Psychology One Flashcards

Terms Definitions
obsessive
thoughts
Individualistic culture
?
similarity
grouping things together
Permissive
nurturant with little controls,  Mom, I didn’t do my homework because I don’t like the teacher, response: “Ohh, that must be so hard for you
Self-instruction
This therapy, developed by Meichenbaum, is a form of cognitive-behavioral therapy that combines modeling and graduated practice with elements of Rational-Emotive Theory, to help children or adults that have problems with task completion.
Serotonin NT
peace, well-being, concentration
psychoanalysis
(associated with freud) therapists interpretation of dreams, etc...; released previously repressed feelings- allows patient to gain self-insight
Burnout
Physical and emotional exhaustion, cynicism, and a lowered sense of self-efficacy that can be brought on gradually by chronic work-related stress.
"Problems/issues with line-ups"
"""realitive judgements, distinguishing factors, culprit absent"""
Shaping
Using reinforcement, the withholding of reinforcement, and sometimes punishment to get someone or an animal to approximate the overall target behavior
Correlation
Examining basic patterns of relationships between different variables (co-relation).
Plato
theorzied between thought and behavior
Cosmic Humanist
Behaviorism and collective consiousness
reliability
consistency of scores or results
Sulci
folding-in portions of convolutions of the cerebral cortex
 
 
 
Behavioral psychology
 
 
The scientific study of observable behavior, and its explanation by principles of learning.
endorphis
natural opiates released in response to pain and vigorous exercise
tegmentum
intermediate level of the midbrain 91
Interdependent Self-Concept
In collectivist cultures, people develop a self-concept in terms of one’s connections or relationships with others
algorithms
step-by-step rules or procedures that, if applied correctly, guarantee a problem solution eventually.
misinformation effect
a memory-distortion phenomenon in which a person's existing memories can be altered if the person is exposed to misleading information
polygenic inheritance
many genes influence that characteristic in question
the primary determinant for object identification
shape
What are some sedatives? (downers)?
alcohol, tranquilizers
extinction
in classical conditioning the gradual disappearance of a conditioned response because the reinforcement is withheld or because the conditioned stimulus is repeatedly presented without the unconditioned stimulus
observational learning
learning by observing others4 types
Dendrites
-branch like fibers-antennas of a neuron-recieve information for the neuron
Memory
active system that receives memories from senses and puts info into usable form and stores it away
response
any action, gladular activity, or other identifiable behavior
sympathy
a relationship between persons in which the condition of one induces a parallel or reciprocal condition in another
individualism
giving priority to one's own goals over group goals and defining one's identity in terms of personal attributes rather than group identifications
Occipital Lobe
division of cerebrum that is associated with visual processing
little albert
the subject of watson's classical conditioning experiment
Gestalt Psychology
"good figure" psychology
now part of the study of cognitive psychology
if you don't see a complete circle the mind automatically completes the circle
Self-serving bias
the tendency to make situational attributions for our failures but dispositional attributions for our successes.
detachment
the state of indifference to others that children manifest when there is continuing separation from caregivers
PET scan
positron emisssion tomography. inject radioactive solution into blood, then measure amount radiation absorbed by neurons. very active neurons absorb more, vice versa.
Retina
Light-sensitive surface at the back of the eye consisting of neurons and photoreceptor cells
Inter-rater Reliability
How similar the experimenters rate their subjects
medical model
-developed in 500 BCE-by Hippocrates, father of modern medicine-diseases have physical (biological) causes: diagnosable, treatable, in most cases - curable-"mental" illness diagnosed by symptoms-cured through therapy/treatment in a psychiatric hospital
Priming
a method used to measure unconscious cognitive processes, in which a person is exposed to information and is later tested to see whether the information affects behavior or performance on another task or in another situation
(physcoanalysis)Cathuris
When you uncover your unconcious you experience this emotional release.
pinel/rush/dix
moral therapy- treat the mentall ill with care and respect; rush brought to america, pinel spread in europe, dix took it to congress and successful
Dissociative Disorder
prolonged loss of memory or identity
multiple personality or dissociative identity disorder
Describe a neural oscillator
pacemaker neuron: rhythmic bursts
Intrinsic Reinforcers(p 261)
Reinforcers thatare inherently related to the activity being reinforced.
Trepanning
stone age humans carved holes through the skull to release evil spirits
Category of long-term memory that includes memories of particular events.
episodic memory
retrieval failure
not remembering something one is certain of knowing-tip of the tongue
retrieval
getting information that is in storage into a form that can be used
Receptor Sites
Once the neurotransmitter leaves the axon, and passes through the synapse, it is caught on the dendrite by what are termed Receptor Sites.
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
illusion
a perception, as of visual stimuli, that represents what is perceived in a way different from the way it is in reality
behavior modification
the direct changing of unwanted behavior by means of biofeedback or conditioning
relative luminance
amount of light an object reflects relative to surroundings
Stategies - Positive
show contigent upon occurence of behavior
Facial-feedback hypothesis
The idea that the muscular movements involved in certain facial expressions produce the corresponding emotions (for example, smiling makes one feel happy)
Exposure Therapy
An approach to the treatment that involves confronting an emotion-arousing stimulus directly and repeatedly, ultimately leading to a decrease in the emotional response.
_____ is the mental process of making sense of sensory information.
Perception
conditioned negative reinforcer
A previously neutral stimulus change that functions as a negative reinforcer because of prior pairing with one or more negative reinforcers.
Facilitation Effect
exhibiting a behavior similar to that shown by a model in an unfamiliar situation
Institutional Review Board (IRB)
Ensures compliance with ethics principles. Makes sure that rights aren't being taken advantage of.
Forebrain: Cerebral Cortex
Outermost surface of the brain
- Increasing surface area
-Convolutions (bumps and grooves) so we can process more
Brain lesioning
Am abnormal disruption in the tissue of the brain resulting from injury or disease.
sexual response cycle
four stages of sexual responding described by Masters and Johnson- excitement, plateau, orgasm and resolution.
basilar membrane
floor of the fluid-filled duct that runs through the cochlea
Cognitive Dissonance
A concept developed by Festinger, an individual's psychological discomfort caused by two inconsistent thoughts
Primary process thinking
_________ is associated with the id
Approach-approach conflict
The internal conflict that occurs when competing alternatives are equally positive.
DOWN SYNDROME
The most common type of retardation, with an average IQ of 55, but the degree of retardation varies widely, and may disrupt everyday activities less severely than other forms of mental retardation. The most frequent form is not inherited but caused by a genetic problem- the creation of an extra chromosome during conception
sociocultural model
views abnormal behavior in terms of the social and cultural contexts in which it occurs
stimulus discrimination
learning to respond to only one stimulus and to inhibit the response of all other stimuli
What are 3 personality disorders consistent with the feminine gender role, diagnosed more in women?
o Dependent personality disorder
o Borderline personality disorder
o Histrionic personality disorder
Occurs when we translate our stressors/negative energy into something else
Sublimation (Defense Mechanism)
strange situation
A behavioral test developed by Mary Ainsworth that is used to determine a child's attachment style
dual personality
a disorder in which an individual possesses two dissociated personalities, each of a complexity comparable to that of a normal individual
Rooting Reflex
A baby's tendency, when touched on the cheek, to turn toward the touch, open the mouth, and search for the nipple.
. LOCI
putting pictures with things you need to remember
MOTOR CORTEX
 
