Psychology - Learning 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
unconditioned response
unlearned response
Interval between successive responses.
Behind Cortex; coordinated movement
Thorndike called his learning________
instrumental conditioning
primary reinforcer
innately reinforcing stimulus; satisfies biological need; a rattle for a baby or social contact for people
Evolutionary predisposition to learn some pairings of feared stimuli over others owing to their survival value
Similar sounds produce similar conditioned responses (Tone and bell= salavate)
any consequence that decreases the frequency of a behavior
another name for secondary reinforcer...
conditioned reinforcer
Sensory Memory
memory system, mentally preserves extremely accurate sensory information
defense mechanism that banishes from consciousness anxiety-arousing thoughts, feelings, and memories
John Watson
founder of behaviorism, conducted "Little Albert" study
conditional stimulus
previously neutral stimulus that eventually has conditioned response after being associated w/ UCS
integrate and interprate input from multiple locations --central nervous system
takes away something aversive and increases likelihood of reoccurrence
Ivan Pavlov
In classical conditioning, animals learn through experience to predict future events
Negative Reinforcement
subtracting an unpleasant stimulus in order to see the behavior more
our capacity to learn new behaviors that help us cope with changing circumstances
the initial stage of classical learning
Cognitive Maps
creating a mental blueprint when learning
mental pictures; a powerful aid to effortful processing, especially when combined wih semantic encoding
A stimulus that acquires reinforcing power by association with a primary reinforcer is called a ________ reinforcer.
A. delayed
B. negative
C. partial
D. conditioned
E. positive
D. conditioned
Latent learning
learning that is not directly observable
The procedure whereby a CS that elicits one type of response is associated w/ an event that elicits an incompatible response.
conditioned stiumulus(CS)
paired with an unconditioned stiumuls, and now elicits a response
Continuous Learning schedules
Reward/punishment occurs each time the behavior occurs
something that increases the rate of the behavior that it follows
Observational Learning
Occurs when an organism's responding is influenced by the observation of others, who are called models.
When two memories are similar, the strength of either or both may be reduced
Functional amnesia
Results from psychological rather then physical abuse- dissociate fugue; loss of personal identity; RARE
Positive Punishment
adding an unpleasant stimulus in order to see the behavior less
Spontaneous recovery
the reappearance of a learned response after extinction has occurred.
Behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus.
fixed interval schedule
an operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made
Classical conditioning
Process by which a previous neutral stimulus elicits a response through association with a stimulus that already exists or later response. (Ivan Pavlov)
confirmation bias
tendency in thinking to search for info that confirms one's preconceptions
stimulus control
The ability of a particular stimulus to elicit a target response.
A change in an organism's behavior or thought as a result of experience
Personal Fable
A feeling shared by many adolescents that one is not subject to the same rules as other people.
Context for Conditioning 
refers to the ontogenetic and phylogenetic histories that are present during conditioning 
Secondary Reinforcers
Objects and events that have become reinforcers because of their association with other reinforcers
Law of Effect
a satisfying result strengthens a behavior.
inhibitory conditioning: negative cs us contingency
CS+=US then CS-=no US
intrinsic punishment
Punishment that is an inherent aspect of the behavior that is being punished.
Multiple trace theory
Episodic memories depend more on corticcal neurons and less on hippocampus over time; but never fully independent of hippocampus
Expectation is critical for learning
Cognitive elements of classical conditioning
implicit memory
a type of long term memory; retention independent of conscious recollection; knowing how to do something like a basic fn;
synonymous with procedural memory
fixed interval schedule (FI)
pattern in which we provide reinforcement for producing the response at least once following a specified time interval. aka "scalloped" pattern of responding. That means to anticipate
Semantic Generalization
The generalization of a CR to verbal stimuli that are similar in meaning to the CS.
Variable limited hold schedule
limited hold added to varible interval schedule
Parasympathetic nervous system
Rest and digest system; controls the body during its normal rest state
mirror neurons (mental imagery)
located in our frontal lobes; act similary whether we are observing abehavior or doing the same
Stimulus-substitution Theory
The CS acts as a substitute for the US. (classical)
what the five types of major conditioning processes
acquisition, extinction, spontaneous recovery, generalization, discrimination
variable ratio (VR) schedule
A schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon a varying, unpredictable number of responses.
Unconditioned Response (UR) or (UCR)
a reflexive reaction that is reliably elicited by an unconditioned stimulus
What other terms are sometimes used to refer to Pavlovian conditioning?
Classical conditioning, respondent learning; and S-S learning
what occurs when a CS is paired with a new stimulus until the new stimulus elicits the CR. This learning produces typically weaker CRs that are more vulnerable to extinction
second order conditioning
what is non associative learning?
learning that results from a single sensory cue. includes habituation and sensitization
How is natural selection related to changes in animal behavior?
Animals with certain traits or inborn tendencies that aid survival are more likely to survive and reproduce, passing on these traits in their genes. This, over time, makes the survivability traits the norm for the species.
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