Psychology of Learning test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Occipital lobe
vision
Thorndike made the...
Puzzle Box
Advantages EEG
Temporal resolution/ quick!
extinction
to extinguish a classically conditioned response, the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the UCS.
Ivan Pavlov
1849-1936
 
Pavlov's dog
Russian physician/ neurophysiologist
 
Nobel prize in 1904
 
studied digestive secretions
 
 
learning
relatively permanent process in behavior, which occurs through experience
PAVLOV
-Psychian who studied dogs
-Discovered the salavation reflex (whenever you put food into your mouth, your saliva starts forming)
-He found that dogs drooled automatically
-studied the digestive system
Variable-interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response at unpredictable time intervals
NS
neural stimulus-a stimulus that before condtioning does natarually bring about the response of interest
conditioned stimulus
after association with the unconditioned stimulus, triggers a conditioned response
Schedule Reinforcement
Pattern of reinforcing a behavior.
sign tracking
approaching a stimulus/sign that signals a biologically relevant event.
 
ex:dogs required to sit on a mat and a stimulus that signals food is presented to the animal. when the food signal is presented, the dogs approach the stimulus and make food-soliciting responses to it.  
Operant Conditioning
Learning controlled by the consequences of the organism's behaviour
A relatively permanent change in behavior that results from experience.
Learning
Shallow processing
Studied adjectives through backwards pronunciation
Basal ganglia
Learning skilled movements (planning and producing)
temporal contiguity
closer in time the better learning.
 
Negative reinforcers
negative stimuli that, once removed, encourage or reinforce behavior.
COGNITIVE MAP
a mental representation of the physical features of the environment
Algorithm
set of procedures that are guaranteed to produce a solution even if there is no understanding
belief bias
tendency in thought for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning
Four major reinforcement schedules
Fixed Ratio(FR)schedule, Fixed interval(FI) schedule,Variable ratio(VR) schedule,variable interval (VI) schedule
Behavioral Momentum
An operant behavior's resistance to change when the reinforcement conditions change (e.g. when free reinforcers are delivered, or when the schedule changes to extinction...)
Pseudoconditioning
A situation in which an elicited response that appears to be a CR is actually the result of sensitization rather than conditioning.
applied behavior analysis
application of operant conditioning principles, theory that many emotional and behavioral problems stem from inadequate or wrong responce consequences. ( child continues to break things bc the mother finally pays attention to him)
glial cells
give structure and support to neurons
Edwared L. Thorndike
Interested in animal intelligencePut cats in puzzle boxesrecorded time it took cat to escapeCats got faster over trialsThought of this as S-R learning
Dysexecutive syndrome
frontal lobe; cognitive ability and intelligence may be slightly impaired but its is the personality that changes the most
Classical conditioning
Learning that one stimulus predicts another
Dualism
The mind and material body are separate entities with different characteristics;-- Nativist; body= machine- fixed response (reflex to an external sensory event (stimulus)
negative reinforcement
strengthens a response by reducing or removing something undersirable or unpleasant
stimulus discrimination
process of learning responses to a specific stimulus, but not to other similar stimuli is called this
negative punishment
take away something good (take away your car); decreases the likelihood that behavior will occur again
Stimulus Generalization
The phenomenon that occurs when an organism that has learned a response to a specific stimulus responds in the same way to new stimuli that are similar to the original stimulus
Source Amnesia
Attributing to the wrong source an event that we experienced, heard about, read about, or imagined (misattributed)
 
Childrens Memory - Mr. Science
The introduction of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________ as the withdrawal of an unpleasant stimulus is to ________.
A. acquisition; extinction
B. negative reinforcer; positive reinforcer
C. primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
D. punishment; rei
D. punishment; reinforcement
Fixed Ratio Schedule
Pattern in which we provide reinforcement following a regular number of responses (Giving a rat a pellet after every 15 times it presses the lever in a skinner box)
Reinforcer
An event that (1) follows a behavior and (2) increases the future probability of that behavior.
variable schedule
the reinforcer is given at different rates or at different times. The responder does not know how many behaviors need to be performed or how much time needs to pass before reinforcement will occur. Like when a salesperson receives commission only when a customer agrees to purchase a product.
Haplodiploidy
female mates with a male and holds sperm and finds colony.w/o fert=malew/ fert=female
reward learning relies on what neurotransmitter system?
the dopamine system
Charles Sherrington
All of these simple "spinal reflexes" combine into complex movements
intrinsic motivation
desire to perform a behavior for its own sake and to be effective
instinctive drift
Gradual or sudden changes in a trained behavior that result in a form of the response that is more similar to species typical responses, and which may interfere with successful training.
Schedule of Reinforcement
Once a target responce has been shaped, the experimenter can arrange to have the reinforcer delivered according to a specific schedule.
neutral stimulus(NS)
a stiumuls to which the organism does not respond in any noticable way--is identified. In the case of Pavlov's dog, the bell was originally a neutral stiumuls that did not elicit a salivation response
factors involved in CS efficacy
novelty, salience, duration, and relevance
Franz Joseph Gall
Different area of the cortex are responsible for different capabilities; reflected in shape in skill; find bumps and it will reflect an enlarged brain areas
difference between Punishment I and Punishment II
Punishment I: adding something unpleasant Punishment II= penalty. taking away something good/pleasant
Receiving delicious food is to escaping electric shock as _________ is to ________.
A. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
B. primary reinforcer; secondary reinforcer
C. immediate reinforcer; delayed reinforcer
D. reinforcement; punishment
E. pa
A. positive reinforcer; negative reinforcer
Fixed Limited Hold Schedules
limited hold added to fixed interval schedule - this is common in real world behavioral modification
LAW OF EFFECT
-Basically, if you are rewarded for an action, you are likely to do it again, that action becomes stamped into the mind.
If you are not rewarded for an action, you most likely wont do it again.
Theory of equipotentiality
Brain acts as a whole to store memories- no single area
Discriminative Stimulus for Extinction
A stimulus that signals the absence of reinforcement.
differential reinforcement of high rates (DRH)
A schedule in which reinforcement is contingent upon emitting at least a certain number of responses in a certain period of time—or, more generally, reinforcement is provided for responding at a fast rate.
What is a critical period?
A period in which someone must learn something, or else it will be missed and never understood to the same degree it could have been.
What examples of fixed (modal) action patterns are described in the text?
Cats arch back and growl to attacker, opossum plays dead, bird migration, V formation, Pigs root, spider webs, woodpeckers, mate attraction dancing, sheep bashing.
How did Mary Cover Jones overcome a child's fear?
Exposure therapy, just a little bit at a time. They would associate something good (such as a snack), with the fear (rabbits in this case). Counterconditioning. Systematic desensitization.
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