A BRAIN AREA ASSOC. WITH CONTROL OF MOVEMENT
positron emission tomography (PETscan)
use radioactive markers to map chemical activity in the brain over time
muller-lyer illusion
that one where the lines have arrows point different directions but the lines are the same size
frontal lobe
largest lobe. near the top of the brainstem. Contains principle areas that control movement of muscles. More of this cortex is devoted to parts we have fine control over (fingers, lips, toungue)
Freudian Slip
When you accidentally say what you are thinking about in the middle of a speaking about something else.
social phobia
fear of doing something in front of other people
According to the following, which is generally accepted as a possible cause of schizophrenia?a)extensive learned helplessnessb)a genetic predispositionc)being a twind)an excess of endorphines in the brain
a genetic predisposition
weaknesses of Freud's theory
1. difficult to test2. over-emphasis on sexual drives and early personality formation3. male chauvinistic
Wernicke's area
part of the temporal lobe involved in understanding speech.
A schedule in which the number of responses required for reinforcement is fixed and does not change.
Fixed-Ratio Schedule
Depth Perception
The ability to perceive the world in three dimensions
after failing to recieve an expected job promotion joe has been in a continuous state of exaggereted sadness for several months. his self image is very negative and he has lost all interest in others he is probably suffering from
a depressive disorder
Mental Representation
The ability to form internal images of objects and events.
Stress & Release of Glucocorticoids
Reduce brain production of neutrophic factors
 
