Psychology History PSY408 Spring Exam 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Theory
cannot proceed without operational definitions and the measurement of empirical events.
1492
Following the marriage of Prince Ferdinand & Queen Isabella, the last of the Arabs & Jews were expelled from Spain during what year?
Niccolo Machiavelli-1469-1527
possibly the first Pragmatist. Promoted deceit & treachery as tools to achieve goals.
Johann Goethe 1749-1832
Possibly began Gestalt Theory
Structuralists
Wilhelm Wundt and Edward Titchener (analytic introspection) were the best-known s___________ .
Computer architecture, sometimes called connectionism, parallel processing, or neural networks, represents a non-rule-based alternative to computing.
Computer arch__ecture, sometimes called conn___ionism, par_llel processing, or ne__al networks, represents a non-rule-based alt__native to computing.
18th, apostasy
Islam's great contributions to science was reversed in/after the ___th century. Educating Muslims in foreign countries was discouraged due to possible _________(departure from one's religion).
Dualism
a view that started with Descartes. Tells us that humans consist of mental and physical elements.
Empiricism
The doctrine that all of our experience comes through our senses not through reasoning (everything we learn comes thru our senses – there is no “innate” knowledge.).
Johannes Muller
gave theory of specific nerve energies
Illusory correlation
The perception of a relationship between variables that are not related.
Teleology
the explanation of current events in terms of future events. It is a logical error. Causality cannot work back in time.
The functionalists viewed consciousness as a set of rules of the world that guide the organism, as a social construction. Consciousness is speech.
The functionalists viewed consciousness as a s___ of r_____of the world that guide the organism, as a social c_____ . Consciousness is s______.
Second-order or higher-order conditioning is the pairing of a new neutral stimulus with an already established CS.
S_____-o______ or h______-o_______ conditioning is the pairing of a new neutral stimulus with an already established CS.
Alarmist eugenicists advocated sterilizing the “cacogenic,” segregating the unfit, and restricting immigration.
(Online Dictionary: cacogenic-pertaining to or causing degeneration in the offspring  produced)
A______ eugenicists advocated sterilizing the “cacogenic,” segregating the u_____, and restricting imm__________ .
David Hume 1711-1776
an empiricist and associationist. He denied mind and soul. The first since Aristotle.
1892
When did the AMSAII change their name to the American Medico-Psychological Association (AMPA) AND had members that were not Supervisors...had other members too
Tolerance
The DSM IV defines t_____ as reduced drug effectiveness. Heroin has a factor of 30, alcohol about 2.
Gottfried Leibniz 1646-1716
contemporary of Newton, was a Parallelist without interaction.
Thomas Hobbs, 1588-1679
was among the first British Empiricists. He proposed that learning is governed by contiguity.
Helmholtz-Young theory
What theory of trichromatic vision was opposed by the opponent processes theory of Ewald Hering?
Niko Tinbergen (1907-1988) investigated species-specific (reproductive) behavior in the 3-spined stickleback fish.
Niko T_____ (1907-1988) investigated sp_____-spec______c (reproductive) behavior in the 3-spined stickleback fish.
Compulsive gamblers frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure illustrates motivated forgetting.
Comp__sive gamb__rs frequently recall losing less money than is actually the case. Their memory failure illustrates m_tivated forg__ting.
Joseph Wolpe popularized systematic desensitization, a behavioral counter conditioning technique, that frequently used an abstract fear hierarchy and relaxation.
Jo__ph W____e popularized systematic des________n, a behavioral counter conditioning technique, that frequently used an abstract f___r hierarchy and rel_____ion.
Psychologists began to perform psychotherapy during WWII because the number of psychologically disturbed veterans swamped the Army psychiatrists.
Psychologists began to perform p_______py during WWII because the number of psychologically disturbed veterans swamped the A__y psychiatrists.
During the 1930s academic psychologists did not accept applied psychologists because applied psychologist worked outside academia, lobbied for the passage of licensure laws, and did no research.
During the 1930s academic psychologists did not accept app_____d psychologists because app_____d psy_____ist worked outside academia, lobbied for the passage of lic_____ laws, and did no re_______h.
Creativity as “divergent thinking” requires you to think of new uses for simple objects, or new ways to think about familiar ideas.
Cr____ty as “divergent thinking” requires you to think of n_w uses for si___le objects, or new ways to think about familiar id__s.
