Psychology 74 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
William James
classical conditioning
(1774-1867): Experimental ablation
pleasant or curative stress.-exercising, adrenaline is sometimes used as motivation
structural theory
id ego superego
Retroactive Interference
What is Amnesia?
B.F. Skinner
Reinforcement- positive or negative
Evolutionary Theory
Natural selection: fundamental assumption of psychology Charles Darwin published The Origin of the Species in 1859. Survival of the fittest: Only those organisms that can adapt to environmental changes and demands are most likely to survive.
Social psychologist responsible for the concept of 'person schema'
understanding that something doesn't change just because it appears to change
Humanistic model
Free will
personal growth
internal growth mechanism
charisma of leader
Transition between childhood to adulthood
pertaining to evolution or development; developmental:
logical procedure in which guarantees solving a particular problem, such as a math problem
a general explanation for her behavior.
minor irritating incidents that occur everyday.-traffic, bad roommates, rude people
somatosensory cortex
registers and processes body sensations, specifically touch- for ex. which part of the body is being touched
the mental processes involved in acquiring, sorting, retrieving, and using information
Largely, loosely organized groups of young people, composed of several cliques and typically organized around a common shared activity
Pavlov's Experiments
Experiment on dogs about salivation, not only did dogs salivate when shown meat but also when they saw the trainer that normally fed them.He learned that a neutral stimulus could become a conditioned one when paired with a unconditioned stimulus.
Stage of development that begins around 18 or 21 and ends at death.
interpreting new experiences in terms of existing mental structures without changing them
Three Parts of the Brainstem
Reticular Formation
Basal Ganglia
Planning and coordinating movement; aspects of emotions
against animals
Use alternative opportunites, animal experiments could be avoided altogether if psychologists make full use of opportunities available to them. e.g. plenty of cases of naturally occuring deprivation in children - why cause intentional suffering to animals as harlow did?
the collection of beliefs and impressions held about a group and its members
erickson's task for the preschool child demonstrated by pretend exploration and trying of new roles
This type of personality perceives their problems as too much for them.. has an external locus of control
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue
the long standing controversy over the relative contributions that genes and experience make to the development of psychological traits and behaviors
interpersonal problem areas
-grief, role disputes, role transitions, interpersonal deficits
flat affect
display of little or no emotion
Connects the body to the nervous system
our awareness of ourselves and the environment around us
Experimental group
subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
anxiety and other problems are because of childhood conflicts
critical thinking
ability and willingness to acess claims and make objective judgements on the basis of well supported reason and evidence rather than emotion or anecdote.
subliminal perception
certain events occur outside our conscious awareness
Negative reinforcers

increase the frequency of the behavior that follows when they are removed. 
usually unpleasant in some way
ex. When a parent is shopping with a child and they won't stop crying, they will give them candy to stop the crying.
three-factor dimensional
psychotic (factor 1), negative (factor 2), and disorganized (factor 3)
is marked by a presistent and irrational fear of an object of situation that presents no realistic danger
health psychology
subfield of psych. contributes to behavioral medicine. Study of social, behavioral, cognitive, and emotional factors that influence health and disease
what is a survey?
ask questions about thoughts/attitudes
projective techniques
use ambiguous stimuli (e.g. Rorschach, Thematic Apperception Test)
Authoritarian (parents)
parenting style focused on setting reasonable rules and expectations while encouraging communication and independence
converting information into a form in which it will be retained in memory
Gender Psychologists
study differences b/n females and males
What is either a physical or psychological dependence, or both, on a drug? A
gap, junction between one neuron and neuron realeases nerotransmitter.
identity vs. role confusion
adolescence, establish identity, develop sense of self, consider future occupational identity
Social support
The emotional and task resources provided by others that may serve to help buffer the adverse effects of chronic stress.
racial memory
feelings, patterns of thought, and experience that have been transmitted from generation to generation and that deeply influence the mind and behavior
the disposition of an individual to assert control in dealing with others
Intelligence Test
A method for assessing an individual's mental aptitudes and comparing them with those of others, using numerical scores
False Positive
Assessment error in which pathology is reported (that is, test results are positive) when none is actually present.
What does Vicarious reinforcement mean? (Observational learning)
Reinforcing consequences experienced when viewing a model that affect an observer similarity.
Problem-focused coping
is the cognitive strategy of squarely facing one's troubles and trying to solve them. For example, if you are having trouble with a class, you might go to the campus study skills center and sign up for a program to learn how to study more effectively.
medulla oblongata
lowest section of the brainstem (at the top end of the spinal cord); it controls automatic functions including heartbeat, breathing etc.
