Psychology 54 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Gustation
Taste
homeostasis
a balance
simplicity
pragnanz->good formgood form=simpleorganize things into good form (make simple)
Identify the MISINFORMATION EFFECT
orgasm
muscle contractions; sexual release
parts of PNS
somatic, autonomic
Serotonin
a neurotransmitter that affects hunger,sleep,arousal,and mood. appears in lower than normal levels in depressed persons
nervous system
bodys speedy, electrochemical communication system, consisting of all the nerve cells of the peripheral and central nervous systems
Jean Piaget
Developmental psychologist who discovered that his memory of almost being kidnapped never actually occured and he only thought it did because he was told so
latency stage
6-adolescenceearlier conflicts remain hidden
Disorganized
-disorganization, no organization of thoughts
-mental disorganization
-no connecting thoughts
Konrad Lorenz
-Imprinting with his goslings
(Intrinsic Motivation)
types of neurotransmitters
acetylcholine:muscle movementdopamine: smooth movementserotonin: emotional statesnorepinephrine: arousal, learningGABA: anxiety, relaxation.Endorphins: pain, pleasure
masking
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
Ivan Pavlov
Russian physiologist who observed conditioned salivary responses in dogs. Classical Conditioning- an ucs naturally elicits a reflexive beahvior called a ucr. But with repeated pairings with a neutral stimulus, the neutral stimulus will elicit the response.
neurotransmitter
chemical messengers manufactured by a neuron
Positive symptoms
The perceptual experiences associated with schizophrenia, including hallucinations, delusional thinking, and disorganized thought and speech.
synapse
a junction between neurons, consisting of a terminal knob of a transmitting neuron, the space between the neurons (synaptic cleft), and a dendrite or soma of a receiving neuron
Compliance
Responding favorably to an explicit request by another person.
allocentrism
culture highly concerned with personal relationships and groups
organism variability
competition for natural resourrces with some organisms who are more adaptable then others
analytical intelligence
the ability to reason logically
Dendrite
branch-like extensions from a neuron with the specialized function of receiving messages from surrounding neurons.
Industrial-Organizational Psychology
The application of psychological concepts and methods to optimizing human behavior in workplaces.
Id
reservoir of our most primitive impulses, including sex and aggression
retrieval
recovering information from torage in memory
Sensory Consciousness
tuned into sensory receivers. Awareness to information thats brought through the senses
Dishabituation
recovery of habituated response after a change in stimulation; after Being used to first stimulus and being bored with it, they can still Tell the difference in a new one
cognitive dissonance
anxiety that results from simultaneously holding incompatible attitudes or beliefs, as when one likes a person but disapproves of their habits
Decision making
evaluating alternatives and making choices among them.
Alfred Binet
pioneer in intelligence (IQ) tests, designed a test to identify slow learners in need of help-not applicable in the U.S. because it was too culture-bound (French)
pain
is the intense sensory discomfort and emotional suffering associated with actual, imagined, or threatened damage to or irritation of body tissues
Objective personality testsCPI
Used to assess normal personality
central nervous system
the brain and spinal cord
Inferiority
Negative outcome of the fourth stage of development; in this state children feel that they are incompetant failures.
operant behavior
Behavior that is selected, maintained, and brought under stimulus control as a function of its consequences.
Semantic Memory
general knowledge or objective facts and information
Albert Bandura
(1925-)
Research on Social Learning and
Observational Learning
 
Doll Experiment
personal control
-our sense of controlling our environments, rather than feeling helpless -"Locus of Control"
 
 
Availability Heuristics
 
The availability heuristic is a phenomenon in which people predict the frequency of an event, or a proportion within a population, based on how easily an example can be brought to mind.
Consciousness
our awareness of ourselves and our enviroment
antisocial personality disorder
(sociopath or psychopath)must be 15-lack of conscience and remorse-intelligent yet amoral-clever and charming can-artist-pathological lier
FUNCTIONALISM
19TH CENTURY SCHOOL OF THOUGHT THAT EMPHASIZED THE USEFULLNESS OF CONSCIOUSNESS
Consciouness
our awarness of ourselves and our enviroment.
reliability
reliable if the same results are obtained when the measurements are repeated
Endorphins(p 119)
Chemical substances in the nervous system that are similar in structure and action to opiates' they are involved in pain reduction, pleasure, and memory and are known technically as Endogeneous Opioid Peptides.
presents subjects with a tiny stage and backdrops and each is asked to choose one or more characters from a large group of cutout figures and then to place the chosen figures in position against the background and tell the story of the situation he or she
MAPS
cognitive distortions
Dichotomous thinking: all or nothing thinking
Mind-reading: they think im a ____
emotional reasoning: because i feel ___ i am ___
Catastrophizing: If i do this something awful will happen
Should statements: I should take care of him/her
Self-serving bias
a readiness to perceive oneself favorably
Continuity
The tendency to perceive things as simply as possible, with a continuous pattern rather than with a complex, broken-up pattern
Weiten
three levels we analyze a person's reactions to stress with
transience
storage decay over time e.g. unused info fades
illusion
a perception, as of visual stimuli, that represents what is perceived in a way different from the way it is in reality
narcissistic disorder
extreme self-love and neglect of others
Cerebellum
The "Little Brain" attached to rear of the brainstem; it helps to coordinate voluntary movement & balance
purposive sampling
with good judgment and an appropriate strategy, we can handpick the cases to be included and thus develop samples that are satisfactory in relation to our needs
REM sleep
EEG waves are low voltage, fast, irregularpostnueron muscles more relaxedDREAMS occurOther stages are NREM
rational coping
facing a stressor and working to overcome it
past life regression therapy
therapeutic approach that hypnotizes and supposedly age-regresses patients back to the previous life to identify the source of a present day problem
response
A single instance or occurrence of a specific class or type of behavior.
Problem Solving
the thoughts and actions required to achieve a desired goal
5 types of schizophrenia:
1. paranoid typre2. disorganized3. catatonic4. undifferentiated5. residual type
Clinical Psychology
Subfield of psycholgy that deals with serious mental, emotional, and behavioral problems.
self-concept
understanding of who he or she is. appearance, personality, traits
Social Interaction
The process by which individuals act toward and react to others.
Pavlov's dogs
- why Pavlov's dogs salivate when there isn't any food- food presented, dog salivates- tone presented, dog doesn't salivate- food and tone presented, dog salivates...- ... tone presented, dog salivates
absolute threshold
minimal amt of stimulation needed to be detected for a sensation to occur
What is a type of primary reinforcer?
token reinforcer
The self


