Psychology Exam 12 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Norm
cell body
soma
conversational babbling
10 monthes
cued recall
given a hint
lens
where fine focusing occurs
CARL ROGER'S THEORY: SELF-ACTUALIZATION:
TBD
Perception
The organization of sensory information into meaningful experiences
Personality
The biologically and environmentally determined characteristics within the person that accounts for distinctive amd enduring patternes of thinking, feeling and acting-also allows us to understand our behavior and examine individual differences
telepathy
clairvoyance
precognition
psychokinesis
What are the different ESPs?
affective flattening
unresponsive with relatively motionless body language and facial reactions and minimal eye contact
2 major approaches to therapy?
biomedical
psychological
cognitive psychology
study mental abilities (sensastion/perception, learning/memory, etc); humans mentally manipulate info
ethics
standards for acceptable, proper, responsible behavior
inhibition
inappropriate conscious or unconscious restraint or suppression of behavior, often due to guilt or fear produced by past punishment
Charles Darwin
English natural scientist who formulated a theory of evolution by natural selection (1809-1882)
Ebbing Haus
used himself as a study
LSD
Only a superficial resemblance to schizophrenic symptoms
Retina
- the light-senstivity inner surface of the eye, containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information.
cones
visual receptors involved in color vision (7-8 million)
framing effects
same problem elicits different responses depending upon how its framed
Gilligan Conventional
Self Sacrifice is goodnessTransition is from goodness -- to -- truth that she is a person too
phobia
-most common-persistent fear of a specific object that presents little danger
Heterozygous
genotype that contains different genes for a triat.
Humanistic approach?
CArl Rogers "client centered Therapy"
primary therapy task =empathy
Depressants
A class of substances, including barbituates, alcohol and antianxiety drugs, that depress the central nervous system, decreasing the user's behavioral activity level or awareness; also called sedative-hypnotic drugs.
What is AMNESIA?
The loss of memory.
PLAGIARISM
PRESENTATION OF DATA OR ANOTHER'S WORK AS ONE'S OWN
manifest
actual dream content at face value
Clinical psychology
Specializes in the evaluation, diagnosis, and treatment of mental and behavioral disorders.
ambivalence
the coexistence within an individual of simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward the same person or object
Subtype (catatonic)
immobility, extremely negative, very flat tone
descriptive statistics
ways of summarizing data and describing them
fetal stage
the third stage of prenatal development, lasting from the ninth week through birth of the child.
Drive
An internal state of tension or arousal that is brought about by an underlying need and that an organism is motivated to reduce
Autonomic system
reflexes like digestion and hair growing
Non-Conscious Processes
bodily activities that rarely impinge on consciousness, such as digestion, regulation of blood pressure, and breathing.
7 unifying themes
psych is empirical,psych is theoretically diverse, psych evolves in a sociohistorical context, behavior is determined by multiple causes, behavior is shaped by cultural heritage, heredity & environment jointly influence behavior, people's experience of the world is highly subjective
Habituation
learning behavior in which a response to a stimulus weakens with repeated stimulus presentations
subjective well being
individual's overall evaluation of life satisfaction and happiness
Normative conformity
Conformity that results from an attempt to fit in with those around you even if you prefer other behaviors.
What is chunking?
Chunking involves grouping or "packing" information that exceeds the & plus or minus memory span into higher-order units that can be remembered as single units.
pleasure principle
the principle of seeking immediate gratification for instinctual drives without concerns for the consequences
Stable/Unstable Causes
cause is permanentvs. cause is temporary
semantic encoding
emphasizes the meaning of verbal inputEx. Would the word fin in the sentence:"He met a ____ on the street?"
Extraneneous Variables
Variables  that effect outcomes but were not manipulated or controlled by the expierementer
control for existing variables
hold conditions constant exept for the manipulation
expiriental vs. control group


control for individual difference
need to use random selection of subjects for groups
Gestalt psychology
A theoretical approach that emphasizes the role of organized wholes in perception and other psychological processes
Theory
Using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts behaviors or events.
describe industrial/organizational psych proffession
practice inbusiness settings; help make workplaces safer andmore efficient
dendrite
the bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that recieve messages and conduct impulses toward the cell body.
Age Regression
return to earlier period under hypnosis
"shape/form" based on idea that perceptions are more than sums
gestalt psychology
prejudice
negative attitude toward members of a group; thoughts
collectivism
-focus on the group
-"takes a village to raise a child"
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
melancholics
unhappy and depressed, too much black bile
Out-group
those outside the group with which an individual identifies
linear relationship
the data points produced by the changing values tend to from a straight line pattern.
Direct Aggression
intended to hurt in a face-to-face conflict (fight)
split brain
a condition in which the two hemispheres of the brain are isolated by cutting the connecting fibers between them
Pinna
flexible outer flap of the ear, which channels sound waves into the ear canal
cerebral cortex
the convoluted outer lay of the cerebrum
Egocentrism (Piaget)
In piaget's theory, the inability to take another person's perspective of point of view.
protective factors
 refers to anything that prevents or reduces vulnerability for the development of a disorder
Cognitive dissonance
The state discomfort that occurs when there is a conflict between a person's attitudes and behavior.
