Psychology Final 4 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
See Psychoanalysis
The process through which information is retained in memory
an ineffective, inert substitute.
Ventromedial Hypothalmus
"Stop eating" center
Abnormal scores of MMPI
operant conditioning
regulates VOLUNTARY responses exclusively
Psychological disorders that researchers believe are learned, such as phobias, are most likely to be treated with
B) Psychotherapy
the study of "good genes"
an aversive consequence which occurring after a response diminishes the strength of that response
original theorists of personality, emphasized internal determinants of behavior
Main inhibitory Neurotransmitter in the nervous system
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
limbic system
doughnut shaped neural system associated with emotions and drives.
A newspaper advertisement describes a book that offers interpretations of dreams. In attempting to tell readers the meaning of the symbols of their dreams, the author intends to describe the ______.
Dream interpretation
dissociative disorders
amnesia; fugue; dissociative identity disorder
including both marijuana and hashish, can create mild, pleasurable highs, distortions of space and time, euphoria, and occasionally, hallucination. Possible negative effects include fear, anxiety, paranoia, confusion, and retardation of motor function. Cannabinoids, the active chemical in marijuana, binds to specific receptors in the hippocampus designed for endocannabinoids like anadomide.
beta waves
13-24cps alertly engaged, normal waking thought
carries infor from sensory receptors to the brain
carries messages form the brain and spinal cord to the muscles
Learning to avoid behavior through punishment of responses to stimuli
principles of test construction
standardization, reliability, validity
Inferential Statistics
evaluate the reliability or meaningfulness of research findings
Stage Theorist
Piaget, children's development is marked by radical reorganizations of thinking at specific transition points followed by periods during which their understanding of the world stabalizes 
Occure when subjects behavior is altered by the presence or and observer
A technique for ascertaining the self-reported attitudes or behaviors of people. usually by questioning a representative sample.
Extraneous variable
any conditions excluding the independent variable which affect the outcome of an experiment
An internal state generated by departures from physiological optimality
Pearons R. large =
.50 to 1.00
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
locomotor-genital stage
4-6 years, initiative vs. guilt
GABA (Gamma-Amniobutyric Acid)
Neurotransmitter that inhibits the action of the target cell.
human language
a communication system specific to homo sapiens; it is open and symbolic, has rules of grammar, and allows its users to express abstract and distant ideas
cognitive development
transitions in youngsters' patterns of thinking, including resononing, remembering, and problem solving
cerebral cortex
the intricate fabric of interconnected neural cells that covers the cerebral hemispheres; the body's ultimate control and informat-processing center.
The newborn's neural tube did not properly close. This means the baby has:A) muscular dystrophyB) spina bifidaC) cerebral palsyD) sickle cell anemiaE) Downs syndrome
operational definition
describes the actions or operations that will be used to measure or control a variable
toxoplasmosis (cat litter)=
physical and behavioral problems; mental retardation
Transvestic fetishism
Individuals who achieve sexual arousal from cross dressing.
Divorce rates have been declining, but they are still a matter of concern.
Most divorces usually occur during the first 10 years of marriage due to:

Communication difficulties
Growing Apart
Foolish spending habits
Divorce has become less frowned upon so more people believe it is socially acceptable.

Divorce is more common for blacks than whites, lower income couples, spouses whose parents have been divorced, and those who marry at a younger age.
sleep disorders
serious disturbances in the normal sleep pattern that interfere with daytime funtioning and cuase subjective distress
visual receptors that respond to dim light
Intense and irrational fear of some object or situation
the extent to which one perceives oneself as relatively close to being the person one wants to be and/or as relatively distant from being the kind of person one does not want to be, with respect to person-qualities one positively and negatively values.
converting a stimulus to a receptor into neural impulses
Allowing an infinite number of unique sentences to be created by combining words in novel ways
baseline stage
first stage of a single-case experiment in which a record is made of the individual's behavior prior to any intervention
the process of keeping or maintaining information in memory
What is secondary reinforcement?
more psychological, praise etc
absolute threshold
the minimum stimulation needed to detect a particular stimulus fifty percent of the time
measures how closely one things is related to another
behavior that falls outside the normal range of behavior
a widely used system for classifying psychological disorders.
the state of being concerned primarily with one's own thoughts and feelings rather than with the external environment
terminal buttons
release chemicals that travel across the synapse to communicate with other neurons
Stranger Anxiety
The fear of strangers that infants commonly display, beginning about 8 months of age.
Exogenous Attention
Category of Attention: when you orient yourself towards a stimulus unconsciously
Reality Principle
Ego operates on this. Understand and deal with objects and events in the "real world".
social phobia
marked by fear of public appearances in which embarrassment or humiliation is possible
retinal disparity
a binocular cue for perceiving depth: by comparing images from the retinas in the two eyes, the brain computes distance- the greater the disparity between the two images, the closer the object
complex cells
also care about width & orientation but respond to any position
Classical Conditioning
learning in which one stimulus becomes a signal for the presentation of another stimulus (learning by association)
why does further weight loss come more slowly following early rapid losses or a rigorous diet?
Getting Acquainted
3 Factors
Recipricol Liking: liking those who show that they like you (playing hard to get is not advised)
Similarity: people are drawn to those who are similar to them

Sexual orientation, attitudes, beliefs, ideas, age, race, religion, values

Desirable Personality Traits: personality is more important than physical attractiveness in long-term relationships