The Volstead Act
The act, passed in 1919, banning alcohol in the U.S. (about 1 in 400 had an addiction which nowadays is about 750,000 people)
Hypothetical constructs and intervening variables
Using h_____ c_____s & intervening v_____ causes issues, they trick us into reification.
Ignatz Semmelweiss in 1847
proposed that physicians wash their hands after doing autopsies and before assisting in births.
Zeitgeist
the spirit of the times, plays a major role in determining which ideas are accepted and which are ignored.
Christianity, Dark Ages
By 395 AD, C________ dominated Rome. Rome was sacked by 410 AD & started the D____ A___.
Operational Definition
The introduction of ____ ______ is the beginning of science. It tells us how to measure the term.
The method of adjustment
gives control of the stimulus intensity to the subject.
For psychologists like Spanos, hypnosis is a state of enhanced suggestibility.
For psychologists like Sp__os, hypnosis is a state of en_____ s_________y.
Buck Vs Belld
This case allowed states to sterilize the feebleminded.. What was it?
After 1890 American psychologists adopted Wundt's methods but began to drop Wundt's insistence on introspective reports.
After 1890 American psychologists adopted W____'s 's methods but began to drop Wundt's insistence on i_______ r______.
Social misdirection is responsible for the mistake of sex-reassignment surgery.
S______l mis_______n is responsible for the mistake of sex-reassignment surgery.
"The Tyranny of Words, 1938
Published by Stuart Chase..what's this famous book from 1938?
Olmecs, Mayas, Incas
Around 1000 BC there were O_____ in Mexico, The M____, & circa 1500 BC, the I_____ in Peru.
Experimenter, ogranism
The IV-controlled by the _____ . The V is what the _______does.
Albert Hofman, Lysergic Acid diethylamide
A___ H____ discovered L_____ A_____ d______ (A.K.A. "LSD")
The General Electric Plant experiment
Hawthorne N.Y. Example of placebo effect (played music to increase productivity).
Diabetes mellitus and schizophrenia
D____ m_____ and s______ are both called diseases. They have some similarities and many differences
Imprinting occurs when an animal exhibits behavior that is only exhibited to members of the same species but now exhibits the behavior to an object that moved near it a few hours after birth.
I________occurs when an animal exhibits b________ that is only exhibited to members of the same species but now exhibits the behavior to an object that moved near it a few hours after birth.
The American Psychological Society was founded in 1988 by experimental and academic psychologists who felt that the APA was primarily interested in the concerns of clinicians.
The A_______ Psychological S______was founded in 1988 by e_____ and a______ psychologists who felt that the APA was primarily interested in the concerns of c________s .
Darwin's theory of evolution
This theory shows that species develop by random variation and natural selection
Signal detection theory (SDT)
_____ helps us to measure the sensitivity and biases of sensory processes and decision processes.
We cannot reliably distinguish between true and false memories because we false memories can be just as durable as true ones.
We cannot reliably distinguish between t__e and false memories because we fa__e memories can be just as durable as true ones.
Repression (the granddaddy of the defense mechanisms) is to actively stop the entrance of unacceptable thoughts into the conscious.
R______n (the granddaddy of the defense mechanisms) is to actively stop the entrance of unacceptable thoughts into the conscious.
Children were periodically asked if they remembered going to the hospital with a mousetrap on their finger. This illustrates the dynamics of social influence.
Children were periodically asked if they remembered going to the ho____al with a mousetrap on their finger. This illustrates the dynamics of so__al infl__nce.
Michael Ross and his colleagues observed that people exposed to convincing arguments about the benefits of frequent tooth brushing tended to exaggerate how often they brushed their teeth.
Mic__el Ro_s and his colleagues observed that people exposed to con__ncing arguments about the benefits of frequent tooth brushing tended to exag__rate how often they b___hed their teeth.
Research on young children's false eyewitness recollections has indicated that it is very difficult for both the children and the professional interviewers to reliably separate the children's true memories from false memories.
Research on young chil___n's false eyewitness recollections has indicated that it is very dif___ult for both the children and the professional interviewers to reliably separate the children's true memories from false memories.
By 1970 cognitive science is established and soon dominates psychology.
By 1970 cog____ve science is established and soon dominates psychology.
Proactive inhibition. The phone number of Sam's old girlfriend makes it difficult for him to remember the phone number of his new girlfriend.
Pro___ive inhibition. The phone number of Sam's old girlfriend makes it difficult for him to remember the phone number of his new girlfriend.
Noam Chomsky, a Cartesian Nativist, has a learning acquisition device (LAD) as an innate characteristic of the mind. Psycholinguistics.
