Psychology 103 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
generalization
generalized phobia
Typical Neuroleptics
Phenothiazines
Butyrophenones (haloperidol or Haldol)
 
Antagonistsic activity to D2 receptors
bulimia
recurrent binge eating 
Behavior
Anything an organism does
Variable
Anything that can change
To decrease a response
punishment
Behavioural Princples'
BEHAVIOURISM-focus on overt, observable beh-operational definitions
decay
fading of information from memory
Distal stimulus
The external object itself
Groupthink
The faulty decision-making processes that may occur in groups.
automatic processing
unconscious encoding of memory
defense mechanisms
self-deceptive techniques for reducing anxiety and guilt, including denial, repression, projection, identification, regression, intellectualization, reaction formation, displacement, and sublimation.
Primary Reinforcer
satifies some biological need
resistance
in psychoanalysis, the blocking from consciousness of anxiety-laden material
motor neurons
neurons that carry outgoing information from the central nervous system to the muscles and glands
Elements of Abnormality
1. Suffering2. Maladaptiveness3. Deviancy4. Violations of the Standards of Society5. Social Discomfort6. Irrationality and unpredictability
correlation
statistical procedure that provides a numerical value (between 1 and -1) indicating strength and direction of the relation between 2 variables
Psychologists only help people with problems.T or F
False
sex
refers to the biologically based catagories of male and female
obsessive
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts and actions is called a                     disorder
axon
long, thin fiber that transmits signals away from the soma to other neurons or to muscles or glands
Define
 
Motivation
Definition
 
-Why do we do the things we do-
Internal process that makes a person move toward a goal.
psychodynamic theory
understand's clients condition by exploring childhood experiences. intepretation and transference
3/6/09
 
4. The relaxed state, similar to hypnosis, not requiring a hypnotist or suggestions is___.
Meditation
Experimental Method
research method using method assignment of subjects and the manipulation of variables in order to determine cause and effect
• Schizophrenia
a puzzling and disabling disorder that fills the mind with distorted perceptions, false ideas, and loosely connected thoughtscharacterized by disturbances in thinking, perception, emotions and behavior
Aphasia
Impairment of language, usually caused by left-hempisphere damage either to Broca's area (speaking) or Wernicke's Areas (understanding)
synthetic stimulant and mild hallucinogen
Ecstasy (MDMA)
Acquisition
the initial stage in classical conditioning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that thte neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response. In operant conditioning, the strenghtening of a reinforced response.
ambivert
one whose personality type is intermediate between extrovert and introvert
consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our environment. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 271)
Extrasensory Perception (ESP)
The controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input. Said to include telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition.
humanistic psychology
school of psychology and theoretical viewpoint that emphasizes each person's unique potential for psychological growth and self-direction
Independent Variable
the condition that is being manipulated, an example:how much sunlight will i use for experiment for plant growth
self-actualizing
a state of self-fullfillment in which people realize their highest potential, each in a unique way.
Unconditional Response (UCR)
in classical conditioning, the response elicited by an unconditional stimulus without prior learning.
concepts
a mental catagory that groups objects, relations, activities, abstractions, or qualities having common properties
incentive theories
external stimuli pull people in certain directions, external stimuli regulate motivational states
adrenal glands
glands that secrete norepinephrine and epinephrine into the bloodstream
memory
The persistence of learning over time through the storage and retrieval of information.
PLACEBO
AN INERT OR INCONSEQUENCE SUBSTANCE OR TREATMENT DESIGNED TO MAKE SUBJECTS THINK THEY ARE GETTING THE REAL THING
Friend
someone with whom we have an affectionate relationship
C-fibers
- 2nd activated- chronic dull aches, burning sensations
what are endorphins?
"morphine w/in", natural, opiatelike neurotransmitters linked to pain control & pleasure
Electroencephalogram (EEG)
Records electrical activity on the brain's surface. Tells if there is abnormal activity, but not where the problem is.
Electroencephalogram
A record of brain-wave activity made by a machine called the electroencephalograph.
side effects of antianxiety drugs
drowsiness, lightheadedness, cottonmouth, depression, nausea, & constipation
Somatization disorder
is a somatoform disorder characterized by vague, unverifiable symptoms such as dizziness and nausea
Technical name for the sense of smell.
olfaction
Interposition
the object blocking the view of another is closer
behavioral approach
-only observable events can be studied-Watson in 1913; Skinner continued-how organisms learn new behaviors or change existing ones
Continuous variables
Unlimited between lowest and highest. Eg ml of beer drunk.
survey
to take a general or comprehensive view of or appraise, as a situation, area of study, etc.
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
Projective Test
Use standard sets of ambiguous stimuli assumed that unconscious feelings and motives are projected onto the stimuli
hypothesis testing
A procedure, based on sample evidence and probability theory, used to determine whether the hypothesis is a reasonable statement and should not be rejected or is unreasonable and should be rejected.
General Adaptation syndromeGAS
Sequence of reactions to sustained stress described by Selye. These stages are alarm, resistance, and exhaustion, which may lead to death.
case study
an observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in hope of revealin universal principles
split brain
condiion in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
pituitary gland
endocrine gland attached to the base of the hypothalamus
Publish or Perish
research must be published (journal) or it's not legit
what men look for
females w/ good reproductive potential, sexually faithful & effective in nurturing children, look for youthfulness & attractiveness
sensitization
an increase in tendency to respond to an event that has been repeated; sensitization is more likely when a repeated stimulus is intense.
conditioned response (CR)
In classical conditioning, the learned response to a previously neutral (but now conditioned) stimulus.
Genetics Note #2
• human traits are influenced by gene complexes- many genes acting in concert• of our relatively few genetic differences, only 6 percent are differences among races. Only 8 percent are differences among groups within a race. The rest-over 85 percent-are individual variations within local groups
Reinforced
The odds of engaging in that behavior again is increased
Deductive Reasoning
reasoning that begins with a general premise that is believed to be true, then draws conclusions about specific instances based on this premise.
Define paraphilia.
Paraphilias are disorders in which an individual has recurrent, intense sexually arousing fantasies, sexual urges, or behaviors involving
1.)non human objects,
2.) children or other nonconsenting persons, or
3.) the suffering or humiliation of oneself or a partner.  
Applied Research
Scientific study that aims to solve problems



