Psychology 58 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Acetylcholine (ACh)
beginning of menstruation
Jean Piaget
Proposed that youngsters' progess through four major stages of cognitive development, which characterized by fundamentally different thought processes
understand the intentions, motivations, desires of other people. noticeably oriented and outgoing. work efficiently with others.
folding-out portions of convolutions of the cerebral cortex
In pschoanalytic theory, the personality structure that dvelops to deal with the real world; in neo-analtic theory, this term refers to the individualit fo a person that is the central core of personalitý; and specifically for Carl Jung, it is the aspect of personality that is conscious and embodies the sense of self.
recurrent and intrusive obsessions and/or compulsions that are time consuming:
mimic the effects of alcohol
Token Economy
-operant conditioning
-system of rewards and punishments
-found in mental institutions/jails
cannot make decisions
dependent personality disorder
Psycho psychology
abnormal behavior-usually not dangerous
inordinate fascination with oneself; excessive self-love; vanity.
Temporal lobes
primary area for hearing, understanding language (Wernicke's area), understanding mustic/tonality, processing smell
-Contained by both rods and cones
-chemicals that release energy when struck by light
- have 11 cis-retinal bound to protiens called opsins 
Mood disorders
Category of psychological disorder characterized by severe disturbances in emotional behavior.
a childhood disorder marked by problems such as failure to relate to others, lack of speech, and intolerance of change
Combining small pieces of information into larger clusters or chunks that are more easily held in short-term memory
research psychologists
psychologists who conduct experiments or collect observations designed to discover the basic principles of behaviour and mind.
What makes punishment effective?
Unmixed without rewardsSevereConsitentAlternatives available
Fantasis that people constructs while awake.
the color we perceive, determined partly by the wavelength of light and partly by the complex process by which an organism's visual system mixes wavelengths.
-aims to reveal repressed and conflicted impulses
-client free-associates and analyst interpret and provides insight
mnemonic devices
techniques of memorizing information by forming vivid associations or images which facilitate recall and decrease forgetting
Receptor cells that are concentrated near the center of the retina and that function in daylight or in well-lit conditions. The cones detect fine detail and give rise to color sensations.
any event whose presence decreases the likelihood that ongoing behavior will recur
Synaptic Gap
Microscopic fluid-filled space between the rounded areas on the end of the axon terminals of one cell and the dendrites or surface of the next cell
a steady balance of bodily equilibrium
communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.
special need 477
need structure, task specified, consistent treat misbehavior
Independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
are any unusual features observed by the physician
Jung's TheoryThe Ego
Conscious component of personality which carries out normal daily activities.
Parietal Lobe
-receives sensory information from all over the body-also seems to oversee spatial abilities (depth perception, navigation skills)
full consciousness
bored/drowsy/flow (ability to rise to challenging tasks), mindfulness (heightened awareness in the moment)
mixed schedule
A compound schedule of reinforcement consisting of two or more basic schedules of reinforcement that occur in an alternating, usually random sequence.
Insight Learning
sudden realization of the relationship between elements in a problem, which make a solution
grandiose, can't take criticism, worsens with age, seeks admiration
Narcissistic personality disorder
Talking with patients to help them solve their problems.
Disruptive Behavior Disorders
-age inappropriate actions that violate family expectations, societal norms, and teh personal or property rights of others
-the types, causes, and outcomes are varied; thus, there are different developmental pathways
-children w/ disruptive behavior disorders often grow up in extremely unfortunate family and neighborhoods
Sleep Apnea
a sleep disorder characterized by temporary cessations of breathing during sleep and consequent momentary reawakenings
Biomedical Therapy
Drug Therapy
Has reduced amounts of residents in psychiatric hospitals
Conditioned response
in classical condtioning, the learned response to a previously d
a set of questions, typically about beliefs, attitudes, preferences, or acitivities
Papillae(p 214)
Knoblike elevations on the tongue, containing the taste buds.
an event that decreases the behavior that it follows
Short-term memory system involved in the temporary stage and active manipulation of information; in Baddeley's model, includes the _phonological loop_, _visuospatial sketchpad_, and _central executive components_.
working memory
Secreted by empty stomach; sends \"I'm hungry\" signals to the brain
Sensation of the loudness of sound determined by the amplitude (or height) of a sound wave
variable ratio schedule
varying number of nonreinforced responses, based on an average ratio.
proactive interference
the disruptive effect of prior learning on the recall of new information
a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
anxiety disorder
anxiety is predominant disturbance in the disorder
the presumption that mind and body are different aspects of the same thing. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 310)
halo bias
the tendency for overall positive or negative evaluations of the object or person being rated to influence ratings on specific dimensions
Minimal Intergroup Paradigm
an experimental procedure in which short-term, arbitrary, artificial groups are created to explore the foundations of prejudice, stereotyping, and discrimination
lobes of cerebral cortex
frontal, parietal, occipital, and temporal
perceptual constancy
the perceptual stability of the size, shape, brightness, and a color for familiar objects seen at varying distances, different angles, and under different lighting conditions
The history of the development of an individual organism during its lifetime.
smallest units of meaning in a spoken language
intense arousal and urges with the use of non-living objects:
generalized anxiety disorder
-uncontrollable worry about domains of functioning-chronic autonomic nervous system arousal-66% of women
Brain-Age 4Mylination
The process by which axons become coated with myelin, a fatty substance that speeds the transmission of nerve impulses from neuron to neuron -coating around axon- myelin sheath -age 4- increase in it
George Mallory
man who climbed mount everest, just because he wanted to.
only way to test cause and effect, manipulate one variable (ind) to see effect of another variable (dep)- ex. hours spent studying (ind), grade on exam (dep)
eardrum/tympanic membrane
piece of skin stretched over the entrance to the ear and vibrates to sound
In classical conditioning, a stimulus is associated with _____________ and in operant conditioning, a stimilus is associated with _________.