Noam Cho__ky, a Cartesian Nat__ist, has a learning acq___ition dev_ce (LAD) as an innate charac___istic of the mind. Psycholin_uistics.
There are three structural components of memory for cognitive psychologists, sensory memory, STM and LTM.
There are three stru__ural components of memory for cognitive psychologists, sen__ry memory, S_M and LT_.
The Rorschach, the DAP, (Florence Goodenough) and the TAT, (Henry Murray), are projective tests (instruments).
The R______h, the D_P, (Florence G______h) and the __T, (Henry Mu___ay), are pr______ve tests (inst_____nts).
Robert Sternberg argues for three types of intelligence, analytic, creative, and practical.
Robert Ste___erg argues for three types of intelligence, ana___ic, cre___ve, and prac___cal.
Binet's intelligence test was adapted for use in the USA by Lewis Terman. The Stanford-Binet became a very profitable standard.
Binet's i_______ce test was adapted for use in the USA by Lewis Te__an. The Stanford-Binet became a very profitable st____rd.
The Purkinje Shift (Jan Purkinje)
This "shift" described the change in color vision as cone vision changes to rod vision.
The Malleus Maleficarum
shows that beliefs can be deadly & the dangers of the accusers gaining the profit.
NCMH, National Committee for Mental Health
Clifford Beers, a former patient, started the N___Committee for ____ ___ in 1909
The evidence for memory enhancement (hypnotic-based) is anecdotal not experimental.
The evidence for memory enhancement (hypnotic-based) is an_______ not ex________.
The school of functionalism studied processes and mental operations. They were pragmatic and eclectic.
The school of functionalism studied p_____ and m______ operations. They were pr_____c and e______c
A basic assumption of radical behavioralism is that explanations of behaviors are to be found in external events.
A basic assumption of radical behavioralism is that explanations of behaviors are to be found in ex_____ ev___.
An intervening variable is a theoretical concept that has an operational definition.
An i________ v__________ is a theoretical concept that has an operational definition.
Classical conditioning is the repeated pairing of a previously neutral stimulus (CS) with an eliciting US. Now the new stimulus can elicit the response (CR)
C______ c_______ is the repeated pairing of a previously neutral stimulus (CS) with an eliciting US. Now the new stimulus can elicit the response (CR)
Johann Friedrich Herbart, 1776-1841
provided the concept of a threshold of consciousness that influenced many.
Discrimination is to give different responses to different stimuli
D_______ is to give different responses to different stimuli
Correlational research is a research strategy where the researcher attempts to determine the relationship between two variables in a population without varying the independent variables.
C____ r______is a research strategy where the researcher attempts to determine the r______ between two v_____s in a population without varying the i_________ variables.
Negative reinforcement is the removal of a negative stimulus followed by an increase in behavior.
N_________ r_________ is the removal of a negative stimulus followed by an increase in behavior.
The Wagner-Resorla model is a mathematical theory of classical conditioning that gives us the concepts of excitatory and inhibitory conditioning.
The W_____-R______ model is a mathematical theory of classical conditioning that gives us the concepts of ex_______ and in________y conditioning.
Cattel introduced the terms fluid and crystallized, by fluid he meant a single biological factor that established the broad outlines of our intellectual potential.
Ca____l introduced the terms fl___d and cr_____ized, by fl__d he meant a single biological f___r that established the broad outlines of our intellectual po______l.
Bonaparte's occupation in 1798 of Egypt marked the beginning of the modern world for ISLAM. A few years later, Lord Nelson kicked him out.
B___'s occupation in 1798 of Egypt marked the beginning of the modern world for ISLAM. A few years later, Lord ____ kicked him out.
Edward Tolman studied rats in mazes and offered cognitive maps as an explanation.
E________ T_________ studied rats in mazes and offered cognitive maps as an explanation.
A correct rejection
I think you are not sick and in fact you are not sick. I made what?
In the info-processing model there are thought to be three processes of memory, encoding, storage, and retrieval.
In the in_o-proce__ing model there are thought to be three processes of memory, enc_ding, stor_ge, and retri__al.
Erik Erikson presented us with a theory of psychosocial development containing original ideas from a psychoanalytic bias. He emphasized trust vs. mistrust, autonomy and ego identity.
Er_k Er____on presented us with a theory of ps_____al development containing original ideas from a psy____ytic bias. He emphasized trust vs. mistrust, au_____my and ego id_____ty.
