Psychological Development Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Kagan
Studied temperament
plastocyte
first successful sperm
habituation
decreasing responsiveness with repeated stimulation. As infants gain familiarity with repeated exposure to a visual stimulus, their interest wanes and they look away sooner.
Baumrind
Developed the Four Parenting Styles
Gilligan
criticized Kohlberg's research on moral theory because she felt it was biased against girls
accomodation
mental process that restructures existing schemes so new information is better understood
epigenesis
development resulting from ongoing bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the environment
assimilation
interpreting one's new experience in terms of one's existing schemas.
puberty
the body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
maturation
process by which genetic program manifests itself over time
Conservation
The notion that the quantitative properties of an object are stable despite changes in the object's appearance.
formal operations
through adulthood, abstract reasoning, we all do not reach this in thought, we can think about doing things in our mind without actually doing them, reasoning, can solve puzzles, figure stuff out
proximodisdal rule
the "inside-to-outside" rule that describes the tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery.
kinship studies
studies comparing the characteristics of family members to determine the importance of heredity in complex human characteristics
chromosomes
rod-like structures in the cell nucleus that store and transmit genetic information
proximodistal trend
growing from the middle out
ethology
an approach concerned with the adaptive or survival value of behavior and its evolutionary history
crystallized intelligence
one's accumulated knowledge and verbal skills; tends to increase with age.
secondary sex characteristics
gender-related physical changes, such as: facial hair, deepening voice (men), widened hips, enlarged breasts (women); pubic hair growth (both)
developmental stage
periods of life initiated by significant transitions in physical or psychological functioning
Preoperational Stage
2-6 yearsChild acquires motor skills but does not understand conservation of physical properties. Begins this stage by thinking egocentrically but ends with a basic understanding of other minds.
Attachment
absence of mother has greater impact than father because they came in contact first with the mother, most takes place in the first few months, huge impact on social development, can be deprived, can only handle detachment about once, affects the limbic system, emotion,
Infancy
the stage of development that begins at birth and lasts between 18 and 24 months
imitation
learning by copying the behavior of another person
syaptic pruning
loss of connective fibers by seldom-stimulated neurons, therby returning them to an uncommitted state so they can support the development of future skills
lateralization
specialization of functions of the two hemispheres of the cerebral cortex
amnion
the inner membrane that forms a protective covering around the prenatal organism
range of reaction
each person's unique genetically determined response to a range of environmental conditions
basic trust
according to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers
developmental psychology
a branch of psychology that studies physical, cognitive, and social change throughout the life span.
mental representation
ability to form internal images of objects and events
zygote
first ten days, about 100 cells, goes in and attaches to the placenta
stagnation
no more development and the desire to bring back the past, mostly in middle aged people
A psychotherapist instructs Dane to relax, close his eyes, and state aloud whatever thoughts come to mind no matter how trivial or absurd.  The therapist is using a technique known as
A. fixation
B. free association
C. factor analysis
D. hypnosis
E.
B. free association
Ambivalent attachment style
when mothers leave the room: distressed.when mothers come back: go to her promptly, but avoids her soothing.
cerebral cortex
the largest structure of the human brain which accounts for the highly developed intelligence of the human race.
experience-expectant brain growth
the young brain's rapidly developing organization which depends on ordinary experiences such as opportunities to see and touch objects to hear language and other sounds and to move about and explore the environment
experience-dependent brain growth
additional growth and refinement of established brain structures as a result of specific learning experiences that vary widely across individuals and cultures. follows experience expectant brain growth
developmental quotient
a score on an infant intelligence test, based primarily on perceptual and motor responses
theory of mind
awareness that others' behavior may be influenced by their own beliefs
grasping reflex
the baby grips really hard when you touch their palm
fluid intelligence
the ability to acquire new ideas and behavior, learn from experiences, and adapt to new situations
The social-cognitive perspective suggests that the best way to predict a political candidate's performance effectiveness after election is to assess that individual's
A. current feelings of personal control.
B. specific political goals for the future.
D. past performance in situations involving similar responsibilities.
fetal alcohol syndrome
stems from heavy alcohol use during pregnancy.
self conscious emotions
emotions that involve injury to or enhancement of the sense of self. Examples are shame embarrassment guilt envy and pride
Babinski Reflex
when a baby's foot is stroked, he or she will spread the toes
According to Piaget, assimilation involves
A. the absorption of nutrients into the body for growth and development.
B. training children to behave in a socially acceptable manner.
C. interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.
C. interpreting new experiences in terms of one's current understanding.
zygote travels back to fallopian tube and implants itself in the wall of the uterus, marking the start of embryonic stage.
Processes in germinal stage
fraternal or dizygotic twins
twins resulting from the released and fertilization of two ova. not any more alike than normal siblings
social learning theory
an approach that emphasis the role of modeling or observational learning in the development of behavior
People with high self-esteem are less likely than those with low self-esteem to
A. experience an internal locus of control.
B. overestimate the accuracy of their beliefs.
C. manifest self-serving bias.
D. succumb to conformity pressures.
E. have a st
D. succumb to conformity pressures.
zone of proximal development
in Vygotsky's theory a range of tasks that the child cannot yet handle alone but can do with the help of more skilled partners
short eye openings, a flat midface, an indistinct or flat ridge under the nose,a thin upper lip. may also have: tiny folds of tissue along the eye opening, a long nasal bridge,underdeveloped jaw, and minor ear anomalies.
Facial features associated with FAS
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