Psychology Midterm 5 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Donald Broadbent
liMits on attention - bottle necl
Donald Broadbent
William James
Functionalism (u.s.) 
temporal lobe
speech and hearing
Frightening dream during REM.
Progressive deterioration and impairment of memory, reasoning, and other cognitive functions occurring as the result of a disease or condition.
Carl Rogers
1902-1987; Field: humanistic; Contributions: founded person-centered therapy, theory that emphasizes the unique quality of humans especially their freedom and potential for personal growth, unconditional positive regard, fully functioning person. Humanistic approach.
helping others for unselfish reasons
Symptoms: Persistent, irrational fear and avoidance of a specific object or situation.Causes: Based on actual experiences or evolutionTreatment: Therapy using behavioral techniques such as: flooding, systematic desensitization, virtual reality systematic desensitization.
development resulting from ongoing, bidirectional exchanges between heredity and all levels of the enviroment.
Kohlberg Stages
Stage 6:
-Universal Ethical Principle
-obligated to disobey unjust laws
is the conditioning of response.-Behavior increases because it is reinforced
hue and color of eye
an approach stressing individual personality as the central concern of psychology
Hans Eysenck
personality theorist; asserted that personality is largely determined by genes, used introversion/extroversion
portion of brain containing limbic system and hypothalamus. Controls the body's natural needs and drives (e.g. hunger). also partially responsible for memory, motivation, and some complex thinking
"magical circle in eastern religions, Jung thought symbolizes the unity of life and the "totality of the self"
Answer the following questions about sleep and dreams:
a. After going w/out sleep for 2-3 days, would you perform poorly on a brief demanding task?
b. Do highly creative people need less sleep than average?
c. Are sleep walkers acting out the
a. Less awareness during sleep leads to mediocre memory.
b. Yes, but interpretation may not be difficult as assumed.
c. Myth so far has not been proven true since there are no true reportings.
a. The avaerage required amount of sleep for young adults is 7.5 hours.
b. It varies in people. Some naps can be beneficial and refreshing while others can disrupt routined nighttime sleep.
c. It common and occurs much more in males than females.It has many factors: obesity, colds, allergies, smoking, some drugs. It may seem trivial problem with sleep apnea, cardiovascular disease, and it may have more medical significance than some think.
d. Some methods include: altering daily habits, avoiding/minimizing consumption of stimulants such as caffine & nicotine.
e. Try the "bore yourself to sleep" method. Usually when trying too hard to find a remedy, you tend to overstress the brain and not succeed in finding a soltuon.
the conscious repetition of info, either to maintain it in consciousness or to encode it for storage
taijin kyofusho
incapacitating fear of offending others
carries information away from cell body
protein produced by bloated fat cells
Down Syndrome
chromosomal disorder characterized by marked mental retardation as well as distinctive physical traits including short stature, a flattened skull and nose, and an extra fold of skin over the eyelid.
Kohlberg Stages
Stage 1:
-Obedience & punishment
-only wrong because of punishment, not morals
LSD induced sensory and emotional changed that recu long after the drug has left the body.
power stumulants that produce a conscious sense of increasaed energy and euphoria
Factor analysis
statistical procedure designed to discover the independent elements (factors) in any set of data
Kenneth Clark
reseacher who researched African American children
beahvioral medicine
examines the relationship between social pressure and mental health
the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual; the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual
We follow authority blindly and mindlessly, we follow those with credibility
The measure of central tendency most often to describe a set of data - calculated by adding all the scores and dividing by the number of scores.
Bipolar II Disorder
Alternation of major depressive episodes with hypomanic episodes (not full manic episodes).
the difference between the highest and lowest scores in a distribution
A failure to retrieve information that is available in memory even though you are trying to produce it.
ratio strain
A behavioral effect associated with abrupt increases in ratio requirements when moving from denser to thinner reinforcement schedules.