Abraham Maslow was one of the greatest humanistic psychologists and is best known for his hierarchy of needs.
Abraham M______wwas one of the greatest humanistic psychologists and is best known for his h_____chy of n_____s.
Tests can have content validity, (does the test sample the behavior of interest?) and maybe predictive or criterion-related validity.
Tests can have con____t v_____y, (does the test sa____e the behavior of interest?) and maybe predictive or cr______on-related validity.
Semantics is meaning and syntax is form. Is intentional anthropomorphic?
Sem___ics is meaning and syn__x is form. Is intentional anthropomorphic?
Canadian Supreme Court has ruled that memories enhanced by hypnosis are scientifically and legally unreliable and should not be allowed in criminal cases.
Can_dian Supreme Court has ruled that memories enhanced by hypnosis are scientifically and legally unreliable and should not be allowed in criminal ca_es.
The Flynn effect shows a steady increase in IQ points. Why is there no increase in intelligence?
The F___nn effect shows a steady increase in __ points. Why is there no increase in intelligence?
John von Neumann began our computer simulation of human behavior. He and Norbert Wiener wrote a book “Theory of Games and Economic Behavior”.
John von Ne___nn began our computer simulation of human behavior. He and Norbert Wiener wrote a book “Theory of Ga__s and Eco___ic Behavior”.
Stereotypes are a subject in social relations. Difference is never an excuse for discrimination.
Ster__typ_s are a subject in social relations. Dif_erence is never an excuse for discr_minat__n.
Explicit memory is to implicit memory as declarative memory is to non-declarative memory.
Exp__cit memory is to impl_cit memory as decl___tive memory is to non-declarative memory.
Most children by their second birthday are uttering two-word or telegraphic sentences and by the time of high school graduation have a recognition vocabulary of 80,000 word. According to Chomsky it just “happens to the child.”
Most chil_ren by their second birthday are uttering two-word or telegr___ic sentences and by the time of h_gh school graduation have a recognition vocabulary of 80,000 word. According to Chomsky it just “hap_ens to the chi_d.”
The Nancy school argued for a “member of the audience” explanation.
The N_____cy school argued for a “member of the au______ce ” explanation.
George is involved in more violent fights at school because he gets attention and respect. This clearly indicates that aggression is a learned response.
George is involved in more violent fights at school because he gets attention and respect. This clearly indicates that ag___ssion is a le___ed response.
Dreams have both latent and manifest content. At first dreams were understood through free association later a list of standard symbols was devised.
Dreams have both l____t and m______st content. At first dreams were understood through f__e association later a list of standard sym___s was devised.
The Oedipal complex is an unconscious fantasy of sex with mother. The Electra complex was invented much later.
The O_____l complex is an unconscious fantasy of sex with mother. The El_____a complex was invented much later.
Is PTSD dimensional or categorical? If categorical then it fits into the MM (Medical Model) very nicely. If not then perhaps it is normal behavior taken to an extreme.
Is PT_D dimensi_nal or catego__cal? If categorical then it fits into the M_ (Medical M_del) very nicely. If not then perhaps it is n_rmal behavior taken to an ext__me.
The Mondale Act of 1974 provided immunity for accuser and mandated reporting of childhood abuse.
The Mo___le Act of 1974 provided imm__ity for accuser and mandated reporting of chi__hood ab_se.
Social thinking concerns the effect of others or lack of effect on your thinking process.
S_ci_l th_nking concerns the effect of others or lack of eff__t on your thinking process.
He(McHugh) views Thomas Szasz and R. D. Laing as critics who have not made a contribution.
He (McHugh) views Thomas S____zand R. D. L____ng as critics who have not made a contribution.
80% of CSA ("Child Sexual Abuse") victims remember. Of the 20% who don't, repression is not the answer.
80% of CSA ("Child Sexual Abuse") victims remember. Of the 20% who don't, rep___sion is not the answer.
Prediction (aka “does not”) is to explanation as correlation (aka “is not a”) is to experimentation.
Prediction (aka “does not”) is to e_____ as correlation (aka “is not a”) is to e_______.
Group statistics are done after the experiment, single-subject designs are done during the experiment.
Gr_____ statistics are done after the experiment, sin____ -subject designs are done dur____ the experiment.
Anton Mesmer (1734-1815 was taught by Father Maximillian Hell. Max taught “suggestion” Mesmer believed in magnets.
Anton Mesmer (1734-1815 was taught by Father Maximillian Hell. Max taught “sug______” Mesmer believed in m____ts.