Neurogenisis dorps
Neurotrophins drop
Apoptosis rises
pretest-posttest design with nonequivalent groups
a type of quasi-experimental design in which the experimental group is compared with a comparable, but not equivalent, control group
Ratio IQ vs Deviation IQ
Ratio- between people of same ageDeviation- degree of deviation from averageGood test- standard, objective, Rules, reliable, valid
Experiential avoidance (ACT)
The attempt to control or change the form, frequency, or situational sensitivity of internal experiences (thoughts, feelings, sensations, memories), even when doing so causes harm
Standard Deviation (SD)
A measure of variability that is the average diference b/t each score and the mean of the data set
What is the survey method?
a technique for ascertaining the self-reporting attitudes or behaviors of people, usually by questioning a representative, random sample of them
peak experience
a high point in the life of a self-actualizer, during which the person feels ecstatic and more alive and whole than is usual
define cognitive dissonance
the theory that we act to reduce the discomfort we feel when two of our thoughts clash. "when we become aware that our attitudes and our actions dont' match, we may change our attitudes so that we feel more comfortable.
what's the parasympathetic nervous system?
divison of the autonomic n.s. that calms the body, conserving its energy
when caregiver leaves, a secure child does what?
responds but generally maintains activity
 Describe/define the different forms of child maltreatment
Physical neglect - Failure to meet a child’s basic needs for food, warmth, cleanliness, and medical attention.  Leads to health consequences, lack of competence in dealing with the world of objects, and major achievement problems in school.
Physical abuse - Deliberately causing a child physical injury.  Leads to behavioral and emotional problems, avoidant or disorganized attachment relationships, lack of social sensitivity, aggressiveness with peers, and blunted emotions.
Emotional unavailability - A chronic lack of parental involvement and emotional responsiveness.  Leads to marked decline in functioning, eventually becoming apathetic, devoid of joy or pleasure, and easily frustrated and upset.
 
Social Development
2. stranger anxiety
2. normal stage that is a fear of strangers that develops around 8 or nine months. identical in all cultures. increase until about the age of 18 months and slowly decline after that.
What did the "baby boom" create? and when was the baby boom?
Baby Boom created an “adolescent boom” in the 1960s and early 1970s
What is a gender learning problem in early schooling years?
There is too much female-oriented behavior.

