Psychology 63 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
amplitude/strength/intensity
loudness
Presbyopia
"old" vision
inner ear
-stirrup-auditory nerve-cochlea
Hippocampus
Memory recognition; implicit, explicit, spatial, episodic memory; declarative long term memory; sequences of events.
masculinity
assertiveness, boldness, dominance, self-sufficiency, and instrumentality
Humanistic:
People are basically good
client-centered therapy
(humanistic-rogers) therapist uses active listening with in genuine, accepting, empathic environment to facilitate clients' growth
Taylor
craaaaazy
An adjective describing an individual (particularly a gansta) who is mentally unstable and prone to bursts of violence or recklessness without regard to oneself-also see "off the hook"
Parameters
Constraints on ability to learn
Aphasia
Difficulty producing or comprehending language.
ALSO STUDY PICTURES OF WAVELENGTH
POSITIVE PUNISHMENT
administering an aversive(unpleasant) stimulus(usually after undersiable behavior)
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior
masking
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
Lesions
precise destruction of brain tissue, enables more systematic study of the loss of function resulting from surgical removal, cutting of neural connections, or destruction by chemical applications
Which treatment approach did Sigmund Frued develop for treating his patients?
Psychoanalysis
Trait
A disposition to behave consistently in a particular way.
brainstem
hindbrain, midbrain, and the posterior central structures of the forebrain (89)
Ego-Defensive Function
Claiming particular attitudes can protect people from unwanted or unflattering views of themselves
storage
the processes that determine how information is maintained over time.
Parent-Child conflict
Sometimes a result of individuation-Frequent in early adolescence and most intense in mid-adolescence-Conflict focus on issues of self-discipline and self-controll-Bi-directional conflicts both groups have issues-continual turmoil is rare
Mitosis
the process of DNA duplicating itself.
brightness
amplitude, intensity- measured by # photons
All Therapies have...
-hope=hope for recovery/progress
-new perspective/insight=to help move forward
-empathy=therapists should feel empathetic
-trust=needs to be trust in a theraputic relationship
-caring=therapist has to be a caring person
constancy
the tendency to perceive certain objects in the same way regardless of changing angle, distance or lighting
variable ratio
averages to a particular ratio
Science
humble and skeptical concideration of competing ideas
Gustation (Gustatory system)
The sensation of taste
Originality
in tests of creativity, originality refers to how novel or unusual solutions are
personality
the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual; the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual
personality inventory
a questionnaire on which people respond to items designed to gauge a wide range of feelings and behaviors; used to assess selected personality traits
Cerebral Cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and information-processing center
Health Psychology
Subfield of behavioral medicine that studies psychological factors important in health promotion and maintenance.
Experiment
The nature of conducting an experiment is simple. You manipulate one or more factors (independent variable) to observe the effect on certain behaviors and/or mental processes (dependent variable).
In-group/out-group bias
Tendency to show positive feelings toward people who belong to the same group as we do, and negative feelings toward those in other groups.
secondary intersubjectivity
sharing between infants and caregivers of understandings and emotions that refer beyond themselves to object and other people
conditioned punisher
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a punisher because of prior pairing with one or more other punishers.
Blob
Region in the visual cortex that contains color sesnitive neurons as revealed by staining for cytochrome oxidase
Schizo; preoccupation with delusion & hallucinations
paranoid type
phobia disorder
-phobia: persistent, irrational fear of a specific object or situation
instinct
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
continuity
lines and patterns tend to be perceived as continuing in time or space
PHYSCHODYNAMIC THERAPY/ PHYSCOANALSIS
Mostly based on Freud(subconscious forces), free association, talks about dreams, mother relationship.
aptitude test
measures potential to succeed (ex- scholastic aptitude test)
prejudice?
causes?
negative feelings toward a group of people based solely on their group identity
stereotypes
ultimate attribution error - bias of a group based on a couple people
competition
ingroup favoritism
Opioid
Substance released in body to reduce pain.
 