Kindness, sense of humor, consideration, honesty (4 from the book)
Optimism, warmth, social assertiveness, and sense of humor (4 from our notes)
list the Developmental Charecteristics of PLAY
Provokes children's thinking
Language development is enhanced
Arena for social learning
Young minds experiance feelings/emotions.
Why we dream
dreams remove unusable “junk” from ourminds dreams regulate mooddreams allow us to make importantconnections
neuronal membrane
separates the inside from the outside of the cell, encases the entire neuron.
As an infant, Liz never liked change, but if you introduce new things gradually, she will eventually accept them without too much fuss. Liz is most likely...
humanistic approach
focusing on how healthy happy people achieve self actualization and self realization
representativeness heuristic
is basing the estimated probability of and event on how similar it is to the typical prototype of that event
Binocular Depth Perception
Retinal Disparity and Convergence are important
Myelin Sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.
_______ ______ are essential for good health.
Good habits
memory enhanced with conditions during encoding
encoding specificity principle
social cognitions
the area of social psychology that focuses on how people percieve their social worlds, remember and use information about other people and the social world.
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
an objective test; most widely researched and clinically used of all personality tests. Originally developed to identify emotional disorders (still considered its most appropriate use), this test is now used for many other screening purposes. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 616)
Major Depressive Disorder-Single Episode-
Mood disorder involving one major depressive episode.
learned helplessness
tendency to feel helpless in the face of events we can't control
anterograde amnesia
loss or impaired ability to store NEW events
availabilty heuristic
easier it is to recall, the more common you think it is
Binge Eating disorder
More common than the two traditional DSM eating disorders. About 2% of men and 4% of women engage in frequent binge eating. The problem is more serious with poor people. Pg 398
achievement tests
a test designed to assess what a person has learned.
Social preception
the process through which we seek to know and understand other persons
what's biological psychology?
branch of psychology concerned w/ the links btwn biology & behavior
Double blind situation
Situation in which neither patient nor physician knows whether a medication is real or a placebo
What else is the right hemisphere in charge of?
creative tasks
Describe a Cultural psychologist
research on differences among people living in different parts of the worlds and how their thoughts, feelings, and behavior are influenced by where they live.
Is it more acceptable for men or women to seek medical help?
electra complex
a conflict of the phallic stage in which the girl longs for her father and resents her mother
parasympathetic nervous system
the division of the autonomic nervous system that calms the body, conserving its energy
Forgiveness (as defined by Tangney and colleagues)
A process involving (1)Cognitive-affective transformation following a transgression in which (2) the victim makes a realistic assessment of the harm done and acknowledges the perpetrator's responsibility, but (3) freely chooses to "cancel the debt," giving up the need for revenge or deserved punishments and any quest for restitution. This "canceling of the debt" also involves (4) "a cancellation of negative emotion" directly related to the transgression. In particular, in forgiving, the victim overcomes his or her feelings of resentment and anger for the act. In short, by forgiving, the harmed individual (5) essentially removes himself or herself from the victim role" (Tangney et al.,1999, p.2)
Serial Positioning Effect
recall is better for the beginning and ending items than for the middle items in the sequence
Gestalt Psychology
The whole is greater than the sum of its parts
not using a functional assessment could:
-delay finding an effective treatment
-lead to a countertherapeutic effect
-lead to unnecessary exposre to aversive procedures
3 components of cognitive restructuring
1. Evaluating validity of client‟s thoughts and beliefs 2. Assessing what the client expects, predicts 3. Assessing clients’ attributions for causes of events
What is impression management theory?
says that attitude change is presenting for others. - prob. with this theory is that there are attitude changes that take place in private
stats on suicide and depression
more girls attempt most boys commit
family is low income emotionally unavailable or physically unavailable
no friends no one to be intimate with parents have tough marriage
The Terminal Button
The terminal button is the tip of the axon, but it does have some unique properties that make it specialized for communication. For instance, while it does have voltage-dependent Na+ channels like the rest of the axon, the button also has voltage-dependent Ca++ channels which are not found elsewhere on the axon. It is the entry of Ca++ into the terminal button that is absolutely critical for the release of chemical messengers, called neurotransmitters, from the terminal button. If Ca++ doesn't enter the terminal button, it doesnÕt matter what else happens, no neurotransmitter will be released. The terminal button is also the site of manufacture and storage of the neurotransmitters. All the machinery to synthesize them, store them and release them as well as generate the energy to power all these processes is found in the terminal button.
What is substance dependence?
A pattern of substance use, leading to clinically significant impairment or distress, as manifested by 3 or more symptoms in a 12 month period.
memory aids - loci effect
using mnemonic device of images to remember list of things - associating them with what's in the house.
general nature of gender-role expectations for males and females in our society
male = instrumental = viewed as geared to getting things donefemale = expressive = oriented toward feelings
Know the forebrain, midbrain, & hindbrain
Forebrain - Swnsory messaes on their way to the cortex
Hindbrain- Brainstem reflex control of  heart rate, breathing, swallowing, like
Midbrain- conduction and swiching center
Most people associate "not enough time" with responsibilities. How could you shift this paradigm?
It might be impossible to do everything I want, but I will set my priorities to help me reach my goals.
As we research the effects of carbohydrates on a human being we began to notice the effect on a cellular level ....
Observer Changes the Observed - The act of studying an event can change it.
Case Study (you can't use a case study to generalize the population.)
What are questionnaires or interviews used to gather info?
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