Psychology Definitions Flashcards

Terms Definitions
positive reinforcement
big five: agreeableness
relationship between variabes
small space between neurons
Neurotransmitter associated with reward
persistent, recurring irrational thoughts, impulses, or images
Morphine, heroin, and methadone _____.
organization and interpretation of sensory information into meaningful experiences
descriptive research
systematic observations; describing things as they exist, no causation or predictions involved. the researcher simply records what is systematically observed
-in forebrain- regulates hunger, thirst, and sex drives
Do the operational definitions accurately measure what is intended to be measured?
T/F-Freud's Psychodynamic Theory of personality is widely accepted today?
Anxiety Disorders
Psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety.
the complete instructions for making an organism, consisting of all the genetic material in that organism's chromosomes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 096)
Counters nativism. Says knowledge is acquired through experience.
Aerobic Exercise
sustained excersice that increases heart and lung fitness
systematic methods used to observe, describe, predict, and explain behavior and mental processes
occurs when sexual arousal reaches it's peak intensity and is discharged in a series of muscular contractions that pulsate through the pelvic area, subjective experience for men and women, women more likely to experience multiple,women more likely to not experience one at all
Stage 1
punishment and obedience orientations - moral thinking tied to punishment
list the 4 basic sensations
presenting yourself as a different racial group than the one you were born into (Sammi Sosa)
heuristic that involves estimating the likelihood of an occurrence bases on the ease with which it comes to our minds.
Bullying Aggression
Unprovoked, repeated physical or verbal attack on victims who are unlikely to defend themselves
a prediction about the relationship between two or more variables.
• Hypnosis
an altered state of consciousness characterized by focused attention, deep relaxation, and heightened susceptibility to suggestion
Spotlight Effect
overestimating others' noticing and evaluating our appearance, performance, and blunders
What was Pavlov's CS?
(Conditioned Stimulus) Tone
Pschological treatments
Procedures for alleviating mental disorders based on the findings and principles of psychology and best administered by trained psychologists.
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
Down syndrome
a condition of retardation and associated physical disorders caused by an extra chromosome in one's genetic makeup. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 452)
a somatoform disorder in which a person interprets normal physical sensations as symptoms of a disease
working memory
the process of holding incoming information in consciousness and retrieving and manipulating information from long-term memory, enabling cognitive tasks such as learning and thinking
A person's surroundings, which have an influence on a person's characteristics and development.
An observation whose true purpose is hidden from the researcher as well as from the participant.
based on the principles of classical conditioning, a fear-reduction technique that involves exposing the individual to a harmless stimulus until fear responses to the stimulus are extinguished
The process through which people take raw sensations from the environment and interpret them, using knowledge, experience, and understanding of the world, so that the sensations become meaningful experiences
Sensory Memory
Preserves information in its original sensory form for a brief time, usually only a fraction of a second
the aspect of the visual experience that changes with light intensity; in general, as the intensity of light increases, so does its perceived brightness.
The extension of a neuron through which nerve impulses travel from the cell body to the terminal buttons on the tip of the neuron.
Amygdale –
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion. (we must be careful not to think of the amygdale as the control center for aggression and fear.)
Unconditioned Response
- in classical conditioning, the unlearned, naturally occurring response to the unconditioned stimulus (US), such as salvation when food is in the mouth.
endocrine system
system of glands that release hormones
Nerve cells that are specialized for processing information. Basic units of the nervous system
Social Psychology
Beliefs & attitudes Social influence: genes and culture Persuasion and conformity Aggression and attraction
Evolutionary Psychology
examines behavioral processes in terms of their adaptive value for members of a species over the course of many generations
negative symptoms
involves behavioral deficits, such as flattened emotions, social withdrawal, apathy, impaired attention and poverty of speech
disengagement theories
aging results in role relinquishment, social withdrawl, and passivity
Are genetic or environmental factors more important in influencing development
-brief change in electrical potential of an axon-breaking down of membrane-size of action potential remains same - impulse frequency changes-stronger stimulus, more often axon will fire
What is the finger shaped structure that extends up from the hindbrain into lower parts of the midbrain?
Modern Discrimination
privately harbor racist or sexist attitudes
of or pertaining to the mental processes of perception, memory, judgment, and reasoning, as contrasted with emotional and volitional processes.
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
Psychodynamic Therapies
Stress importance of unconscious mind, extensive interpretation by therapist, and role of past childhood experiences in development of problems
Expectancy Bias
In memory, a tendency to distort recalled events to make them fit one's expectations
cognitive consistency
the match between a person's thoughts and behaviors
chapter 10
Body mass index weight in kilograms divided in height in meters squared
Infantile Amnesia
Phenomenon of adults being unable to remember what the fuck happened before age 3-4
field memory
seeing the world through your visual field
phi phenomenon
the generation of apparent movement by the succesive appearance of 2 spatially separated stimuli (movie marquee lights)
a one celled organism formed by the union of a sperm & egg
tympanic membrane
the eardrum which responds to incoming sound waves by vibrating.
latent learning
Learning that is not demonstrated by an immediately observable change in behavior.