Analgesia - runner's high
 
drugs that affect: heroin, morphine, vicodine, naloxone
Prejudice(p 304)
A strong, unreasonable dislike or hatred of a group, based on a negative stereotype.
Bill Gumglunt
first systematic research on human behavior
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of different skills, operations, and actions.
procedural memory
semantic memory
network of associated facts and concepts that make up our general knowledge of the world. (facts & info)-involve hippocampus and hippocampal region
encoding failure
failure to process information into memory
Endorphins
involved in pain relief and feelings of pleasure and contentedness
social facilitation
stronger response on simple or well-learned tasks in the presence of others
precognition
knowledge of a future event or situation, esp. through extrasensory means.
functionalism
a design movement evolved from several previous movements or schools in Europe in the early 20th century, advocating the design of buildings, furnishings, etc., as direct fulfillments of material requirements, as for shelter, repose, or the serving of foo
shape constancy
perceived shape can appear as staying consistant when angle is changes
Strategies - Shaping/Fading
Create behaviors by using existing behavior to get to desired behavior.Fade out earlier prompts when desired behavior is approached.
statisical significance
a statistical statement of how likely it is that an obtained result occurred by chance.
Mindfulness Meditation
A form of cognitive therapy that teaches an individual to be fully present in each moment; to be aware of his or her thoughts, feelings, and sensations; and to detect symptoms before they become a problem.
At the exact moment that her sister was involved in a serious car accident, Anne, who was miles away in her office at work, had a "vision" in which she saw the accident in almost perfect detail. Anne's experience is what parapsychologists would call _____
Clara
unconditioned punisher
A stimulus change that decreases the frequency of any behavior that immediately precedes it irrespective of the organism's learning history with the stimulus. Unconditioned punishers are products of the evolutionary development of the species, meaning that all members of the species are more or less susceptible to punishment by the presentation of unconditioned punishers.
Taste Aversion
the intense dislike of foods that have been associated with nausea
occurance of at least 1 depressive episode w or wo a hypomanic episode
Bipolar II
Depth Perception: Monocular cues:Texture gradient
Further objects appear less detailed
Close objects appear more detailed
Synaptic Vesicles
These are within the terminal buttons and store neurotransmitters
Hierarchy of needs
Maslow's pyramid of human needs, beginning at the base with physiological needs that must first be satisfied before higher level safety needs and then psychological needs become active.
converting light to images
- retina- photoreceptors- rods- cones
Ecological Validity
The extent to which an experimental design is represented of the real world issues it addresses
Misinformation effect
Occurs when participants recall of an event they witnesses is altered by introducing postevent information
Psychosocial development
The effects of maturation and learning on personality and relationships.
procedural memory
also known as implicit memory or unconscious memory, is the long-term memory of skills and procedures, or "how to" knowledge (procedural knowledge).
• Fraternal twins
are twins who developed from separate zygotes and so have 50 percent of their genes in common (also called dizygotic, or DZ, twins)
vicarious reinforcement or vicarious punishment
reinforcement or punishment experienced by models that affects the willingness of others to perform the behaviors they learned by observing those models
sex role spillover
the hypothesis that gender role characteristics spill over into the workplace, creating stereotyping and a sexualized atmosphere
basilar membrane
forms the floor of the inner duct/receptors for hearing called the hair cells
formal operational stage
11 - adulthood. mind and abstractness
mass hysteria
a condition affecting a group of persons, characterized by excitement or anxiety, irrational behavior or beliefs, or inexplicable symptoms of illness
frequency theory
in hearing, the theory that the rate of nerve impulses traveling up the auditory nerve matches the frequency of a tone, thus enabling us to sense its pitch. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 219)
in men:
the brain lights up in specific areas when at work; tend to be better in math, science, vision, and better sense of direction
Neurons
or nerve cells, are the basic units of the nervous system. they communicate information in the brain and thoughout the body.
Industrial/ organizational psychologist-
focuses on using psychology in the workplace.
According to skinner, the fundamental principle of operant conditioning is that organisms tend to repeat those responses that...
Induces a biological need
prefrontal cortex
Some think it is a sort of “executive control system” that monitors, organizes, and directs thought processes. the portion of the frontal lobe to the front of the motor cortex. the area disproportiontely large in humans. contributes to memory and reasoning abot objects and events... houses "exectube control system". ppl who damage this have deficits in planning,paying attn.cerebrum(forebrain)
basilar membrane:
where the hair cells of the cochlea are embedded. It stretches across the interior of the cochlea.
post traumatic stress disorder
prone to flashbacks, nightmares after a terrible event
Authoritative parents
(not to mean and not to chilled) Likely to have kids who have high self esteem and are reliant
advantages of self-report data
1. relatively easy to obtain2. sometimes the only valid way to assess the psychological characteristic of interest
recessive gene
gene that is expressed only in the absence of a dominant gene
parasympathetic nervous system
calms things down, moves heartbeat to normal after emergency
Thyroid Gland
Endocrine gland found in the neck that regulates metabolism
in the theraputic approach known as reality therapy, clients sign contracts in which they agree to make constructive changes. reality therapy would be described as
non directive therapy
Depent Variable
The measured outcome of a study; the responses of subjects in a study.
abstinence violation effect
lapse in sobriety that can lead to continued drinking if people feel ashamed, guilty, or discouraged when they lapse
sensory, motor and inter-neurons
sensory: cells that connect w/ the external environment and send message inward (input)motor: (output) neurons that carry messages from the CNS to the muscles to create responseinter: neurons that relay messages w/in the system
Three sins of forgetting
1. absent mindedness - inattention to details leads to encoding failure.2. transience - storage decay over time3. Blocking - inaccessibility of stored information (tip of tongue effect)
Therapeutic process: Present Moment Awareness (ACT)
WIthout contact with the present moment, behavior is dominated by our historical pattern of thoughts and reactions, resulting in more of tte same
Critical Thinking     
The Process of assessing claims and making judgments on the basis of well-supported evidence
Dissociative Identity Disorder (DID)
a rare dissociative disorder in which a person exhibits two or more distinct and alternating personalities, formerly called multiple personality disorder
peak experience
a high point in the life of a self-actualizer, during which the person feels ecstatic and more alive and whole than is usual
do non-twin siblings resemble one another in terms of personality?
not often, most have different personalities.
fallacy of positive instances
error of honing in on occurences that match what we expect to find.
what is included in the hierarchy of needs?
self-actualization needs, esteem needs, belongingness and love needs, safety needs, physiological needs
What type of processing of verbal information is most effective?
Semantic and deeper levels, they produce long-term memories
Biology of Memory
1. Early Experimentation location
2. Long term potentiation
3. Location of memory storage
1. Engram - physical place for memory. rats did the worst in the maze when brain tissue was taking out, but they did tend to remember some of the maze.
2. gradual strengthening of connections among neurons from repeated stimulation over time. plays key role in leraning and in forming memories.
3. Hippocampus - more critical for learning. role is to learn those memories and distrube themselves to many of the areas of the cortex. Prefrontal Cortex also plays a part.
 
_____, a hormone involved in the regulation of circadian rhythms, is secreted by the pineal gland.
trembling hands in attension, staring off into space, droopy eyelids and general discomfort
Talk about the gender differences of self-confidence.
• M report being more confident in their abilities to do masculine tasks
• W report being more confident in their abilities to do feminine tasks
cells die off and then we generate new ones
what happens if we smell something harmful?
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