our self concept, the set of beliefs about who we are
occipital lobe
back of the head, includes cortical area where most visual signals are sent. This is called the primary visual cortex.
Y chromosome
the sex chromosome found only in males. When paired with an X sex chromosome from the mother, it produces a male child.
Day Dreaming Consciousness
Innovative, Creative, Throw out ideas but you stay on topic
Who would report more anger to being hit accidentally? boys or girls?
boys
lens
behind the iris, add to the focusing process from the cornea. lens can adjust to focus on close and far objects
4. Attachment –
an emotional tie with another person; shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
light adaptation
the process by which eyes become less sensitive to light in high illumination
Electroconvulsive therapy (ECT scan)
a biomedical therapy for severely depressed patients in which a brief electric current is sent through the brain of an anesthetized patient
parasymoathetic nervous system
the division if the autonomic nervous system that brings the heightened bodily responses back to normal following an emergencytakes you back to calm
Your memory of how to brush your teeth is what kind of memory?
Procedural
What do differences in temperament indicate about the biological bases of personality?
Activity level, emotionality, sociability
Sunna Circumcision
removed of hood and/or tip of the clitioris
Sleep Spindles
– during stage 2 of sleep, your brain emits occasional short bursts of rapid high peaking waves.
“secure/autonomous” (high coherence and consistency); “insecure/dismissing” (contradictions and lapses in memory); and “insecure/preoccupied” (confused, incoherent)
 
“unresolved/disorganized”
In general, adults who receive the Adult Attachment Interview can be categorized as one of these three . After receiving one of these three labels, adults who discuss trauma and loss may be additionally categorized as .. if they show momentary lapses of reasoning.
Aims of ABBT
1. To promote acceptance of internal experiences2. Enhance client's ability to live a meaningful, valued life3. To cultivate self-compassion (see experience with kindness, rather that as signs of weakness)
Intrinsic motivation
The pursuit of an activity for its own sake.
Inattentional Blindness
the inability to see an object or person in our midst (the gorilla in the basketball game)
a theory or concept of the self; a concept based on information-processing theory
self-schema
freudian views on dreams
dreams reflecr what a person's unconcious wishes and urges are. some may be unacceptable or painful
reference group effect
the idea that people make implicit social comparisons with others when making ratings on scales
basket nerve ending
senses pressure at the roots of hairs
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
(Anxiety disorder)
When a person is unexplainanly and continually tense and uneasy.
What is the difference between nomothetic versus idiographic approaches to the study of personality?
Approachment is nomothetic- approaches to studying personality that focus on how people vary across common traitsFocusing on traits common among everyone but on which individuals varyIdeographic- Approach one person individually and their individual traits, not general traits of everyonePerson-centered approaches to studying personality that focus on individual lives and how various characteristics are integrated into unique prsons.
What is the Premack principal?
The Premack Principal states that high-probability activity can be used to reinforce a low-probability activity. {Probability here means the likelihood of occurance}(Such as if a child likes to surf the internet, you can tell a child you can surf the internet if you get your times tables memorized)
3 ADVOCATES OF FREUD
1. ALFRED ADLER (1870 - 1937) Inferiority complex - childhood trauma but how we come to deal with it.2. Carl Jung (1923)(stereotype) Collective Unconscious - the notion that certain kinds of universal symbols & ideas are present in unconscious of all people.3. Karen Horney (1885-1952) argued w/freud - stating that women were not inferior & weak to man.
Emotional Intelligence (EQ)
the awareness of and ability to manage one's emotions in a healthy and productive manner
What is Authoritarian Parenting?
A parenting style that encourages the child to be independent but that still places limits and controls on behavior.
eye contact
a meeting of the eyes of two persons, regarded as a meaningful nonverbal form of communication
What is retrieval as relative to memory?
Involves recovering information from memory stores (Analogy: calling up file and displaying data on monitor)
peripheral nervous system
made up of all those nerves that lie outside the brain and spinal cord; divided into somatic and autonomic nervous system
Issues in School Age Personality DevelopmentSelf-Concept
6-7 yrs.: Concrete understanding of self8-12 yrs: Shift to relative comparisons across domainsStart to view their self concept more in terms if stable internal characteristics (I’m truthful, helpful)
The gate-control theory of pain suggests that _____.
Pain signals must pass through "a gate" located in the spinal cord.
Which of the following provide(s) evidence that long-term potentiation (LTP) is actually involved in learning and memory?
LTP can be induced in the hippocampus
Jacinda failed her last history midterm. Which of the following conclusions would be most representitive of a self-serving bias on Jacinda's part?
D) "I think the test questions were ambiguous and confusing"
What are the cognitive factors of stress?
Stress is more than just environmental events.
People may perceive the same event differently.
Tell me 2 of the 7 key themes in psychology:
1. Psychology evolves in a sociohistorical context.2. Psychology is empirical3. Psychology is theoretically diverse.
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