Psychology Exam 14 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Ratio Schedule
research strategies
data collection
parts of limbic system
visual encoding
pictures and images
_________-focused coping deals directly with the problem
very specific, step-by-step procedures for solving certain types of problems
redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks
Baumeister & Leary--need for affliation
heterogeneous individuals which just one recessive allele that can be passed onto their children
controls basic life-support functions (breathing, heartbeat)
Albert Bandura
defined the social-learning theory
hole, dark part of eye
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
David Weschler
established an intelligence test especially for adults (WAIS); also WISC and WPPSI
group of chemicals classified as neuromodulators. a substance that modifies the activites of the postsynaptic neuron. control emotional behaviors
First psycho dynamic theory of personality
What is REM sleep?
Lecture: Unrecored
REM(Rapid Eye Movement) is the fifth stage of sleeping that is hard to wake the sleeping individual up. It is also marked by irregular breathing and pulse rate. Muscle tone is extremely relaxed; so much that bodily movements are minimal and the sleeper is virtually paralyzed. Although REM is relatively "deep sleep" stage, EEG activity is dominated by high frequency beta waves that resemble those observed when people are alert and awake.
positive symptoms
these symptoms of schizophrenia include delusions and hallucinations
Communication with neurons is electrical
Action Potential
completely involved, focused state of consciousness, with diminished awareness of self and time, resulting from optimal engagement in one's skills.
living together in a sexual relationship without being married
Kohlberg Stages
Stage 3:
-Want to be accepted
-good girl/boy expectations
A hallucinogenic drug derived from ergot alkaloids.
the mental system for recieving encoding, storing, organizing
characteristic of an observation that allows one to draw accurate inferences from it
7 social sciences
sociology, history, economics, psychology, anthropology, geography, political science
it deals with the personal problems
an understanding of the motivational forces behind one's actions, thoughts, or behavior; self-knowledge
Non medical process that helps individuals recognize and overcome their problems
normal distribution
A bell-shaped curve, describing the spread of a characteristic throughout a population.
Bipolar I disorder
Alternation of major depressive episodes with full manic episodes.
the middle score in a distribution; half the score are above it, half the scores are below it
part of the hindbrain, the structure that begins at the point where the spinal cord enlarges as it enters the brain and handles functions critical to physical survival, includes the medulla, pons and the reticular formation
variable ratio
A schedule of reinforcement requiring a varying number of responses for reinforcement. The number of responses required varies around a random number; the mean number of responses required for reinforcement is used to describe the schedule.
Proactive Interference
information already stored in memory interferes with remembering newer information
Manifest Content
What we recall from a dream
Two types of problem solving
Heuristics and algorithims
Episodic memory
recollection of events in our lives
Insanity defense
defendant irrational when crime took place
Bowlby on darwin
evolutionary basis for attachment, natural selection, gives higher chance of survival
The study of relationships between the physical characteristics of stimuli, such as their intensity, and our psychological experience of them.
Cognitive roots
learning to attribute achievements to one's self competence
Functionalism(p 18)
An early psychological approach that emphasized the function or purpose of behavior and consciousness.
interact with older children before with children their own age b/c older one initiates it
8-9 months
developing human through 2 weeks and 3 months after conception.
a neural structure lying below the thalamus; in directs several maintenance activities (eating, drinking, body temperature), helps govern the endocrine system via the pituitary gland, and is linked to emotion and reward.
Aerial Perspective
The haziness that surrounds objects that are farther away from the viewer, causing the distance to be perceived as greater
disorganized schizophrenia
marked by severe deterioration of adaptive behavior; emotional disturbances, incoherence
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive excercise
a feeling of happiness, confidence, or well-being sometimes exaggerated in pathological states as mania
a state where information from one sense causes an image in another
Identical Twin
Twins develop from: 1 fertilized egg that splits in
1/2 and then creates 2 genetically identical organisims.
Attitude innoculation
Making people immune to attempts to change their attitudes by initially exposing them to small doses of the arguments against their position.
a system of viewing the individual as the product of unconscious forces
A central therapeutic technique of psychoanalysis is
D) free association
cerebral ventricles
provides the brain with nutrients and cushioning against injury. Connects to the CNS and carries cerebrospinal fluid
matching law
The allocation of responses to choices available on concurrent schedules of reinforcement; rates of responding across choices are distributed in proportions that match the rates of reinforcement received from each choice alternative.
One of a group of steroid hormones, such as cortisol, secreted in times of stress; important in protein and carbohydrate metabolism
Negative Consequences of Alcohol
1. Automobile accidents2. Liver cirrhosis3. Cardiac diseases, strokes, cancer of the liver, pancreas, stomach, mouth, and throat4. Fetal Alcohol Syndrome (FAS)5. Death, injury, and rape6. Enormous emotional distress
diffusion of responsibility
to avoid taking responsibility because others will do so
Whorfian Theory
Relativity, frames80 is good if class does bad,80 is bad if class does well
undifferentiated type
mixed symptoms making it difficult for clinician to place client into other schizo category
- we tend mentally "fill in" missing parts of incomplete objects- the gaps are easy to see but the tendency to link disconnected parts can be so strong that you may perceive faint connections that are not actually there
what's phrenology?
an ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull could reveal our mental abilities & our character traits
Perceptual Constancy
Top down perception of objects is relatively unchangeddespite changes in the sensory input• Shape• Location• Size• Brightness• Color
Incremental validity

extent to which a test contributes information beyond other, more easily collected, measures 
moral values - respect rules and obey principles, appears around age 5/6, self-control, concience
biological psychology
a branch of psychology concerned with the links between biology and behavior
consists of a system of symbols and rules for combining these symbols in ways that can generate an infinite number of possible messages or meanings
External Validity
A characteristic of an experiment in which the independent and dependent variables are operationally defined in a normal, typical, or realistic way
Ebbinghaus Metaphor for Memory
1. storehouse-items stored away-items: may not get in, may decay, may not be found
Type A personality, workaholism, time juggling, procrastination, and lifestyle behavior trapping are roadblocks to
effective time management
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
a measure of the extent to which two factors vary together, and thus of how well either factor predicts the other. The correlation coefficient is the mathematical expression of the relationship, ranging from -1 to 1. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 030)
When Ann went to her doctor, he gave her a hearing test. During the test, the doctor presented tones of Ann through earphones. The tones started at a low intensity and then became louder. The doctor asked Ann to raise her hand whenever she stated to hear
Absolute threshold 
Behavior Therapy
A type of therapy that assumes that disordered behavior is learned and that symptom relief is achieved through changing over maladaptive behaviors into more constructive behaviors.
The behaviour of giving up or not responding is called
learned helplessness
insulin secretions
play a role in the modulation of hunger
Brain Development
At birth, baby has 100 billion neurons and 50 trillion synapsesFirst 3 months, synapses multiply more than 20xPruning - removing of connections that are not used
Latent Learning
"A form of learning that is not immediately expressed in an overt response; it occurs without obvious reinforcement"Ex: You see your parents vacuuming for years. Nobody directly teaches or rewards you, but down the road when you want to vacuum your room you know how to.
Job enlargement, performance 
... involves increasing the variety of tasks, but not responsibility or degree of challenge. Research has found that it increases satisfaction but does not improve ...
Urge-surfing (MBRP)
Clients learn to view cragins as wave, rising, peaking, and falling with this therapy
Generalized anxiety disorder
Disorder in which a person experiences unrealistic or excessive anxiety or worry
Low ball technique
by first gaining commitment to the idea or item at lower costs which you are confident that the other person will accept, then using the fact that people will behave consistently with their beliefs to sustain the commitment when you change the agreement at a higher level.This strategy is an illusion of irrevocability whereby a person believes that a decision made (at lower costs) cannot be reversed, he/she may consider a handshake instead of handing over the money as the final transaction to close that deal hence they have a responsibility to commit to it to the very end.Besides, agreeing to a low price creates excitement and not buying after this state is induced may lead to an equally deep depression, which the person may avoid by continuing with the more expensive but reasonable purchase. When the final price is not that much higher than elsewhere, the person weighs up the inconvenience of going elsewhere with the short-term benefit of holding their purchase.
Primacy Effect
(first impressions) - we tend to be influenced more by earlier information when thinking about people
Observer Bias
Tendency of observers to see what they expect to see.
Extracellular thirst
thirst caused by a reduction in the volume of fluids found between body cells
the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
Two years after being brutally beaten and raped, Brianna still experiences jumpy anxiety and has trouble sleeping and vivid falshbacks of her assault. Brianna is most clearly showing signs of
B) post-traumatic stress disorder
How do people from individualist cultures define their selves?  In other words, what is an independent self-construal and interdependent self-construal?
Independent self-construal- people in individualist cultures, parents and teachers encourage children to be self-reliant and to pursue personal success, even at the expense of interpersonal relationships.Interdependent self-construal- people in collectivist cultures whose self-concepts are determined to a large extent by their social roles and personal relationships
What is episodic memory?
Episodic memory is the retention of information about where, when, and what of life's happenigns.
Diagnosis in Psychological Disorders include DSM. What is DSM?
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of the American Psychiatric Association
Panic Disorder (2)
consists of for or more of the following:
A) palpitations, pounding heart, or accelerated heart rate B)sweating C) trembling or shakeing D) sensations of shortnes of breath or smothering E) feeling of choking F)
What is Availability Heuristic?
A prediction about the probability of an event based on the ease of recalling or imagining similar events.
peak experience
a high point in the life of a self-actualizer, during which the person feels ecstatic and more alive and whole than is usual
What is the rooting reflex?
Rooting reflex this is an automatic response- mothers nipple-Turning and sucking on objects near mouth
mean, median, and mode are examples of __________
central tendency descriptive statistics
I believe ghosts exist. In fact, one lived in my house. What? You say that ther is no such thing as a ghost? Can you prove it? I didn't think so. So they do exist
Unexplained is not Inexplicable
Unlike the short dendrites, axons are somethings very .....
long, projecting several feet through the body.
you can reduce unrealistic appraisals of stress
According to Albert Ellis, if you dispute your irrational assumptions, ______________________-.
Forgiveness (as defined by Enright and colleagues)
The willingness to give up the resentment, negative judgement, and indifference toward the transgressor and to give undeserved compassion, generousity, and benevolence to him or her. Enright and colleagues also limit their definition of forgiveness to people and do not include situations.
Why is L-dopa used to treat Parkinson's disease rather than dopamine?
L-dopa is transformed into dopamine in the dopaminergic neurons, which attempts to teach the body how to reprocess it
What are the 3 questions Bandura had regarding the modelling process? (Social-Learning Theory)
1. Which models are most likely to influence a child's behavior? Fist does the model possesses a characteristic that the child finds attractive or desirable such as talent.2. Under what circumstances is this influence most likely to occur? Circumstances under which the model recieves reinforcing or punishing consequences for the behaviour. 3. How does a child's behaviour change as a result of observational learning?
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