CLASSICAL: AntecedentOPERANT: Consequence
Hostile attribution bias
The propensity to misread the intentions of others as negative.
semantic memories
memories of the meanings of words, concepts, and general facts about the worldfor the most part you dont know how you learned this specific info
somatic nervous system
the division of the peripheral nervous system that controls the body's skeletal muscles
Infant Socioemotional Development: Erikson’s Sociocultural Stage Theory of Personality DevelopmentThe Epigenetic Principle
Early development affects development that occurs later.
What points of Sternberg's Triangular Theory of Love make up "Fatuous Love"?
Passion + Commitment
sensory neurons
carry info from one sensory receptor into the cns
humanistic psychology
the study of conscious experience, the individuals freedom to choose, and capacity from personal growth
word association test
a technique for determining a subject's associative pattern by providing a verbal stimulus to which a spoken response is required
operant conditioning
a type of learning in which behavior is strengthened if followed by a reinforcer or diminished if followed by a punisher. the response is always voluntary(Myers Psychology 8e p. 326)
def: nominal scale + eg
used for group classification, categorical data-eg gender
autonomic nervous system
the part of the peripheral nervous system that controls the glands and the muscles of the internal organs. Its sympathetic division arouses; its parasympathetic division calms.
language acquisition device (LAD)
includes the inborn foundation for universal grammar plus the entire set of inborn mechanisms that guide children's learning of the unique rules of their culture's language
Long term memory
an unlimited capacity store that can hold information over lengthy periods of time. 
What is Hindsight bias?
The tendency to believe, after learning an outcome that one would have foreseen it.
people being over confident in what they beleive.
trichromatic theory
– a theory of color perception that proposes three mechanisms in the visual system, each sensitive to a certain range of wavelengths; their interaction is assumed to produce all the different experiences of hue.
For the last month, Mary has felt lethargic and has been unable to get out of bed in the morning. She has withdrawn from friends and family because she feels worthless and unlovable. Mary is most likely suffering from:
mood disorder
Observed consequences
Degree of imitation by children in the Bobo doll experiment influenced by ____.
Panic Attack
A Feeling of impending doom or death, accompanied by physiological symptoms such as rapid breathing and dizziness
Cortex Lobes** (F,P,O,T)
Frontal: front of the brain; speaking, muscle movement
Parietal: top of head; sensory input for touch/body position
Occipital: back of head; vision
Temporal: above ears; auditory information
A mnemonic device in which you form visual images connecting to-be-remembered items with retrieval cues.
Peg-word method
Wernicke's Area
Association area of the brain in the temporal lobe that has been found to be involved in the comprehension of spoken language
structual equivalence
degree to which a measure used in cross-cultural study produces the same factor analysis results in the diff. countries being compared
Interactive Dualism
The mind and body interact to produce our conscious experiences
Social Loafing
The tendency for people in a group to exert less effort when working together.
What is spontaneous recovery?
Having a fear reaction years later spontaneously
What is discrimination in terms of operant conditioning?
In operant conditioning, discrimination means responding to stimuli that signal that a behavior will or will not be reinforced.
experiential avoidance (ABBT)
Clients engage in ______ in hopes of improving their lives, but this often leads to further distress or diminished quality of life
 Prostaglandins and other chemicals released by cell and tissue damage...
a) amazingly enough, taste like cherry.b) facilitate learning and memory.c) sensitize the firing of peripheral nerve fibers dedicated to pain information.d) may slow the progression of Alzheimer's disease.e) are being relased right now during this God-forsaken exam! AAAUUGH!
1 of the defining qualities of human language that distinguishes it from animal communication human language involves the simultaneous use of elements that are MEANINGLESS & use of elements that are MEANINGFUL
eye contact
a meeting of the eyes of two persons, regarded as a meaningful nonverbal form of communication
Name 2 examples of IQ tests
Stanford - Binet & Wechsler Scales
SIDS (sudden infant death syndrome)
The unexpected death of an apparently healthy infant up to age 1 that is not explained by autopsy, medical care information , or an investigation of the death scene.
Mental health professionals who are sceptacle about multiple personality disorder provide several reasons for position, which isnt one
Through consideration of hte symptons revealed that MPD is actually psycogenic amnesia=dissociative disorder
Stages of Cognitive Development
The way a child thinks about the world progresses through 4 stages of cognitive growth.
1. In-Group Bias
2. Out-Group Homogeneity
3. Prejudice
4. Discrimination
1. tend to favor people in our group than people outside our group
2. tend to view people outside of our group as highly similar to one another
3. attitudes
4. behaviors
Clients often stay in touch with their psychotherapists only if satisfied with the treatment they received. This helps us understand why therapists
D) tend to overestimate the effectiveness of psychotherapy
Dating can be defined as ______
a form of courtship that brought with it a common format, having men and women playing apparently scripted roles.
What were the results of the alcohol study?
They were more likely to remember the information if it was encoded in a novel context. Context cues may enhance retrieval.. This is the same as why we can remember music
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