Psychology 108 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
big business
efferent neurons
motor neurons
relationship in time
highest firing rate
1000 APs/sec
Meta cognition/thinking about thinking. Compare predictive thoughts with outcomes of actions.
visual world remains whole
eyewitness memory
testimony--reporting events witnessed or experienced-improves with age--younger suggestible-accuracy better with open questions--specific questions lead to inaccuracy--repeating questions leads to misinformation
process of converting short-term memories into long term memo.
alfred binet
developed first intelligence test...
naturalistic observation
watch things, record-limitations: people act differently while being watched, person watching has to be well trained, no bias, cant draw conclusions between cause and effect
Smallest meaningful unit of speech
impairment of language, usually caused by left hemisphere damage either to Broca's area (impairing speaking) or to Wernicke's area (impairing understanding).
Observational learning
Learning by observing others.
Neural Networks
interconnected neural cells. With experience, networks can learn, as feedback strengthens or inhibits connections that produce certain results. Computer simulations of neural networks show analogous learning.
connected with thinking or conscious mental processes
basic emotional style that appears early in development and is largely genetic in origin
An explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes observations and predicts behaviors or events.
Only negative life changes bring stressT or F
creating false but plausible excuses to justify unacceptable behavior
conditioned responses.
In classical conditioning therapies, maladaptive symptoms are usually considered to be
parietal lobe
primary somatosensory cortex located in the cerebrum (forebrain)
most often abused substance by pregnant mothers
anxiety disorders
distressing, persisitent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Vision (adulthood)

Peripheral vision narrows faster than frontal vision
Changes in vividness of color vision
Changes with near and farsightedness
an expectation based on multiple observations
how do biological structures and processes make behavior possible? what roles do nature (heredity) and nurture (environment) play in such areas as intelligence, language development, and aggression?
helps control alertness and arousal 
undersuppy can depress mood
Brain waves when awake but drowsy/relaxed
characterized by an irresistible urge to act; governed by an obsessive need to conform coupled with an inability to express positive emotions
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
Wernicke's area
controls language reception- a brain area involved in language comprehension and expression; usually in the left temporal lobe
endocrine system
system of glands located throughout the body that secrete hormones into the bloodstream
Bulimia Nervosa
"Binge and Purge"
Affects college age women the most.
Implicit memory
Memory thats not consciously recalled but that nevertheless influences behavior or thought
means by which learner allows other stimuli which are similar to original stimulus to bring out the response. Example: dog would allow the sound of piano.
Conditioned response(CR):
Formerly UR (salivation) the response now occurs with each presentation of the CS(tone), even without the US(food)
the better food tastes, the more people consume
spontaneous recovery
the recovery of an extinguished conditioned response after a period without exposure to the conditioned stimulus.
The assortment of genes that each individual inherits at conception.
the adjustment of one's schemas to include newly observed events and experiences.
According to the textbook, which has summarized the very extensive research, which one is true about TV violence and children?A) It has no effectB) It has an effect, but only on kids who already have psychological disorders.C) In general, it desensitizes
acheivement motivation
desire to excel especially in competition with others
negative correlation
as one variable increases, other decreases. opposite directions.
Developmental Psychology
(Definition/Often works with...)
Studies the physical, social, and psychological changes that occur throughout the human lifespan.
Often works with children.
Menstrual cycle:
periodic variation in hormones and fertility over 28 days
dream analysis
the therapist interprets the symbolic meaning of the client's dreams, the patients are encouraged & trained to remember their dreams which they describe in therapy
primary aging
refers to the universal and irreversible physical changes that occur as people get older
control group
used as a basis for comparison
-distance from one crest to another spacially
individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit info
Factorial Experiments
Experiments with more than 1 IV
a quantity having a value intermediate between the values of other quantities; an average, esp. the arithmetic mean.