Clinical Interview
A type of psychological assessment. The clinician asks about the patient's problems, paying as much attention to how something is said as he does to what is said.
when the eyes come closer together in order to see an object close to the face in better focus (cross eyes)
axon terminals
branches that link the dendrites and soma of other neurons
sensory adaptation
adjustment of senses to level of stimulation they are receiving
dark adaptation
– a process by which visual receptors become maximally sensitive to dim light
Encode by meaning
meaning rather than the exact word.
critical periods
specific windows of time during which an event must occur
Core features of agency
1. Intentionality2. Forethought3. Self reactiveness4. Self reflectiveness
emotional intelligence
identify own and other's emotons and ability to express them clearly and control them
neurotic people tend to be tense and moody
forward part of the brain that allows advanced intellectual abilities
How many morphemes are here in the sentence "I predicted it"?
responses that are internal or hidden from view
covert behaviors
Functional Fixedness
The tendency to percieve the functions of objects as fixed, which constricts our thinking
Drugs that gradually elevate mood to normal levels
antidepressant drugs
iconic memory
a momentary sensory memory of visual stimuli, a photographic or picture-image memory lasting no more than a few tenths of a second
Circadian Rythm
A biological clock that is genetically programmed to regulate physiological responses with a time period of 24-25 hours.
perceptual adaptation
in vision, the ability to adjust an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Erikson's Stage Theory
Stage 3
Initiative Versus Guilt
ages 3 to 6
Children expierement and take initiatives that may sometimes conflict with their parents rules.
Overcontrolling parents may begin ti instill guilt, and self esteen may suffer.
a part of the brain involved in the coordination our movements, sense of balances, and motor learning
unconditioned negative reinforcer
A stimulus that functions as a negative reinforcer as a result of the evolutionary development of the species ; no prior learning is involved.
gender identity disorder
A sexual disorder in which the individual feels more like a member of the opposite sex and is uncomfortable with his or her own sex
Thorndike’s law of effect
purchase product and outcome is positive...than more likely to rebuy or endorse it to friends
Brain Note # 4
• The conscious left hemisphere is an “interpreter” that instantly constructs theories to explain our behavior• The right hemisphere surpasses recognizing faces, perceiving differences, perceiving emotion, and expressing emotion through the more expressive left side of the face. • Tests confirm “hemispheric specialization”. For example, most people recognize a picture faster and more accurately when it is flashed to the right hemisphere. But they recognize a word faster and more accurately when it is flashed to the left hemisphere.
Self Report Test
objective test or inventories, ask if terms describe respondent, Problems: based on face validity, affected by social desirability
Humanistic Psychology
a theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one's highest potential.
-waned in the 1970's and came back again in the 1990's.
-Maslow and Rogers
Wernicke's area
The language area in the left temporal lobe involved in comprehending the spoken word and in formulating coherent speech and written language.
The ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
The Endocrine System
a series of glands, including the piuitary galnd, which are responsible for the distribution of hormones throughout the body.
emerging adulthood
for some people in modern cultures, a period from the late teens to early twenties, bridging the gap between adolescence and full adulthood
A term used in autogenic training when you suggest to yourself that various body parts are warm and heavy
Indirect approach
mental set
a tendency to approach a problem in a particular way, often a way that has been successful in the past. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 400)
Rational-emotive behavior therapy
A form of therapy that attempts to restructure a person's belief system into a more realistic, rational, and logical set of views by challenging dysfunctional beliefs that maintain irrational behavior.
Genital Stage of Psychosexual Development
sexual impulses awaken and typically begin to mature into romantic attraction toward others—12 years +
developmental psychology
the study of changes that occur as an individual matures.
behavioral activation system
us roused to action by signals of potential reward and positive gratification
Trust vs. mistrust
If needs are met, then infant will trust those around them.
If needs are not met, infant will be doubtful of those around them 
What is social support?
getting feedback that you're loved and cared for
eye contact
a meeting of the eyes of two persons, regarded as a meaningful nonverbal form of communication
Dx criteria for schizophrenia:
2 or more of the following: delusions, halucinations, disorganized speach, grossly disorganized or catatonic behavior. Present for a significant time during a 1 month period
Mr. Eskenaxi frowns when his son cries but hugs his daughter when she cries. Mr. Eskenazi's contribution to the gender-typing of his children would most likely be highlighted by:
A) gender schema theorists
B) social learning theorists
C) biopsychosocia
B) social learning theorists
An almond-shaped structure within the base of temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism's survival, such as appropriate food, mates, and social rivals.
What is the almond-shaped structure within the base of the temporal lobe that is involved in the discrimination of objects that are necessary for the organism's survival, such as appropriate food, mates and social revivals called? A
limited time capacity
can hold 7 plus or minus 2 elements or chunks or information
List and briefly describe 3 types of behavioral therapies. 
Systematic desensitization - patients are taught to relax as they are gradually exposed to what they dear in a stepwise manner
Flooding therapies - expose patients to images of the stimuli they fear for prolonged periods. in vivo flooding makes them come face to face with their fears
Aversion therapies - treatment that uses punishment to decrease the frequency of undesirable behaviours
6 Situations of genetic counseling=
1. already have a child with a genetic disorder
2. those from same genetic stock (1st cousins) whose ancestors are from regions of specific genetic disorders
3. family member with a genetic problem(s)
4. previous spontaneous abortions 
5. history of infertility
6.  women over age 34, men over age 44
Four necessary ingredients to reduce intergroup hostality
1. groups must work together for a common goal2. cooperative efforts must have successful outcomes3. the opportunity to establish meaning ful connections with some another and just not go through the motions4. bringing together the members of different groups in ways to insure everyone had equal status
Chapter 1: (7)Who was known for their stimulus-response testing involving salivating dogs?
Ivan Pavlov was known for his testing with salivating dogs.
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