Psychology Exam 11 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
amygdala(limbic system)
random variables
uncontrollable factors
recognition, recall, cued recallsuccessfully remembered info
where does transdction occur?
testable question/reasonable guess if, then statement
Non-material Culture
Knowledge and beliefs (symbolic)
depends on volume or amplitude
psychotic factor
individual experiences prominent delusions and hallucinations
A sleep disorder characterized by uncontollable sleep attacks. The suffere may lapse directly into REM sleep, often at inopportune times.
looks for environmental determinants of behavior
dependent variable in Hawthorne experiment
an approach stressing individual personality as the central concern of psychology
neurotransmitter that is involved in arousal and the fight-or-flight system (also mood, sleep, and learning)
Senal Position effect-Primary Effect
beginning of list
Integrative Psychobiological Model
Interaction between genetic, developmental, and stress factors
Each life stage has its own specific feature that increases vulnerablity
Influenza, malnutrition, difficulties during delivery, more
In Piaget's theory, mental structures or programs that guide a developing child's thought.
reflective judgement
(critical thinking) seven stages, people make different assumptions about how things are known and use different ways of justifying or defending their beliefs, based on evidence
wernicke's aphrasia
difficulty in understanding language, often produces "correct" but meaningless speech
The biological unfolding of genetic potential is best defined as...
fetishism in which sexual arousal comes from touching or intercourse with a corpse
an inability to visually recognize particular faces usually caused by brain disease or injury. Patients can see a face but may not be able to recognize it as familiar.
Three types of antidepressants?
SSRI's -block reuptake of serotonin
The Piagetian principle that certain properties, such as amount or mass, remain the same even when the appearance of the material or object changes, provided that nothing is added or removed.
removing a pleasant stimulus(usually after undersiable behavior)
volunteer bias
people that choose/volunteer are different than those that don't
a condition characterized by opposing motives, in which gratification of one motive prevents gratification of the other.
a relationship between persons in which the condition of one induces a parallel or reciprocal condition in another
Subtype (disorganized)
patients have delusions, withdrawal, hardest to recover from
experimenter bias
introduced by an experimenter whose expectations about the outcome of the experiment influence the results obtained
the minimal meaningful units of speech that allow people to distinguish one word from another.
Yerkes-Dodson Law
The principle that performance on tasks is best when the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task: higher arousal for simple tasks, moderate arousal for tasks of moderate difficulty, and lower arousal for complex tasks.
process of neurotransmitter
"Messages" enter neurons through dendrites, are transmitted along the trunk like axon, and are sent from the axon terminal buttons to muscles, glands, and other neurons. axon terminal buttons conatin sacs of chemicals called neurotransmitters which are released into the synaptic cleft, where many of them bind to receptor sites on the dendrites of receiving neurons
Selective Storage
Performed by consciousness towards a specific stimuli to analyze, interpret and act upon
1/40,000, missing all 3 pigments, see the world in black/white/gray
Synaptic vessicle
Organelle consisting of a membrane structure that encloses a quantum of neurotransmitters
placebo therapy
a therapy interdependent of any specific clinical procedures that result in client improvement
Self-fulfilling prophesy
The fact that an individual's expectations about how another person will behave will influence how the individual behaves toward that person, which in turn influences how the person behaves.
process by which the brain integrates, organizes, and inteprets sensory impressions to create representation of the world
some of the id's pleasure seeking energies remaining in a psycho sexual stage due to excessive gratification or frustration of instinctual needs
Negativity Bias
negative information is more positive than earlier information
retrospective memory
involves remembering events from the past or previously learned infotrying to remember who won last year's super bowlpreviously learned information
A boy who consistently exhibits traditionally masculine interests and behaviour patterns demonstrates the impact of:
A) neuroticism
B) Collectivism
C) the X chromosome
D) gender-typing
D) gender-typing
Pattern theory
The proposal that different sensory qualities are encoded by specific patterns of firing among the relevant neurons
Measures of the central tendency and variability were both considered ____ stats
Set of expectations (norms) about a social position, defining how those in teh position ought to behave.
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system.
Personality Disorders- Specific Disorders
Antisocial Personality Disorders: they're manipulative, harmful, have no conscience (Men)
Borderline Oersonality Disorder: instability in emotions, self image, relationships, self-destructiveness (Women)
examples of cognitive activities
dreams, perceptions, thoughts, memory
delusions of grandeur
think that they are famous
dating scripts
teh cognitive models that individuals use to guide and evaluate dating interactions
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
experimental psychology
conduct experiments in various fields of psychology to further knowledge in the subject
Diffusion of responsibility
dilution of each group member's obligation to act when responsibility is perceived to be shared with all group members
single blind
the researcher does not know the predicted outcome
Differential Parental Investment
the principle that animals making higher investment in their offspring (female as compared to male mammals, for instance) will be more careful in choosing mates
the extnetion of a neuron, ending in branching terimnal fibers, through which messages pass to other neurons or to muscles or glands
basilar membrane
membrane supporting the organ of Corti and hair cells in the cochlea
experimental group
consists of the subjects who receive some special treatment in regard to the independent variable
Primary Sex Characteristics
The body structures (ovaries, testes, and external genitalia) that make sexual reproduction possible.
tend-and-befriend response
a response to stressors that is hypothesized to be typical for females; stressors prompt females to protect their offspring and join social groups to reduce vulnerability
Immune System
The system that governs the production of leukocytes.
retroactive interference
the disruptive effect of new learning on the recall of old information
sensory gating and implications
repeated presentation of auditory stimulus and measuring evoked brain potentials
schizo do not show sensory gating effect meaning they are more likely to have difficulty filtering out irrelevant distractions
touch sense receptor
multiple types of receptors in skin
premack principle
principle that says that a less frequently reinforced response can be increased in frequency by combining it with a more frequent behaviorEX. finishing veggies before eating dessert
Naturalistic Observation
Observing subject in its own natural environment without disturbing it.
