Psychology 41 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Convariation theory
fundamental attribution error
rewarding successive approximation (sea world)
-recurrent, time-consuming, disturbing obsessions that cause anxiety
-often accompanied by compulsions performed to relieve anxiety
-no longterm relief--disrupts social life
-occurs in 2-3% of children--onset is late childhood
-treatment is exposure and response prevention
an early memory researcher
case studies
research for rare disorders/diseases/unusually complex or rare phenomena
Unpleasant or disease producing stress
Prejudice vs Discrimination
Prejudice - attitude
Discrimination  - action
Prelinguistic Stage
Crying, cooing, and babbling
birth-12 months
a person's sympathetic and parasympathetic divisions of the autonomic nervous system work together to maintain their body's level of arousal in balance for optimum functioning.
synaptic vesicle
spherical sac containing neurotransmitters
inappropriate conscious or unconscious restraint or suppression of behavior, often due to guilt or fear produced by past punishment
base of brainstem- heartbeat and breathing.
Our awareness of various mental processes, such as making decisions, daydreaming, reflecting, and concentrating, is called _____.
anxiety disorders
panic disorder; phobic disorders; obsessive-compulsive disorder
Change consciousness by reducing self awareness to enhance self-knowledge and well beingIncrease auditory & somatosensory cortex thicknessConcentrated & Mindfulness
psychoactive drugs
chemical substances that modify mental, emotional, or behavioral functioning (narcotics,sedatives,stimulants, hallucinogens, cannabis, alcohol, ecstasy)
carries info away from cell body
Strategies or tricks for improving memory through association
avg iq's for white, hispanic, black
small structure located below the thalamus in the brain that plays an important role in motivation and emotional expression, as well as controlling the neuroendocrine system and maintaing the body's homeostasis. The hypothalamus is part of the limbic system.
The achievement of sexual maturation resulting in the potential to reproduce
Refers to the mental processes involved in aquiring knowledge
A complex molecule containing the genetic information that makes up the chromosomes.
a relationship between two events, measures, or variables
Phallic Stage
Pleasure, frustration, and conflict associated with the phallic-genital region as well as coping with powerful incestuous feelings of love, hate, jealousy, and conflict
Alternate hypothesis
Expect to support it. Ha
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
non-REM sleep, most of sleep cycle
glial cells
cells that support, nourish, and protect nourons.
causal inferences
judgments about causation of one thing by another
fetal stage
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from two months through birth
rapid body growth, muscles and bones begin to form
capable of physical movement as skeletal structures harden
sense of hearing
final three months: brain cells, fat deposited, respiratory and digestive systems mature
age of viability
The space between two neurons where the axon of a sending neurons communicates with the dendrites of a receiving neuron by using chemical messages.
set of techniques that provides people with suggestions for alterations in their perceptions, thoughts, feelings, and behaviors
frequency theory
holds that perception of pitch corresponds to the rate, or frequency, at which the entire basilar membrane vibrates
sucking becomes voluntary after _____ mos
4 mos
Obsessive-compulsive personality disorder
Personality disorder defined by inordinate difficulty making decisions, hyperconcern with details and efficiency, and poor relations with others due to demands that things be done just so, as well as their unduly conventional, serious, formal, and stingy emotions.
Challenges to Traditional Marriage
3. Reduced premium on permanence

the stigma of divorce has decreased so now about 50% of marriages end in divorce
people enter marriages knowing they can get out of them
4. Transitions in gender roles

Gender role expectations are now more varied and flexible- change from couple to couple
More ambiguous for men and womens roles
5. Increased voluntary childlessness

Couples now do not have kids because they do not want to
6. Decline on the traditional nuclear family