A theoretical concept that has surplus meaning beyond its operational definition is a hypothetical construct. Meehl and MacCorquodale.
A theoretical concept that has surplus meaning beyond its o______ definition is a hy________ construct. Meehl and MacC_____.
Drive reduction leads to increases in habit strength. This is a drive-reduction theory of learning, a homeostatic model.
Drive reduction leads to i_______ in habit str______. This is a d______-reduction theory of l_______, a homeostatic model.
To cite latent learning as an explanation of the observations gets you nowhere.
Is it useful to cite latent learning?
Drive, a Hullian concept, is a hypothetical state of the animal that shows changes in classes of behavior not attributable to disease, learning or growth. Drive may be manipulated by deprivation
Drive, a H______n concept, is a hyp______ state of the animal that shows changes in classes of behavior not attributable to disease, learning or growth. Drive may be m_______d by dep______ion
Punishment is the presentation of a negative stimulus, Punishment decreases behavior.
P___________ is the presentation of a negative stimulus, Punishment decreases behavior.
Charles Darwin proposed a theory of evolution, natural selection, to replace Lamarck's theory.
Charles Darwin proposed a t_____ of e_______ , natural selection, to replace L_____'s t________.
The Gestalt therapists brought us the theory and practice of role playing.
The Gestalt therapists brought us the theory and practice of r____ p______g.
Wolfgang Kohler complained “What can they do in a small box? We need to study animals under more natural conditions.”
complained “What can they do in a small box? We need to study animals under more n________ conditions.”
In transference, the analyst takes the place of some important person in the past. Both positive and negative transference and counter transference are possible.
In tr______e , the analyst takes the place of some important person in the past. Both positive and negative tr______e and counter tr_______e are possible.
The 1500s saw the beginning of Colonization, Cortez in Mexico, Pizarro in Peru
The 1500s saw the beginning of C____, Cortez in M____, P____ in Peru
Beta, a measure of response bias.
The ratio of hits to false alarms is called B_____, a measure of r_______ b____.
Contiguity is not enough, there must be contingency between CS and US for classical conditioning to take place
C________ is not enough, there must be c_______y between CS and US for classical conditioning to take place
The more stressful an event, the less likely it will be forgotten.
The more stre__ful an event, the l__s likely it will be forgotten.
The fact that people are less likely to give aid in an emergency if many other people are present is called the bystander effect.
The fact that people are less likely to give a_d in an emergency if many other people are pres_nt is called the bys___der effect.
The Boulder Model was adopted in part to help heal the academic-practitioner rift. According to the Boulder Model clinical psychologists should be trained first as scientists.
The B_____r M___l was adopted in part to help heal the academic-prac_____ner rift. According to this model, clinical psychologists should be trained first as sc_____s.
Janet did much to attract attention to the problems of mental illness. His work contributed to the rise of psychoanalysis.
Janet did much to attract attention to the problems of mental illness. His work contributed to the rise of psycho________s.
Memory has been compared to a muscle, an electric circuit, a recording, and information processing.
Memory has been compared to a mu__le, an ele___ic circuit, a reco__ing, and information processing.
Clocks invented in the 1400s but took 300 yrs to get them to Baghdad.
Clocks invented in the _____ but took ___ yrs to get them to Baghdad.
The Orne and Evans results are most consistent with the theory that hypnosis involves conscious role-playing.
The Orne and Evans results are most consistent with the theory that hy______ involves c______s r___-pl____g.
SDT measures two aspects of a person's performance, d' (sensitivity) and beta (response bias).
SDT measures two aspects of a person's p__________, __ (sensitivity) and beta (r_______ b_____).
James objected to the copy theory of consciousness and proposed the relational theory, consciousness is not a special world but rather the relation between self and the world.
J_____ objected to the copy theory of consciousness and proposed the relational theory, consciousness is not a special world but rather the relation between self and the world.
Where there is Id let there be Ego. The Id operates on the pleasure principle to reduce tension. The Ego operates on the reality principle to control tension.
Where there is Id let there be Ego. The __ operates on the pleasure principle to reduce t____n. The Ego operates on the r_____y principle to control tension.
Galton, was a pioneer in the study of individual differences, the use of statistics, and the quantitative measurement of mental abilities.
G_____ , was a pioneer in the study of individual d_________, the use of s_______, and the q________ measurement of mental abilities.
The mind is not a thing, it is what you do. “To change your mind”, is to behave differently.
The mind is not a th______ , it is what you do. “To change your mind”, is to b______ differently.
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