Extinction
"the diminishing of the operant response when it is no longer reinforced"
night terrors
high arousal and terrified appearance, during stage 4, not result of a nightmare
EEG
recording of the waves of electrical activity across a brain using electrodes placed on the scalp
a neurotransmitter involved in muscle contractions and memory information
acetylcholine (ACh)
range corollary
Range corollary:  “A construct is convenient for the anticipation of a finite range of events only.”  Each construct has a range and focus of convenience.
Amygdale
plays a crucial role in associating sensory and other information with pleasant and unpleasant feelings
Bige eaters consume more than _____ calories
1500
The APA defines substance abuse and dependence and includes alcohol as a _____ substance
psychoactive
Suzy believes that all people are capable of self-fulfillment. Her belief is consistent with the _________ perspective.
Humanistic
interneurons
cells in the spinal cord through which reflexes travel without going to the brain
Absolute threshold
minimal difference needed to notice a stimulus change; also called the "just noticable difference: (JND)
Define Confabulation
confusing an event that happened to someone else with one that happened to self, or believing something which didn't happen
What is the smallest, most basic part of the nervous system?
Neuron
caffeine
a mild stimulant found in coffee, tea, and several other plant-based substances
Affective Forecasting
The process by which people predict their emotional reactions to future events
schedules of reinforcement.....Variable interval
time until reinforcement changes. Ex) weekly pop quizzes.
Gestalt psych
deals with visual problems and that "aha!"/ eureka! moment
Self-serving bias
the tendency for people to take personal credit for success but blame failure on external factors
Cross-cultural Difference
Not possible to make universal claims about set situations.
Backward messages
have been found to not be effective
Positive Correlation
_____ variables covary in the opposite direction.
subflield of I/O psych that examines organizational influences on worker productivity aso
organizational psychology
hippocampus
a neural center that is located in the limbic system; helps process explicit memories for storage
Frequency
How often a light or sound wave cycles (# of wavelengths in a given time)
when sick, optimists are more likely than pessimists to
avoid negative emotions
hard-to-get effect
the tendency to prefer people who are highly selective in their social choices over those who are more readily available
A child’s realization that others may have beliefs which the child knows to be false best illustrates the development of:
A theory of mind
Principles of Action Potential
1. Electrical force (p. 137); electrostatic pressure- negative charge attracts positive charge2. Concentration force (p. 137); diffusion- movement from areas of higher concentration to areas of lower concentration to balance levels of concentration
explicit memory
the process in which people try to remember something
behavior in which individuals try to attain a goal for themselves while denying that goal to others
conflict ch 18
Therapy that attempts to shift the focus away from denial and toward motivation to change
Motivational enhancement therapy
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
a projective test in which people express their inner feelings and interests through the stories they make up about ambiguous scenes
self-efficacy expectancies (or self-efficacy)
subjective beliefs about what a person will be able to do
sensory memory
a process that takes a very short time but longer than the time the eye stays looking at one target (eye changes target 4 or 5 times a second), so visual systems neural response to a stimulus begins when the stimulus arrives but does not shutt off immediately when stimulus vanishes from view - like with hearing when we say "what did you say?" when we realized we already know
The Greek physician Hippocrates beleived that different problems were cuasxed by imbalances in the four humors. What are the four humors?
Blood Yellow bile Phlegm Black bile
Proximodistal Pattern of Development
Growth sequence begins at center of body and moves toward extremities
major depressive disorder
A mood disorder in which a person, for no appearant reason, experiences two or more weeks of depressed moods, feelings of worthlessness, and diminished interest or pleasure in most activities
Perspectives of Pesonality Psychologists:
Psychodynamic
 
Focuses on the role of the unconcious mind in personalty development.
Social Construction - -e.g:
- we present ourselves in a particular way to construct a particular identity for ourselves-e.g - social symbols help us"Fashionista"
What are some of the symptoms of Stress?
Emotional = depression, anxiety, PTSD
Cognitive = difficulty concentrating
Behavioral = poor health habits
Physiological = Sympathetic Nervous System (increased heart rate) and Somatization (ulcers)
Research on emotional intelligence suggests that
a. having a higher EQ correlates with having higher quality working life.
What does the interaction term measure in Within ANOVA?
any differences in the effects of specific treatment conditions on specific subjects
choose one:We put (high/low) value on negative labels that apply to us.
low (this is a self-serving judgement that downplays the importance of a particular trait to protect our self-worth and positive self-image)
What would likely be a major symptom of a disease that deteriorated the sense receptors located in the muscles, joints, and tendons?
The victims would no longer be aware of their body positioning.
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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