Easier for girls, Harder for boys....However, more instrumental for boys than for girls
Effects of dailty stress according the Mr. Lazarus:
It's the little things that add up to become the main/major stressor, not necessarily the big stressor; counterintuitive
red
490-650 nanometers
pathogens
specific disease-causing agents
GABA
main inhibitory transmitter
amygdala
tags things with emotion
contemporary psych
see flow chart!
Discrimination
negative TREATMENT toward others
Id
In psychoanalysis, the unconscious psychic entity present at birth representing basic drives.
The "knowledge telling writing strategy," consists of:A) Choose a few main ideas, then fill in the detailsB) Write whatever pops into your head -- in the order you think of it. Don't reorganize.C) Write the most important facts first.D) Write swiftly to g
B
Insecure disorganized/disoriented
not in other categories
Bipolar Disorder
Eitology- biologymanic episodes alternate with major depressive episodemania- over talkative, hyperactive, little need for help, creative
Babbling
consonant/vowel sounds between 4-6 months
EXPLICIT MEMORY:
Conscious, intentional recollection of an event or an item of information.
physiological interventions that reduce symptoms associated with psychological disorders
biomedical therapies
KSAOs
Knowledge, skills, abilities, and other characteristics. Important for person-oriented job analysis
bottom-up processing
perceptual analysis that emphasizes characteristics of the stimulus, rather than our concepts and expectations - pg. 136
Cognitive Psychology
Emphasizes thoughts, perception, and information processing. Modern cognitive psychologists study how we gather, encode, and store information using a vast array of mental processes. Piaget, Ellis, Bandura, Sternburg, Gardner, and Hull.
nerves
bundled axons that form neural "cables" connecting the central nervous system with muscles, glands, and sense organs
lens
a flexible, elastic, transparent oval structure that is attached to muscles that adjust the curve/focus
Germinal period
(fertilization-2 weeks) create zygote, take place in filopian tubes, cell beings to divide, implantation to uterine wall (2 weeks)
positive punishment
giving something to decrease likelihood of a behavior occuring i.e time out
parenting- permissive
loving guidance without discipline, behave like authoritarian, problems with mental health
aspirational, enforceable
In the American Psychological Association's Ethical Principles of Psychologists and Code of Conduct (2002), there are five general principles, which are considered ..., and ten standards, which are considered to be the ... aspect of the Ethics Code.
reuptake
process in which neurotransmitters are sponged up from the synaptic cleft by the presynaptic membrane; allows synapses to recycle their materials
Withdrawal 
Unpleasant effects of reducing or stopping consumption of a drug that users had consumed habitually 
Intelligence(p 341)
An inferred characteristicof an individual, usually defined as the ability to profit from experience, acquire knowledge, think abstractly, act purposefully, or adapt to changes in the environment.
dispersion
measures of dispersion indicate the degree to which the observations differ fromone another.
frequency
the number of complete wavelengths that pass a point in a given time
4 lobes
What are the 4 lobes?
task leadership
goeal-oriented leadership that sets standards, organizes work, and focuses attention on goals
mind
the totality of conscious and unconscious mental processes and activities
bulimia nervosa
an eating disorder characterized by episodes of overeating, usually of high-calorie foods, followed by vomiting, laxative use, fasting, or excessive exercise. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 478)
superordinate goals
shared goals that override differences among people and require cooperation
INTERFERENCE THEORY
Old memories and new memories interfere with one another
Cognitive domain**
acquisition of skills in perceiving, thinking, reasoning, and problem solving skills*Also, intricate development and use of language
just-world hypothesis
claim that our attributions and behaviours are shaped by a deep-seated assumption that the world is fair and all things happen for a reason
Individual Psychology
Alrfred Adler's theory of personality that stresses unique motivation of individuals and the importance of each person's perceived niche in society
Insomnia
a condition in which a person regularly experiences an inability to fall asleep, to stay asleep, or to feel adequately rested by sleep.
conversion disorder
person temporarily loses some body function in a manner that cannot be explained by physical damage
The length of ____________ are related to education.
Dendrites.
sensation
– the detection of physical energy emitted or reflected by physical objects; it occurs when energy in the external environment or the body stimulates receptors in the sense organs
color blindness
inability to perceive certain colors, such as red and green
transduction
- process of converting energy into activity- receptors initiate an action potential- sensory neurons deliver message to the brain- thalamus processes the info, then sends it to the cortex for additional processing
control
how can it be changed, (the modification of a behavior)
Sex Stereotypes
The socially shared beliefs that certain qualities can be assigned to individuals based on their membership in the female or male half of the human race
Case study approach
observing person with brain damage
survey
asking a relatively large group of people a set of questions
against animals
Lab experiments produce responses in animals which invalidate the findings. The stress of handling, confinement and isolation alter the physiology of the animal which makes extrapolating results to humans very hard. the stress can increase susceptability to infections, tumours and increase hormone levels.
Remembering that occurs in the absence of conscious awareness or willful intent.
Implicit Memory
Fraternal Twins
twins who develop from separate fertilized eggs; share a fetal environment
attachment
an emotional tie with another person, shown in young children by their seeking closeness to the caregiver and showing distress on separation
Functionalism
proper way to understand mind and behavior is to first analyze the function and its purpose - influenced by Darwin's ideas of evolution (William James and Agnell)
reinforce
to strengthen the probability of a response to a given stimulus by giving or withholding a reward
Titchener
didn't think we should study infants or children
Egocentrism
unable to see other people's point of view, assume others see things the same way they do (pre-operational stage)
concrete operations stage
the concrete operations stage goes roughly from 7 to 11 years of age. 
Cognitive Psychologist
studies the processes of thinking and acquiring knowledge
standard deviation
statistical measure of how far away each value is on average from the mean
delta waves
very slow waves with very high peaks
Specific Phobias
Phobias are phobias which are linked to specific individual "triggers" (items or events).
Unconditioned Stimulus
event or thing that produces an automatic response
skeletal neurons
neurons that act on muscles connected to bones
cognitive dissonance theory
The theory that people experience psychological tension when two related attitudes or behaviors are inconsistent, and we are thus motivated to reduce the discomfort (dissonance) by making them consistent. Specifically, when our attitudes are inconsistent with our actions, we reduce the resulting dissonance by changing our attitudes.
menopause
women go an entire year without having a period, age 47 irregular periods, less estrogen being produced, 10% have serious problems
Savant
A person of low intelligence with an extraordinary ability.
Reports from Secondary Sources
*psychologists learn about research subjects from people who know them well*Informant may not be objective
Glucose
The form of sugar that circulates in the blood and provides the major source of energy for body tissues. when its level is low, we feel hunger.
Emotional reactivity follows a pattern of activation and deactivation of the ANS. The activating component is the ____ while the component responsible for deactivation is the ____.
Sympathetic/metabolizing system; parasympathetic/catabolizing system
auditory memory
remembering things as a sequence of sounds
latent learning
learning that occurs but is not apparent until there is incentive to do it.
explain tolerance.
decreased sensitivity to a drug by repeated administration. higher dose needed for desired effect. not for all effects @ same rate
Broca's Area
Association area of the brain located in the frontal lobe that is responsible for language production and language processing
Latent content
Hidden "real" meaning of a dream. reveals the unconscious mind.
The fist valid intelligence test was the
Stanford Binet
clinical psychology
the branch of psychology dealing with the diagnosis and treatment of personality and behavioral disorders.
Hippocampus
Involved in the storage of new info in the memory. Enables us to form new memories. Affected in HM (surgery for epilepsy)
Mental Health Epidemiology
study of the distribution of mental disorders
preoperational stage
the stage during which a child learns to use language but does not comprehend the mental operations of concrete logic
Accommodation
means modifying an old schema to fit a new object or problem.
Social Comparison, (EF)
At least I'm not in her position!
aging and hearing
lose ability to hear softer sounds, but can hear the louder sounds still
restrained eaters
-try to mainain low weight below sp through cronic dieting-go hungry much of the time but constantly think about food-when diet is disrupted they become disinhibited to eat to excess
What are the psychiatric symptoms of suicide?
HOPELESSNESS, impulsivity/aggression, anxiety, & command hallucinations
The master gland of the endocrine system is the:
A) thyroid gland
B) adrenal gland
C) pituitary gland
D) pancreas
C) pituitary gland
Child-directed speech (CDS)
Speech by caregivers to babies that relies on short sentences with clear pauses, careful enunciation, exaggerated intonation, and a high-pitched voice.
longitudinal design
a research design in which the same ppeople are studied or tested repeatedly over time.
Figure-ground organization
Part of a stimulus appears to stand out as an object (figure) against a less prominent background (ground).
We become sleepy as body temp. . . .
drops
humanistic psychology
a theory of psychology that focuses on personal growth and meaning as a way of reaching one's highest potential.
higher order conditioning
and already established CS can be used in the place of a natural UCS
peg-word system
a mnemonic in which the items in a list to be remembered are associated with with the sequential items in a memorized jungle and the then the list is retrieved by going through the jungle and retrieving the associated items
4 models of tx for bipolar disorders:
1. biomedical2. psycheducational3. cognitive-behavioral4. family-focused
 
