Psychology Test 20 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Behavior therapies
heritability of weight
60-70%
Amnesia
Loss of memory
Cognitive component
knowledge and beliefs
endorphins
- neurotransmitter- pain control
HUE
-color-attribute that distinguishes blue from red from green-varies with wavelength
collectivist cultures
prize social harmony
obedience
close family
Psychological aspects of pain perception can influence the release of the neurotransmitters called _______, the body's natural version of morphine.
endorphins
anxiety disorders
psychological disorders characterized by distressing, persistent anxiety or maladaptive behaviors that reduce anxiety
Personality Disorder
Longstanding, inflexible, maladaptive patterns of perceiving, thinking, or behaving
catharsis
Freud theorized that behaving aggressively could get pent up emotion out of one’s system and thus be an adaptive way of dealing with stress. He coined the term _________ to refer to this release of emotional tension.
amygdala
two almond-shaped neural clusters that are components of the limbic system and are linked to emotion
Dopamine
coordination, muscle control, brain activity
norm
a standard, model, or pattern.
Withdrawal
The discomfort and distress that follow discontinuing the use of an addictive drug.
Learned Helplessness
The hopelessness and resignation learned when a human or an animal perceives no control over repeated bad events.
delta wave
brain-wave pattern associated with slow-wave or deep sleep
implicit memory
memories we don't deliberately remember or reflect on consciously (ex: don't have to think about unlocking your door, you just do it.)
Timbre
provides info about nature or complexity of the sound
psycho-physiological illness
mind-body illness; any stress-related physical illness
Limitations of DSM
 
-not really developmentally sensitive
-problems w/ categorizing bc it is so detrimental
-before age 7 is iffy criteria
gender stereotypes: cognitive
social categories"cads or dads"
morpheme
smallest meaningful units in language, un--happy--ness
Regulatory Behaviour
Corrections made to gainhomeostasis• System variable: The out of balance factor (e.g,hunger)• Set point: Optimum system value (e.g., full up)• Detector: Monitors for homeostasis• Correctional mechanism: Adjust the system
Demand Characteristics



•Occur when participants behave based on their own agenda—they deliberately alter their behavior in some manner


▫This could be considered a threat to both a methods-based and a participant-based threat to validity—they cannot be controlled