Advantage: Firsthand information.
Disadvantage: Observer Effect.
The part of the brainstem that controls heartbeat and breathing is called the:A) thalamusB) amygdalaC) cerebellumD) medulla
D, medulla
Myelin Sheath
insulates  neuron and speed and rate of action potentials (looks like a blanket)
rooting reflex
a baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to open the mouth and search for the nipple
biased sample
if every population member does not have an equal chance of being chosen for the study
The tendency for a measure to produce different results when it is used to measure different things
conditioned response (CR)
learned response to a previously neutral CS (Pavlov: salivating after tone)
Also known as Type R personality, these courageous people confront stress by calculating their risks in extreme situations and then proceeded with gusto.
Sensation Seeker
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
natural selection
the principle that, among the range of inherited trait variations, those that lead to increased reproduction and survival will most likely be passed on to succeeding generations. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 108)
what is psychology
The study of the mind and behavior
Problem focused coping
-taking steps to change source of stress.-ex. exam is stressor so study, dont wait until last min
performance scale
IQ test items that try to bypass verbal material and focus on problem solving without words.
authoritative-reciprocal parents
"do it for this reason" firm but understanding, set limits but also encourage independence
dual representation
the idea that a symbolic artifact must be mentally represented in two ways at the same time -both as a real object and as  asymbol for something other than itself
Cell body
the part of the neuron that contains the nucleus which directs the manufacture of substances that the neuron needs for growth and maintenance
suprachiasmic nucleus (SCN)
cluster of nerves that functions as the circadian clock.
Peripheral Nervous System
Network of nerves that connect the brain and sponal cord to other parts of the body.
Divided into Somatic and Autonomic nervous systems
: is the ability to reason without relying heavily on previously learned knowledge or procedures ("a person's mental horsepower, the ability to solve cognitive powers on the spot") Fluid intelligence would be used to figure out novel solutions, such as how to write when a pen or pencil isn't available. Fluid intelligence can be measured with tests that do not rely on language, and this some researchers have argued that it may reflect a fairer, less culturally bound measure of intelligence.
The basic learning process that involves changing the probability that a response will be repeated by manipulating the consequences of that response.
operant conditioningalso called Skinnerian conditioning
Heuristic Persuasion
A change in attitudes or beliefs that is brought about by appeals to habit or emotion
what does amygdale do
controls emotions related to behaviour (eg. fear, agression, some sexual behaviour)
the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
Theories of emotion
chapter 10
James long theory asserts that emotion results from ones perception of autonomic arousal. the cannon bard theory counters with the proposal that emotions originate in subcortical areas of the brain. schaters two factor theory says people infer emotion from arousal and then label itin accordance with their cognitive explanation for the arousal.
cognitive component of emotion
can't switch emotions on and off, involve automatic reactions that are difficult to regulate, emotions or either unpleasant,pleasant or mixed,less positive emotions than negative ones
REM rebound
A phenomenon in which a person who is deprived ofREM sleep greatly increases the amount of time spent in REM sleep at the first oppportunity to sleep uninterrupted
third variable problem
case in which a third variable causes the correlation between two other variables
Inductive Reasoning(p 328)
A form of reasoning in which the premises provide support for a conclusion but it is still possible for the conclusion to be false.
Logotherapy (founder & 3 ways to find meaning in life)
Victor Frankle1)creating work/doing deeds2) experience someone/something3)suffering
peak experience
a high point in the life of a self-actualizer, during which the person feels ecstatic and more alive and whole than is usual
trust vs mistrust
1st year of life, if a child's basic biological needs are met & sound attachments formed it should become optimisitic, trusting attitude toward the earth
Positive and Negative Enforcers and its difference from punishment
* Positive reinforcement is an increase in the future frequency of a behavior due to the addition of a stimulus immediately following a response. Giving (or adding) food to a dog contingent on its sitting is an example of positive reinforcement (if this results in an increase in the future behavior of the dog sitting). * Negative reinforcement is an increase in the future frequency of a behavior when the consequence is the removal of an aversive stimulus. Turning off (or removing) an annoying song when a child asks their parent is an example of negative reinforcement (if this results in an increase in asking behavior of the child in the future).punishment is the reduction of a behavior via a stimulus which is applied ("positive punishment") or removed ("negative punishment"). Making an offending student lose recess or play privileges are examples of negative punishment, while extra chores or spanking are examples of positive punishment. The definition requires that punishment is only determined after the fact by the reduction in behavior; if the offending behavior of the subject does not decrease then it is not considered punishment.
This is a type of psychotherapy when the doctor believes the patient knows what is causing the problem. The doctor lets the patient work their own way through their difficulties. This is a popular form of therapy and often successful.
Humanistic Therapy (client centered)
Sasha believes that the questions on school tests are so unrelated to course work that studying is useless. Sasha's belief most clearly illustrates
C) an external locus of control
Vestibular vestibular system in the ear...
Sensitive to the position and motion of the head
Experimenters can justify the use of deception because ________.
Sometimes the study wouldn't work but later are told why they were deceived.



All of nothing principle



the idea that once the threshold has been
crossed, an action potential either fires or it does not; there is no halfway
Why is the increase in obesity a concern? What are causes of increase obesity?
obesity raises the risk for many medical and psychological problems.
cbanges in diet large increase of calories large decreases in calories
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