A father, mother and two children is no longer the norm
alpha brain waves
brain-wave pettern associated with relaxsed wakefulness and drowsiness
principles that describe the brains organization of sensory information into meaningful units and patterns
gestalt principles
1793- Philippe Pinel
reformed French hospital system- stated that madness was a sickness in response to severe stress and inhumane conditions
signal-detection theory
proposes that detection of stimuli involves decision processes as well as sensory processes, which are both influenced by a variety of factors besides stimulus intensity *hits, misses, false alarms, correct rejections*attempts to account for influence of decision making processes on stimulus detection
nrem sleep
stages 1-4, required for basic biological functioning
Extralinguistic Information
Elements of communication that aren't part of the content of language but are critical to interpreting its meaning
case study
an intensive description and analysis of a single individual
a general term for the storage, retention and recall of events, information and procedures.
The removal of a positive stimulus that decreases the behavior is called punishment
extrasensory perception (ESP)
the controversial claim that perception can occur apart from sensory input; includes telepathy, clairvoyance, and precognition
observe select group over a long period of timeadv: show accurately how individuals change over timedisadv: time consuming, expensive, participents may drop out
behavior that interferes with personal and social adaptation
maladaptive behavior
Experimental Research
Similar to differential research, but subjects/groups are chosen in an unbiased manner-randomly usually
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
the central core of the brain, beginning where the spinal cord swells as it enters the skull, it is the oldest part of the brain and is responsible for automatic survival functions
Fluid intelligence
One's ability to reason speedily and abstractly; tends to decrease during late adulthood.
the ability to acquire new ideas and new behavior and to adapt to new situations
Most common disorders are
depressive disorder, alcohol abuse, specific phobias
generalized anxiety disorder
continual feelings of worry, anxiety, physical tension, and irritability across many areas of life functioning
a set of expectations about a social position, defining how those in the position ought to behave
split-brain surgery
the bundle of fibers that connects the cerebral hemispheres( the corpus callosum) is cut to reduce the severity of epileptic seizures , the two hemispheres become isolated & have 2 separate conscious worlds at the same time
Gender Stereotypes
The traits possessed by females and males, and that distinguish the two genders from each other.
over the past fifty years, have women in Western cultures experienced an increase or decrease in satisfaction with their bodies?
Physical Attractiveness
Physical Attractiveness
Important factor in dating and relationships
Research shows gender differences on attractiveness have been exaggerated.
Cross cultural studies show that personal qualities (intelligence) tend to be ranked as more important.
Unattractive body seems to be worse than an unattractive face.
Difference between operant and classical conditioning
Operant conditioning is distinguished from classical conditioning in that operant conditioning deals with the modification of voluntary behavior or operant behavior.
the study of forces that control the body at different times of the day, month, or year.
psychological dependence:
drug use despite adverse effects – needs drug to achieve well-being – preoccupation with obtaining drug
experimental group
in an experiment, the group of participants that receives the manipulation
According to Erik Erikson, the crucial task conrtoning a person approaching death is that of establishing or attaining _________.
ego integrity
Oral Stage
0-18 months. Pleasure centers on the mouth -sucking biting chewing
informational influence
ppl are unsure of themselves, looking for info from other ppl, conform b/c they believe the majority is correct, private acceptance-will give the same answer w/ or w/o the group
The lens is located right behind the ________.
Biological Psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior.
What type of learning do advertising and politics rely on?
Classical conditioning
Behavior Modification
A category of theriputic tecniques for changing behavior based on operant conditioning principals.
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
fully functioning individual
Rogers's term for when a person becomes what they should be. When you unite what you should be with what you are
Major Depressive Episode
Most common and severe experience of depression, including feelings of worthlessness, disturbances in bodily activities such as sleep, loss of interest, and inability to experience pleasure, persisting at least 2 weeks.
MAO inhibitors
thought to work by blocking the enzyme monoamine oxidase, which breaks down the neurotransmitters serotonin and norepinephrine in the brain
Type B
relaxed and laid back, less driven and competitive than type a, slow to anger
Anorexia Nervosa
An eating disorder in which a person does not eat enough. This person refuses to maintain a normal body weight, has an intense fear of becoming fat, and has a disturbance in the concept of her or his body shape. Pg 396
relative deprivation
the perception that one is worse off relative to those with whom one compares oneself
dreams are waking life
dreams are extension of our consciousness
what are nerves?
neural cables containing many axons. connect the cns w/ muscles, glands, & sense organs
Theory of Reasoned Action
Health behaviors results partly from behavioral intention, which is made up of two components (attitudes towards an action and subjective norms regarding the action)
A person who says "seep" instead of "sleep" is becuase of what?
Broca's Aphasia
Define ethology?
The study of animal behavior in the natural environment.
Charness and Dijkstra
found that public places have terrible lighting
- not sufficient for elderly ppl
multiple approch-avoidance conflict
conflict involving two or more goals, each of which has positive and negative aspects
moderate mental retardation
IQ of 36-51, brain damage, family dependent
females - midlife
Feels a sense of urgency. Focuses on physical decline. Appreciates her masculine side.
Retinal ganglion cells
Neural cells of hte retina that give rise to the optic nerve.
What are the key ethical issues in psychological research and therapy?
(pg 18)
Informed consent
Voluntary participation
Restricted us of deception and debriefing
Alternative activities (if needed to pass class for college students)
best predictor of success is _____
minimal level of problem behavior
existential therapy
we have the power to choose our own destinies, helps clients explore the meaning of existence and face with courage the great questions of life, such as death, freedom, alienation from self and others, loneliness and meaninglessness
paraventricular hypothalamus
an area of the brain in which damage leads to weight gin via an increase in the size of meals
changes in the brain during puberty
electric spurts dopomine increases saratonin decreases amygdala hippocampus increases
Ponspart of the hindbrain
serve as an input and output fiber pathway connecting the brain and the cerebellum
What are deterrents of suicide?
Any factors that prevent them from taking their life (belief, support)
The median is calculated by
finding the middle score in a distribution
Where is the Superchiasmatic Nucleus located?What does it do?What is it influenced by?What happens if it is damaged
Part of Thalamus, above optic chiasm- controls rhythms of sleep and temp- influenced by genes- damage results in less consitent body environmental patterns of light and dark- both sides can work independetly
Dominant recessive genes principle
in the pressence of a dominant gene, a recessive gene will not be expressed. (Tongue curling)
What does remaining inactive during a time of stress result in
an immense strain on internal systems
average american in the last 40 years:
gained 1 inch in heightgained 23 pounds
after the study, the participant must be given more details about the study
What are the individual cells in the nervous system that receive, integrate, and transmit information?
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