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
Free association
Encouraging individuals to say aloud whatever comes to mind
Martin Seligman
researcher known for work on learned helplessness and learned optimism as well as positive psychology.
classical conditioning
the learning process in which an originally neutral stimulus becomes associated with a particular response that the stimulus did not originally produce
Dependent variable**
Changes as a result of manipulating independent variable
glial cells
cells in the nervous system that support, nourish, and protect neurons
Withdrawn Style
horney; adapting to world used by those who believe its best not to engage emotionally at all
manifest content
acutal images in dreams you experience in everyday life
an external goal that has the capacity to motivate behavior, some reduce drives, others do not, don't operate according to principle of homeostasis, emphasize environmental factors and downplay biological bases
attention deficit/hyperactivity disorder
a psychological condition marked by difficulties in concentrating and sustaining attention and by high levels of fidgety physical activity; occurs most often in children.
operant conditioning
A process of learning in which behavior changes as a function of what follows it – for example, behavior that is followed by reinforcement is likely to be repeated. An organism learns to associate its own behavior with consequences.
james lange theory
our physiological response to emotion arousing stimuli
Anna Freud (1895-1982)
Became a psychoanalyst and followed her father on many trips, eventually taking over for him. First to attempt to apply psychoanalytic techniques to children
Partial Reinforcement Schedule
a schedule that reinforces behavior only part of the time, for example, a ratio or interval schedule.
the inborn complex of behavior of a living organism that is not learned.
Mundane Realism
The extent to which an experimenal situation is likely to occur in the "real world"
A belief that associates a group of people with certain traits
a familiar or typical example of a category.
action potential
a neural impulse; a brief electrical charge that travels down an axon. The action potenial is generated by the movement of positively charged atoms in and out of channels in the axon's membrane.
visual cliff
a laboratory device for testing depth perception in infants and young animals
semantic network model
model of memory organization that assumes information is stored in the brain in a connected fashion with concepts that are related stored physically closer to each other thatn concepts that are not highly related
Obsessive-compulsive Disorder (OCD)
An anxiety disorder characterized by unwanted repetitive thoughts (obsessions) and/or actions (compusions)
Bipolar disorder
A mood disorder in which individuals experience very wide swings in mood, from deep depresiion to wild elation.
retention process
capacity to recall what the model did
portion of the brain part that acts as endocrine gland and produces hormones that stimulate (releasing factors) or inhibit secretion of hormones y the pituitary
Realistic Group Conflict Theory
the proposal that intergroup conflict, and negative prejudices and stereotypes, emerge out of actual competition between groups for desired resources
organ of corti
structure on the surface of the basilar membrane that contains the receptor cells for hearing
define the feel-good, do-good effect
(finding money)feel good experience makes people more likely to give money,l pick up someone's dropped papers, volunteer time, and do other good deeds.
selective perception
A form of perceptual set. The tendency to perceive stimuli that are consistent with expectations and to ignore those that are inconsistent.
Factorial Designs
These designs use two or more IVs (called factors), each with at least two levels.
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory
the most widely researched and clinically used self-report personalty test
Theory of planned behavior
theoretical model that includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds the person's perception of control over the outcome
Openness to experience
open people tend to be intellectually curious and unconventional 
Specific Intelligence
Related to the particular task and is responsible for the fact that each person does better on some tasks than others.
Facial feedback hypothesis
the idea that emotions arise partly as a result of the positioning of facial muscles
What are the 3 processes of memory?
encoding, storage, retrieval
semicircular canal
any of the three curved tubular canals in the labyrinth of the ear, associated with the sense of equilibrium.
intrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior for its own sake
Parellel Processing 
- the processing of many aspects of a problem simultaneously; the brain's natural mode of information processing for many functions, including vision.
instrumental or operant conditioning
a procedure for studying how organisms learn about the consequences of their own voluntary actions: their behaviours are instrumental in producing rewards and punishments.
the 7 universal emotional facial expressions
Anger, fear, disgust, happiness, surprise, sadness, contempt
Monocular Cues: Shading
Location of light source and the angle it reflects offobjects provides cues to how objects are arranged
Double depression
is a condition in which bouts of major depression are superimposed over a state of dysthymia
Research Methods
What is the name for the entire group the researcher is interested in learning about?
Eleanor Gibson and Richard Walk
examined how children respond to depth information. This research used an apparatus called a visual cliff.
if identical twins have a high concordance rate...
genetics are important in behavior
What is an approach?
Refers to a focus or perspective which may use a particular research method or technique.
Associated with: Learning, memory, dreaming, emotion, waking from sleep, eating, alertness, wakefulness, reactions to stress.
Low levels results in depression, high levels results in agitated, manic states.
unswervingly hold to his position
Anton is the only Juror a favor acquittal on a murder charge. To influence the majority he should
sometime between childhood and early adulthood
At what stages of life do most physical systems peak?
what is the fight or flight syndrome? how does it cause our body to react?
Faced with problem you either fight problem or u run away depending on situation. Piloerection?
what is the criteria for dx of social phobia if pr is under 18?
sx must be present for at least 6mo
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