New- Late adulthood
65+ Retirement, Richest, high change to 80-90
3 betweens of schizophrenic-spectrum disorders
schizotypal personality disorder, other psychoses without prominent mood features, and schizoaffective disorder
proprioception or kinesthetic sense
our sense of body position
stimulus generalization
eliciting the same response to a stimuli that is similar but not entirely the same as the original stimulus
Plasticity
Deficits to one sensory input can lead toincreased perceptual sensitivity of other sensesBlind musicians are more likely to demonstrate perfectpitch (Hamilton, 2000)
(6.3) Which psychological dimensions of hearing correspond to the intensity, frequency, and complexity of the sound wave?
Loudness, Pitch, and Timbre
________is considered the father of modern day psychology.  The field began as a formal scientific area of study in__________.
Wilhem Wundt, 1979
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impluse hops from one node to the next
INTERNAL VALIDITY
THE CERTAINTY WITH WHICH RESULTS OF AN EXPERIMENT CAN BE ATTRIBUTED TO THE MANIPULATION OF THE INDEPENDENT VARIABLE RATHER THAT TO SOME OTHER CONFOUNDNG VARIABLE
Tectum
Part of the midbrain that orients an organism in the environment
extinction
diminishing of a CR; stop pairing UCS w/ CS & eventually CS stops causing CR (Pavlov: dogs stop salivating to tone)
1) Developed the concept of "learned optimism", which states that we develop a set of skills to challenge automatic negative thoughts2) Promoted the "positive psychology" paradigm and conducted research on happiness
Martin Seligman
personality test
an instrument, as a questionnaire or series of standardized tasks, used to measure personality characteristics or to discover personality disorders
social learning theory
the theory that we learn social behavior by observing and imitating and by being rewarded or punished. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 132)
conditioned stimulus (cs)
a stimulus that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
reframing
finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat
Preoperational stage
According to Piaget, the period from 2 to 7 years of age that is characterized by language development.
dieting
a weight under your SP will cause a chronic hunger, their will always be a pull back to your SP weight
pragmatic cues
aspects of the social context used for word learning
Occipital lobes
structures located at the back of the head that respond to visual stimuli
the halo effect:
The following methods are useful in controlling ____.
-training the raters
-a forced response format in which the rater is forced to choose between two equally desirable or undesirable attributes
-and objective rating methods such as BARS, the Behaviorally Anchored Rating Scale
-
IQ - INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT
MENTAL AGE DIVIDED BY CHRONOLOGICAL AGE THEN MULTIPLIED BY 100
What causes Parkinson's disease?
Loss of dopamine projections and subsequent death of substantia nigra neurons
MEASURING INTELLIGENCE (IQ SCORES)
INTELLIGENCE QUOTIENT: a test score used in Western countries as a general measure of intelligence. ---IQ tests were originally intended to identify children in the public schools who needed extra classroom help. They were asked to copy a drawing, repear a string of digits, recognize coins and make change, and explain why a particular statement did not make sense. After giving the test to different age groups of normal children, they were able to identify the questions answered by the majority of each group. So, if a child could solve all the problems solved by most 9 yr olds but failed those passed by most 10 yr olds, then their mental age (MA) was said to be 9. Children with a mental age lower than their chronological age (CA) were considered relatively slow. Their test was quickly adapted to suit new purposes like..
A stimulus or event that is naturally or inherently reinforcing for a given species, such as food, water, or other biological necessities.
primary reinforcer
Accuracy of Decisions
We excell at decisions that require estimating frequency but we are much less accurate when making decisions that involve probabilities
what did John Locke do
replaced thoughts of Descartes rationalism with empiricism with observation and experience
father substitute
a male who replaces an absent father and becomes an object of attachment
Affiliation:in search of belongingness
chapter 10
Individual differences in the need for affiliation are usualy measured with the TAT. People who are relatively high in the need for affiliation tend to devote more time to interpersonal activities and worry about acceptance more than others.
identity vs confusion
struggle to form a clear sense of identity, involves working out a stable concept of oneself as a unique being & embracing an ideology or system of value that provides a sense of direction
natural concept
a mental category that is formed as a result of everyday experience
rapid eye movement (REM)
darting of the eyes underneath the closed eyelids during sleep
Familiarity Effect(p 289)
The tendency of people to feel more positive toward a person, item, product, or other stimulus the more familiar they are with it.
3 types of \"life\" that increase authentic happiness
pleasant lifeengaged lifemeaningful life
autonomic nervous system
the system of nerves and ganglia that innervates the blood vessels, heart, smooth muscles, viscera, and glands and controls their involuntary functions, consisting of sympathetic and parasympathetic portions.
Mischel and the Person-Situation Controversy
people make responses that they think will lead to reinforcement in the situation at hand, ppl will behave differently in different situations
Kelly's view of uniqueness of individuals
people construct their own experiences by using their constructs to make sense of the world
A situation in which an operant is followed by the presentation or addition of an aversive stimulus.
punishment by applicationorpositive punishment
empirical (or data-based) method of test construction
approach to building tests in which researchers begin with two or more criterion groups and examine which items best distinguish them
Definition of Cerebral Cortex/Cerebrum
The layer of cells that is involved in language, memory, and thinking. (The wrinkly part.)
Between two and adolescene you
grow two to three inches a year and gain about 4 to 6 pounds.
What are the two goals of science?
1. measure and describe2. predict and understand
when reinforcement for a behavior is removed the consequence will be
a short increase in the frequency with which the behavior is performed followed by the weakening and eventual dissappearance of the behavior
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