▫Good subject, “screw you,” desirable responding, etc etc etc
Obsessive
compulsive personality disorder – is characterized by obsessive neatness, difficulty delegating tasks because of a fear the tasks will be completed in a substandard manner, and a preoccupation with rules, schedules, and order
a statistical technique that involves combining and analyzing the results of many research studies on a specific topic in order to identify overall trends
metaanalysis
Brain
Synapse, Cells, Stem, And Medulla oblongata
Cephalocaudal rule
the 'top to bottom' rule
introvert
a person characterized by concern primarily with his or her own thoughts and feelings
Eysenck
trait theorist that tried to reduce description of personality to 3 genetically influenced (NATURE or Biological Approach) dimensions which all have to various degrees.
psychoanalysis approach
emphasized dark forces in the unconscious
sigmund freud, free association, dream analysis
independent variable
factor that is manipulated by researcher
Semantics
Represents the overall meaning of what is being said, relies on the lower levels but represents the ultimate goal of a language
correlational study
examines how variables are naturally related in the world, without any attempt by researcher to alter them
broca's aphasia
a language disorder characterized by slow, laborious speech
androgens
"male" sex hormones, produced in the testes; an example is testosterone. In females, the adrenal glands produce androgens
Eugenics
increase good people by their good genes
Egocentric Bias
Tendency to exaggerate the change between present and past in order to make ourselves look good in retrospect
sample
everyone who is involved in your research
3 Components of Emotion
Physiological- biological response, heart rate
Expressive behaviors- cultural rules (appropriate behavior at a funeral)
Conscious experience- cognitive label (I feel such and such)
Display rules
learned ways of controlling displays of emotion in social settings
Psychoanalysis
A method of psychotherapy developed by Freud based on the belief that the root of all psychological problems is unconscious conflicts among the id, ego, & superego.
Neurons
nerve cells which are the basic building blocks of the nervous system
Biopsychologist
A basic researcher who studies the links between the brain, body and the mind.
glial cell
a cell that surrounds neurons, influences the communication among neurons, and generally helps in the "care and feedin" of neurons.
Fetish
a condition in which arousal and/or sexual gratification is attained through inanimate objects (shoes, pantyhouse) or non-sexual body parts (feet, hair). Is considered a problem when the object is needed in order to obtain arousal or gratification and the individual can not complete a sexual act without this object present 
What was the UCR in Pavlov's experiment?
Salivation
procedural memory
a type of memory containing information about how to do things
INSTRUMENTAL CONDITIONING (THORNDIKE)
certain/correct response (R) gets connected to a reward (RX) based off the fact that many of our behaviors are voluntary (under the control of the organism)a form of learning in which a reinforcer (RX) is given only if the animal performs the instrumental response what has to be learned is the relationship b/n the response & the reinforcerR is NOT a reflexpuzzle box; setting which allows a hierarchy of responsesstrength of conditioning depends on latency & probability
Emotion
outward expression or display of mood & feeling
Frustration-aggression principle
The principle that frustration- the blocking of an attempt to achieve some goal- creates anger, which can generate aggression.
Anorexia nervosa
An eating disorder involving intense fears of gaining weight coupled with refusal to maintain normal body weight.
racial memory
feelings, patterns of thought, and experience that have been transmitted from generation to generation and that deeply influence the mind and behavior
pseudoinsomnia
when people dream that they are staying awake
Temporal Lobes
Includes the auditory areas, each of which receives auditory information primarily from the opposite ear. the portion of the cerebral cortex lying roughly above the ears.
misattribution
belief that a memory came from one source when in fact, it came from another
critical thinking
thinking that does not blindly accept arguments and conclusions. Rather, it examines assumptions, discerns hidden values, evaluates evidence, and asesses conclusions.
symbol
a sound or design that represents and object or quality
yoked controls
an animal is paired with an experimental animal, each recieves the same treatment but the treatment is controlled by the experimental animals behavior.
saturation
strength of a hue- how much white there is
Yerkes-Dodson lawch. 9
the principle that performance on tasks is best when the arousal level is appropriate to the difficulty of the task- higher arousal for simple tasks, moderate arousal for tasks of moderate difficulty, and lower arousal for complex tasks.
Conditioned Response (CR)
A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus
Introspection
deals with how we perceive things and how we think and feel (ex: Wilhelm Wundt's experiments dealing with how and when the brain received a sound)
Collectivist cultures and dreams
dreams reflect community and predicting the future
Marcia (age 8) has parents who call her an idiot, tell her she's too clumsy for sports, and embarrass her in front of friends. As a friend or neighbor of the family, which opinion on your part is the most accurate?A) I wish they wouldn't do that, but it's
C
Thomas Hobbs
Nothing exists but energy and matter, all behavior is explainable
Efferent Nerve Fibers
carry information outwards from the central nervous system.
Plastic
Human traits can be molded yet people maintain a certain durability of identity
latent learning
learning that is not demonstrated by an immediate observable change in behavior
*Reciprocity*
to respond to someone that responds to you.
(usually-give and take the same attraction)
What is an event or stimulus that makes the behavior it follows more likely to occur in the future?
reinforcer
who wrote the book "getting the love you want"
hendrix
Interactionist Theory
Although infants are born with an innate ability to acquire language, social interactions play a crucial role in language
general symptoms of schizophrenia
- delusions- disorganized speech- hallucinations- disturbed emotions
ingroup bias
the tendency to favor one's own group
radiate
to extend, spread, or move like rays or radii from a center.
arrangement problems are often solved by
sudden burst of insight
Immune neglect
The human tendency to neglect the sped and then strength of the "psychological immune system," which enables emotionalrecovery and resilience after bad things happen.
Dependent Variable
The variable that is measured in a study.
5 major changes of puberty
adolescent growth spurt, development of primary sex characteristics, secondary sex characteristics (not involved in reproduction), body composition, circulation and respiration
alternative forms reliabilty
giving alternate forms of the same test on two differnt occasions
Electroencephalography (EEG): ERP: Event Related Potential
Measured response to a particular event
-Records changes in brians activity according to certain stimulus (event related)
-Remember example officer shot man with a moon (unexpected word)
lobotomy
now rare, cut nerves on front lobes to control emotion.
SELF MONITORING
record data on the behavior that you are trying to change.
Sensory Memory Store
Where sensory information is kept for a few seconds or less
Steps in a Scientific Investigation
1. Formulated a testable Hypothesis
2. Select a research method and design the study
3.collect the data
4. Analyze the data and draw a conclusion
5. Report the findings
Basic Research
Pure science that aims to increase the scientific knowledge base
Cognitive Development: PiagetThe Scheme
Organized pattern of behavior or coherent body of knowledge.
Central Nervous System (CNS) deals w/:
brain & spinal cord
psychoanalytic perspective
school of thought that focuses on how behavior springs from unconscious drives and conflicts
basal metabolic rate
, the body's resting rate of energy expenditure. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 476)
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
an anxiety disorder in which a person is continually tense, apprehensive, and in a state of autonomic nervous system arousal
discuss familial characteristics of people with anorexia.
starving themselves, think they are fat
Case Study Method
An in-depth study of one or more individuals
Schizophrenia is a disturbance of... 4 things?
language or thought
perceptions (hallucinations, dellusions)
emotion or mood
behavior
Secure Attachment
parent is a secure base and the baby is distressed when parent leaves, but is easily calmed and comforted upon return; free to walk around
What is prosocial dominance?
A form of social dominance commonly seen in girls
Person Perception
We often judge people on the basis of their looks, and that doing so has important implications
"Findings with TMS (transcranial magnetic stimulation)"
i. A magnetic shifts the polarization of neurons, knocks them out temporarily
ii. Cause performance on direct tests to go down, but not indirect
iii. Suggests two systems
What are the four goals of psychology?
description, prediction, control, and understanding
What is the difference threshold?
This is the minimum difference between two stimuli required for detection 50% of the time
According to the humanistic approach, what role do parents play in personality development?
Most parents provide love and support that is conditional: they love you as long as we follow what they want us to do. Parents who disapprove of their children’s behavior may withhold their love; as a result, children quickly abandon their true feelings, dreams, and desires and accept only those parts of themselves that elicit parental love and support. Others have unconditional positive regard, in which children are accepted, loved, and prized no matter how they behave. Parents may express disapproval of bad behavior, but in a context that ensures the children feel loved.
Dentist chair drill turned on no response applied to tooth pain experienced from then on flinches at drill...
Classical conditioning: sound of drill is the conditioned stimulus
What is a variable ratio schedule?
the number of non reinforced times it takes to get a reinforcement varies. 
What is the reasoning behind the warmth and heaviness involved in autogenic training
Caused by dilation of blood vessels, change in the distribution of blood flow, gravity
Which Stage of sleep are delta waves observed on the EEG? Which stage do Sleep Spindles appear?
Delta trasition occurs in Stage 3 and Delta waves are in stage 4.Sleep Spindles are in Stage 2
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