Case Study
An observation technique in which one person is studied in depth in the hope of revealing universal principles
spontaneous recovery
Tendency of a learned behavior to recover from extinction after a rest period is: _______________.
All-Or-None Law
an action potential will be passed through a neuron's axon as long as the sum of graded potentials reaches a threshold. The strength of an action potential does not vary according to the degree of stimulation.
one-word utterances
single words, such as "mama", "Dada", "more" or "no"
occurs around 12 months of age
Panic Disorder (428)
involves repeated episodes of intense fear that strike often and without warning. Physical symptoms include chest pain, heart palpitations, shortness of breath, dizziness, abdominal distress, feelings of unreality, and fear of dying. The individual cannot predict when an attack will occur, and many develop intense anxiety between episodes, worrying when and where the next one will strike.
Ambivalent sexism
A form of sexism characterized by attitudes about women that reflect both negative, resentful beliefs and feelings and affectionate, chivalrous, but potentially patronizing beliefs and feelings.
Exhaustion Stage:
When demands for adjustment exceed the body's ability to respond
Any of a number of female sex horomones.
Located in the back of your brainstem. In charge of movement, balance, and motor functions
Response Chain
The learned reactions that follow one another in sequence each reaction producing the signal for the next
Visual guidance of movement (Dorsal), Object perception including coloc (ventral), Perception of movement (STS) dogs have a problem with the last one
What are scotomas?
that is or may be estimated by quantity.
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
Pick the one that is true.A) As we age, fluid intelligence goes up, crystallized intelligence goes down.B) As we age, crystallized intelligence goes up, fluid intelligence goes down.C) As we age, general IQ goes down. (as measured by standard tests).
The lymbic system...
is where your feelings happenThey are connected to the thought that started it
Lepper & Greene (1979
preschoolers drawing study, those with intrensic motivation drew more then those who expected reward
Gender identity disorder
Diagnosis given to people who believe they are people of the opposite sex. "Trapped in the wrong body."
sympathetic nervous system
The division of the autonomic nervos system that arouses the body, mobilizing its energy in stressful situations.
shaping by successive approximations
conditioning a target behavior by progressively reinforcing behaviors that come closer and closer to the target
the cerebral cortex
bark outside of the brain. analyses sensory info. responsible for higher brain functions, think, talk, reason
what is behaviorism?
school of thought that emphasizes the study of behavior
experimental group
the group of participants to which an independent variable is applied
Clinical psychology
is a field of psychology that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of people with specific mental or behavioral problems
Prejudice and Parenting
1) expose children to people from "all walks of life"2) promote self worth and importance of who they are3) promote feelings for others4) promote similarities between groups
recency effect
superior recall for words at the end of the list; only happens when recall is immediate
the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
Reflect Cognitive Development
Dream Theory. Dreams are part of brain maturation.
Believed the brain is all that matters and the body reacts at the same time as it generates emotion. 8
Cannon-Bard believed: 8
Formal operational stage
11 years and up Thinking now includes abstract, theoretical and hypothetical ideas.
Alfred Adler’s theory of personality
_________ determined that striving for superiority was man’s primary motivation
compression of morbidity
a limiting of the time any person spends ill
Readies the body for a "fight or flight" situation
Parasympathetic nervous system
If you stare for 30 seconds at a red object and then look at a blank sheet of white paper, you will see a greenish image of the object. This phenomenon best supports the:
After image
What is the leading cause of MR and autism?
Fragile X syndrome
what is the first major division of the brain?
the hindbrain, or rhombencephalon
During REM, how often do the eyes move rapidly?
every 30 sec
Define learning and memory. Be prepared to distinguish between the two.
-Memory: The ability to store and retrieve information over time -Learning: Some experience that results in a relatively permanent change in the state of the learner
What is the serial positioning effect?
the ability to recall information in a list depends on where in the list it appears
List the 5 ways of developing an effective play environment.
Use variety of play materials
Ensure accessibility of toys
Promote diversity of play
Have open spaces
Facilitate a positive atmosphere
What is the Tower of Hanoi?
The Tower of Hanoi or Towers of Hanoi is a mathematical game or puzzle. It consists of three rods, and a number of disks of different sizes which can slide onto any rod. The puzzle starts with the disks neatly stacked in order of size on one rod, the smallest at the top, thus making a conical shape.
Is there global brain deterioration in Schizophrenia? 
YES - but it is unclear whether or not it is a cause or an effect. 
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