Psychology of Learning 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Bobo doll
Nativism (what person)
Types of Schedules
RatioIntervalLimited HoldDuration
prosocial behavior
positive, constructive, helpful behavior
Cognitive Learning
acquire knowledge through thinking
positive reinforcement of behaviors that move closer and closer to the target behavior (ex: learning how to ride a bike)
conditioned- stimuli that become reinforcing because of experiences where they are assoicated with other reinforcers, it is learned or secondaryUnconditioned - Inherieted capacity to be reinforced by some stimuli, it is primary or unlearned
Cell body (soma)
Integrates dendrite signals
Operant conditioning
voluntary behavior learned through consequences
continuous reinforcement
reinforcing the behavior everytime it's done successfully; acquisition occurs quickly; extinction occurs quickly as well
retrieval method that assesses the amount of time saved when learning material a second time. this quantifies retrieval
a biological classification based on genetic compostiton, anatomy, and hormones.
early cognitive theorist, argued that reinforcement has more impact on performance than on learning.
Response is the instrument that produces the outcomeResponse is the intrumental behaviorchange the rate of behavior based on contingenciesthere will be an increase or decrease in behavior the outcome of the behavior is the "reinforcer"
The reappearance during extinction of other behaviors that had once been effective in obtaining reinforcement.
Nerve fibers, collect and process incoming information
Latent Learning
learning that remains hidden or concealed until a later time
any event or stimulus, that when following a response, increases the probability that the response will occur again.
cognitive maps
a mental representation, of something, (rats in a maze with food)
something that is initially neutral and produces no reliable response in an organism
personal experience Ex: where were you on 9/11?
initial stage of learning; the phase associating a neutral stimulus with an unconditioned stimulus so that the neutral stimulus comes to elicit a conditioned response
sensory preconditioning
Two neutral stimuli are repeatedly presented together in a neutral context. Then one of these stimuli is paired with the US resulting in both of the previously neutral stimuli acquire eliciting properties.
Secondary Reinforcers
Neutral object that becomes associated with a primary reinforcer
Lifespan Developmental Psychology
concerned with the systematic physical, cognitive, and psychosocial processes that lead to these changes that occur throughout life.
E.L. Thorndike
his experiments established the power of consequences in determining voluntary behavior
Skinner Box
Small animal chamber constructed by Skinner to allow sustained periods of conditioning to be administered and behaviours to be recorded unsupervised
our mental copies do not correspond to reality
effort info processing
effort of the conscious processor
positive punishment
weakens a response through the application of an unpleasant stimulus
Connectionist model
Cognition as networks of uninformed, unlabeled connections between "nodes"; help to integrate neuroscience with psychology; distributed representation (golden retriever/dog overlap)
Conditioned responce
A learned responce to a previousaly neutral stimulus
respondent behavior
behavior that occurs as an automatic response to some stimulus; skinners term for behavior learned through classical conditioning
how are phobias maintained?
through avoidance conditioning (under operant learning)
a stimulus that is associated with reinforcement for a particular behavior in a particular situation (e.g., key pecking in a Skinner box)
Classical conditioning
a neutral stimulus that signals an unconditioned stimulus begins to produce a response that anticipates and prepares for the unconditioned stimulus
semantic encoding
type of encoding that encodes meaning of things and words
observational learning
learning by watching others such as models: parents, teachers, and others who are influential to us.
fixed interval
reward follows after a defined period of time (ex: quiz every friday)
Law of Effect
As stated by Thorndike, the proposition that behaviors that lead to a satisfying state of affairs are strengthened or "stamped in", while behaviors that lead to an unsatisfying or annoying state of affairs are weakened or "stamped out".
schedules of reinforcement
timeline that determines when a behavior will be rewarded
critical periods
limited age ranges in which particular kinds of environmental stiumuli have their greatest impact in aspects of brain development. ex. children who began musical training before age 10 show greater activation in a certain part of their brains than those who began their training at an older age; also learing a new language
first blow, belief that there is no soul at all, we are just complex animals LaMettrie
fixed-ratio schedule
in operant conditioning, a schedule of reinforcement that reinforces a response only after a specified number of responses
Difference image
Subtract image of baseline brain from the image of a brain engaged in specific activity- shows which brain regions change or remain constant
Neutral Stimulus
The sight or sound that the organism will later learn to assoc. with a reinforcement.
Rhesus macaque monkey are more likely to reconcile after a fight if they grow up with forgiving older macaque monkeys.  This best illustrates the impact ofA. observational learning
B. immediate reinforcement
C. spontaneous recovery
D. respondent behav
A. observational learning
Variable Ratio (VR) Schedule
A reinforcement schedule that delivers a reinforcer after a variable and unpredictable number of responses.
what are the two types of learning?
associative and non-associative
chained schedule
A schedule that consists of a sequence of two or more simple schedules, each of which has its own SD and the last of which results in a terminal reinforcer.
Classical Conditioning Concepts
The CS (neutral) must come before the UCS.2. The CS and UCS must come very close together in time—ideally, only several seconds apart. 3. The neutral stimulus must be paired with the UCS several times, often many times, before conditioning can take place.
ratio schedule
giving a reward based on the number of responses
Interval Schedule
based on a specific unit of time, as when a behavior is reinforced when it is is performed every minute or hour
S substitution model
organism comes to respond to CS in same way as responded to US
extrinsic motivation
a desire to perform a behavior due to promised rewards or threats of punishment
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks
A. experience extinction
B. underwent spontaneous recovery
C. developed learned helplessness
D. experienced a discriminative stimulus
E. developed a conditioned reinforcer
C. developed learned helplessness
what is insight learning?
a sudden realization of a solution or leap in understanding new concepts
-behaviors learned from other individuals
-customary/habitual: shown by relevant individuals
- not trial and error; not a result of eco or geo factors
- present in one site and absent in another eco-similar site
What is an 'animal culture' trait or behavior?
The central nucleus of the amygdala is critical for emotional conditioning
The Neural Elements of Classical Conditioning
Which of the following best illustrates higher-order conditioning?
A. a dog conditioned to salivate to a low-pitched tone
B. a little boy who doesn't run into the street after being reprimanded by his mother
C. a rat that has developoed a taste aversio
E. a child who fears dogs after being bitten shows fear when she hears a dog bark
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