Psychological theories of dreams propose that
dreams serve a psychological function and that they are highly relevant to psychological experiences.
 
 According to this theory we dream either to express our emotions or to work through emotional or practical problems.
 
True meanings of dreams are thought to be conveyed through symbols.
Identical Twins
Start as one zygote but split into two organisms, genes are identical.
Drive Reduction Theory
Bodily Deficit ->   Drive!   -> Activity -> Goal!
(calories)  (associated state)  (search)  (food)
"hunger"       
 
Goal -> Bodily Deficit (cycles)
impact of modern science on psychology
-desire of scientific explanations increase- scientific approach led to birth of modern psych- laboratories established
individuals share a similar opinion
Group darization is most likely to occur in a group in which
right v. left brained
both brain cooporate, but can be one side dominant left: more logic oriented right: more creative
What are viral STDs?
STDS that can not be cured with antibiotic therapy and thus, cannot be fully eradicated from the body and exists throughout the victim's life. Prevention is the most effective approach to viral STDs.

Genital Warts, HIV, genital herpes, viral hepatitas.
ORAL, Birth to age 1
The mouth is the primary focus of pleasurable and gratifying sensations, infant achieves via feeding and exploring with mouth.
What is a positive reinforcer?
A stimulus that when presented after a response stregnthens the response
Which is no a type of monocular cue that helps us in perceiving depths in the visual world
Pragnaz [Used in Gestalt Psychology]
Sleep Apnea what is the bad effects of it?
small lesions and small strokes, cognitive impairment due to loss of neurons due to lack of oxygen
Which form of intimacy do boys and girls respectively take on when it comes to Activity Intimacy and Emotional Intimacy?
Boys tend to form friendships based on activities. Girls tend to form friendships that include emotional intimacy
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