Availability Heuristic
rule stating that an event's probability corresponds to the ease with which the event comes to mind
Latent Content
Whatever the dream is symbolic of
retroactive and proactive interference
retroactive: new information interferes with ability to remember old infoproactive: old information interfers with ability to remember new info.
Neutral stimulus
A stimulus that doesn't lead to a unconditioned response. When paired with a UCS the NS will elicit a UCR by itself!
Infantile amnesia
Inability of adults to remember personal experiences that took place before an early age
Informational Social Influence
willingness to accept others opinions
proximate explanations
explanations of behavior that state the immediate environmental conditions or the mechanisms within the individual that cause the behavior to occur
The dimension of color that is determined by the wavelength of light; what we know as the color names blue, green, and so forth
Charles Spearman
believed in General Intelligence, came up with g and factor analysis
Standardize(p 45)
In test construction, to develop uniformprocedures for giving and scoring a test.
upright and straight almost military bearing
stereotyped leader
sense of independence; a desire not to be controlled by others.
a popular but ill-fated theory that claimed bumps on the skull oould reveal our mental abilities and our character traits.
Visual sensory receptor found at the back of the retina, responsible for non-color sensitivity to low levels of light
Stanley Milgram
famous study on obedience; shocking for wrong answers
a complex behavior that is rigidly patterned throughout a species and is unlearned
an abnormal fondness or preference for animals
educational psychology
concerned with the process of education, developing new teaching methods
Gender Typing
The Acquistion of a traditional role (either masculine or feminine)
The ability to put oneself in the shoes of another person and to experience events and emotions the way that person experiences them
behavioral approach
viewing behavior as the product of learning and associations
Which of the following therapists would most likely try to understand an adult's psychological disorder by exploring that person's childhood experiences?
A) a psychoanalyst
blood-brain barrier
glia cells forming a fatty coating that prevents certain substances from entering the brain
limited hold
A situation in which reinforcement is available only during a finite time following the elapse of an FI or VI interval.
Study of how drugs affect the nervous system and behavior
Paradoxical Sleep
REM stage becase brain waves resemble those of stage one
origins of prejudice
negative stereotype + strong dislike toward another group psychological: helps deal w/ doubt and fearsocial and cultural: groupthinkeconomic: prejudice makes official forms of discrimination seem legit (men v. women in work place)
Galton Theory
Argued 7 types of intelligence are connected
schizoaffective disorder
people who experience either a major depressive episode, a manic episode, or a mixed episode at the same time that they meet the diagnostic criteria for schizophrenia
William James- study of how mind works in allowing an organism to adapt to environment
what's a dendrite?
bushy, branching extensions of a neuron that receive messages & conduct impulses toward the cell body
The Research Process
Identifying a problem Designing a study Performing a study Examining the data Drawing conclusions and communicating the results
wish fulfillments
dreams are wish fulfillments, they are expressions of the id's impulses according to Freud
over-justification effect
if you justify an action, dissonance won't occus and attitude change will fail
fraternal twins
twins who develop from separate eggs. the are genetically no closer than brothers and sisters, but they share a fetal environment
surface structure
consists of the way symbols are combined within a given language
Drugs that block the function of a neurotransmitter
Karen Pryor
Took dolphins that have never been trained and observed their natural behaviors. After, she started ringing a bell. Once the animal did a new behavior, the animal got a reinforcer
The degree of relaxation attained is _____ _____ than before the physical exertion
more complete
Rorschach test
a test for revealing the underlying personality structure of an individual, using a series of inkblot designs which the subject describes in his own words
standard deviation
a computed measure of how much scores vary around the mean score. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 042)
If you have been waking up too early for several weeks, you are probably suffering from ______.
Sleep deprivation
Cognitive Behavioral Therapy
A blend of cognitive and behavioral therapeutic strategies.