•Comparative psychology
The study of behavior in different species including humans
Hindsight bias
the tendency to mold our recollection of the past to how events later turned out.
The example of workers building a number of different roads and then choosing to only repair and maintain those that were used frequently while letting the unused roads deteriorate is analogous to what neural process?
neural pruning
phi phenomenon
an illusion of movement created when two or more adjacent lights blink on and off in quick succession
short-term memory(STM)
the memory system in which information is held for brief periods of time while being used
heuristic
a shortcut way to solve problems or make decisions quickly
Tardive dyskinesia
A side effect of some antipsychotic drugs involving loss of motor control, especially in the face.
experimental condition
the condition of an experiment that exposes subjects to the treatment, that is, to the independent variable
Semantic Memory(working memory)
your memory for meanings and general (impersonal) facts
 developmental changes in aggression.  Also, what the difference between “instrumental” and “hostile” aggression?
develops during toddlerhood - object centeredduring preschool,  true interpersonal aggression become common
Instrumental aggression - aggression used as a means to get something.
Hostile aggression  - aggression aimed solely at hurting someone else.
 
Free Association Phychoanalysis
technique- a patient is instructed to say whatever comes to mind
circadian rhythm? example?
biological rhythm with a period of about 24 hrs.example- sleep wake cycle
what are opiates?
Opium and its derivatives, such as morphine and heroin; they depress neural activity, temporarily lessening pain an anxiety.
Statistical Significance (p)
The condition that exists when the probability that observed findings are due to chance is less than 1/20 (some psychologists) or 1/100 (stringent standards).
sound wave
changes over time in the pressure of an elastic medium (air or water)
operant conditioning in action
- parenting- formation of gender roles- behavior modification
What does the pituitary gland do?
-growth & development
-promotes protein production
-reproductive functions
-master gland
What is IQ
the intelligence quotient (IQ) is a systematic means of quantifying differences among people in their intelligence
Zygote
The fertilized egg; it enters a 2 week period of rapid cell division and develops into an embryo.
states that the size of the just noticeable difference will vary depending on the relation to the strength of the original stimulus
Weber's law
eliminating less attractive alternatives
elimination by aspects; eliminated by evaluating them on each attribute in turn
Social cognitive theory
A theory of behavior suggesting that human behaviors are influenced by many cognitive factors as well as by reinforcement contingencies, and that humans have an impressive capacity to regulate their own actions.
mere exposure effect
the fact that repeated exposure to an unfamiliar stimulus increases our liking of it.
age and sleep length
newborn: 16 hours3 year olds: 12 hours18 year olds: 8 hours50 year olds: 6 hours
biology, social, processing
what are the 3 baskets of human function
disturbances in thinking, language, and communication: disorganized speech
thinking that lacks cohesiveness and logic and language that can be grossly distorted to the point of incomprehensibility but can also be less dramatic as in the use of awkward or pompous-sounding speech
Schacter - Singer Theory (1962)
A two-stage theory requiring the following:• Physiological arousal• An explanation for the arousal
Experiments conducted using animals
Lab - Harlows monkeys & skinner boxField - animal language & teaching human language to non human animals.Naturalistic observation - social learning and sweet potatoes.
Industrial/ Organizational psychology (I/O)
Which area of research do Counselors, therapists, clinical psychologists and psychologists work with people who have mild to severe mental distress?
applied behavior analysis (ABA)
modern term for a form of behavior modification that uses shaping techniques to mold a desired behavior of response
Positron Emission Tomography (PET)
Observe blood flow or activity in any part of the brain
 
Infant perception
(2-3 months)
will grasp objects and put it in their mouths in order to explore
left frontal lobe
what area of the brain is important in the production of speech?
stages of the sleep cylcle
stage 1: dive into sleepstage 2: light sleepstage 3: transitionstage 4: deep sleep, hard to wake, wet the bed and sleepwalkREM: dreams
What are hamme, anvil, and stirrup
tiny bones located in the middle ear
What is the value of randomization?
Particpants are assigned to a group on the basis of chance alone making an equal chance of distribution across various groups.
what part of the eye do we rely on when there's bright light?
we rely on our cones
What can you do to make a good first impression?
1. Dress nice2. Behave with decent manners.3. Smile4. Act interested in them and talk little about yourself unless asked.
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