The successive blinking on and off of the lights on the neon sign gave the impression of soda filling a glass. This illusion of motion is the:
Phi phenomenon.
cause of homosexuality
genetic predisposition, may be due to organizing effects of prenatal hormones on neurological development, environment still prob plays a small role
Cross-sectional study
studying people all at one time (ex. difference age groups)
List barriers to reasoning rationally
-Availability heuristic. People thend to judge how probable something is depending on how many examples they can come up with. Ie. Going out in a thunderstorm and possible being struck by lighting is somehow more dangerous than driving on the highway on a sunny day.Avoiding Loss:People tend to go with the choise that seems like it will hedge their bet bestMental Sets:We try and solve problems the same way we solved other problems..even if its not the most effective way to do so. Hindsight Bias:"I should have known that, even though in reality it wasnt that clear at all."Confirmation Bias:"I want to be right so Im only going to pay attention to data that backs me up."
Some ..% or so of infants are securely attached by age one.
Explanatory or attributional style
People with same experiences have different response depending on attribution
Utilization delay
The time from the decision to seek care to actually obtaining medical services
sex response cycle
the stages the body passes though during sexual activity, including sexual attraction, desire, excitement, and possibly performance
Thematic Apperception Test Picture
tell a story about a picture
Scientific Method
System of gathering data so that bias and error in measurement are reduced.
Group intelligence test
any intellegence test that can be administered to a group of people with minimal supervision
father substitute
a male who replaces an absent father and becomes an object of attachment
Kaylee is so afraid of spiders and insects that she avoids most outdoor activities and even refuses to go to the basement of her own house alone. Kaylee appears to suffer from
D) a phobia
How do these models of categorization differ?
Analogical representation- mental images Symbolic representation- Concepts are represented by subtypes of broad knowledge category  Defining Attribute Model- defines a category by attributes and reason based on attributes if it belongs ina a category Prototype model- ‘best example’ in categories, as in the violin, trumpet, and guitar are the normal instruments you think of when you mention instruments, not the mellophone, etc. BEST EXAMPLE
What is discrimination in terms of classical conditioning?
Discrimination in classical conditioning is the process of learning to respond to a certain stimuli and not to others.
What is Dysfunction?
Part of Abnormal Behavior. Is this odd behavior going to cause problems for other people?
Indications for the use of Benzoiazepines
- short-term treatment of psychological distress/anxiety and sysphoria related to anxiety.
- sleep disorders
- panic disorder
- acute alcohol withdrawl
What is Critical Thinking?
The process of thinking deeply and actively, asking questions, and evaluating the evidence.
peak experience
a high point in the life of a self-actualizer, during which the person feels ecstatic and more alive and whole than is usual
How do people strategically use social comparisons to enhance self-esteem?
Downward comparisons-people who have high self esteem is by constantly making comparisons to make them come out the winnerPeople evaluate their own actions, abilities, and beliefs by contrasting them with other people’s.
9.01 Bases of Assesment
ex.- Assuming a child should be held back a grade based on a single test that was created by the principle and only given to that student.
I took Aphrine for my sinus pain, and my sinuses are cleared up in 2 minutes. That stuff really works.
After the fact
the theory of planned behavior
includes the basic ideas of the theory of reasoned action but adds the person's perceptions of control over the outcome
Taste information has very strong effects on various ingestive behaviors, such as swallowing and salivation. This is primarily due to
connections from the taste centers to central pattern generators in the medulla
Conscience - 1 Part of the Superego
The behaviors a child has been punished for and feels guilty about.
What are the four possible outcomes of a catch trial?
Hit: signal present and detectedMiss: signal present and not detectedFalse alarm: signal not present but detectedCorrect rejection: signal not present and not detected
The ____ demand for pleasure is often in conflict with the _____ moral system. The ____ needs to defend itself from the excessive demands of the ____ and the harsh judgements of the _____.
The ID's demand for pleasure is often in conflict with the SuperEgo moral system. The Ego needs to defend itself from the excessive demands of the ID and the harsh judgements of the SuperEgo.
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