Psychology Test 24 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
13
visual cliff
auditory cortex
process sounds
RAS
Reticulating Activating System
major neurotransmitters
acetylcholine-controls muscle movements, cognitive functioning, memory, and emotion.dopamine-learning & memoryserotonin-sleep, appetite, and moodnorepinephrine-heart rate, slowing of intenstinal activity, dreaming, wakingGABA-major inhibatory neurotransmitterglutamate-major exitatroy neurotransmitter
Psychoneuroimmunology
Interaction of psychological processes, the brain, and the immune system
imagery encoding
form mental pictures
afferent
carrying signals to the brain
Parenting is physically and psychologically healthy for men.T or F
True
sequential design
combines cross-sectional and longitudinal study, studying groups of people of different ages at multiple points in each groups lifespan
pituitary gland
master gland. growth hormone
ego
"executive" of personality; constrains the id to reality; operates according to the reality principle; must take into account the incompatible and equally unrealistic demands of the id and superego
Empiricism
Empirical Evidence is information gained from direct observation.
Constructive Coping
Ellis' Rational ThinkingHumorPositive Reinterpretation
addiction
compulsive drug craving and use. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 297)
co-dominance
trait determined by two alleles
(blood type, A, B, or AB)
attachment
the close, emotional bonds of affection that develop between infants and their caregiversformed early in lifenot instantaneous
occipital lobes
-part of cerebral cortex-contains visual cortex
sample
the collection of subjects selected for observation in an empirical study
Behaviorist versus Freudian perspective on fear
Argued that phobias and emotional disturbances are due to unconscious conflicts and sexual urges
Vision
More information about external world comes to us through our eyes
sublimination
the process of redirecting sexual impulses into learning tasks.
Unconscious
- A reservoir of unacceptable thoughts, wishes, feelings and memories
- The ugly contents of the unconscious are kept this way by repression. 
sedative
drug that exerts a calming effect
Myelin sheath
insulating that encses some axons--speeds up the transmission of signals that move along the axons
Latent Learning
Change in behavior
Not demonstrated immediately
Occurs from learning from someone else without even realizing it.
You read a fill-in-the-blank question on an exam and you are sure you know the answer. However, when you start to write the answer you find you cannot recall it. You feel you are just about to recall it abnd become frustrated, almost like you are about t
tip-of-the-tongue
gestalt therapy
experience emotions, not using facadesFritz Perlsaware of what is going on in the moment
fixed intervals
type of intermittent reinforcement schedule, reward given only at certain chronological times, announced times, ex. once at 12 pm and once at 3 pm
telepathy
communication between minds by some means other than sensory perception.
interpersonal theory
the theory that personality development and behavior disorders are related to and determined by relationships between persons
emotion-focused coping
attempting to alleviate stress by avoiding or ignoring a stressor and attending to emotional needs related to one's stress reaction. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 562)
Night Terrors
Characterized by high arousal and appearance of being terrified. Unlike nightmares, which occur during REM, these occur during stage four sleep and are usually not remembered.
hypochondriasis
anxiety or fear of having a diseasehigh comorbidity with anxiety/mood disordersfocus on bodily symptomslittle benefit from medical reassurancestrong disease conviction
Delusions of persecution are most common among those with ______ schizophrenia.
D) paranoid
Albert Ellis
He developed the term "Catastrophic Thinking".
extinction
The gradual loss of an association over time.
Implicit memory
The unintentional influence of prior experiences
Hypothalamus
A forebrain structure thought to play a role in the regulation of various motivational activities, including eating, drinking, and sexual behavior. (Includes SCN)
Hormonal stress theory of aging
Diabetes, heart disease.
standard deviation
In descriptive statistics, a measure of variability that indicates the average extent to which all the scores in a distribution vary from the mean.
Interposition
if one object partially blocks our view of another, we perceive it as closer.
Genital Stage
Final pyschosexual stage; the coming together of the mature adult personality with the capacity to love, work, and relate to others in mutually satisfying and reciprocal ways.
blastcyst
ball of identical cells early in pregnancy that havent yet begun to take on any specific function in a body part
Behaviorism
A theory of learning that focuses solely on observable behaviors, discounting the importance of such mental activitiy as thinking, wishing and hoping
humanistic terms on test
actualizing tendence
treats the self
uses conditions
put the person back in touch with inner guidence system
retinal disparity
the difference between the images striking the retinas of two eyes
What is sleep paralysis?
Waking and feeling paralyzed
purpose of performance appraisal
*Administrative decisions i.e punishments (termination) and rewards (promotion); union and legal issues.*employee development and feedback*criteria for research
ANOREXIA NERVOSA
SERIOUS EATING DISORDER THAT IS ASSOCIATED WITH AN INTENSE FEAR OF WEIGHT GAIN AND A DISTORTED BODY IMAGE.
The best predictor of sexual activity for older women is the amount of vaginal lubrication they had when they were younger. TF?
false
Spinal Cord
What connects the peripheral and central nervous systems?
hepothesis
a prediction about behavior that is tested through research
reinforcement
a procedure, as a reward or punishment, that alters a response to a stimulus
conditioned
proceeding from or dependent on a conditioning of the individual; learned or acquired behavior patterns
Creativity
A mental process that preoduces novel responses that contribute to the solutions of problems.
Terminal buttons
(a.k.a. axon terminals, end bulbs, or synaptic knobs)-tips at the end of axons that secrete neurotransmitters when stimulated by the action potential
To treat your sleep problem you are told that you should not nap, you should set your alarm clock to wake up at the same time each day, and you should get our of bed if you cannot sleep. What sleep disorder have you been experiencing?
Insomnia 
Dependent Variable
the condition that is being measured, ex: how much growth plants accumulated from the independent variable.
Hans Selye
He formulated a theory of stress reactions called the General Adaption Syndrome.
Behavioral Learning
Forms of learning, such as classical and operant conditioning, that can be described in terms of stimuli and responses.
Sympathetic nervous system
The subsystem of the auntonomic nervous system that usually prepares the organism for vigorous activity



In Pavlov's studies what was the conditioned stimulus?
A Bell
Preoperational stage
2-7 years children begin to use language and think symbolically.
William's Syndrome
• A rare disorder caused by a hemizygous (someone has only one member of a chromosome segment rather than the usual two) micro-deletion of about 20-25 genes on chromosome 7 including the gene for elastin. Have amplified hearing. When is comes to hearing and musical ability, those with this disease have acute hypersensitive hearing and an uncanny ability for music.
Weber's Law
a principle that, to perceive their difference, 2 stimuli must differ by a constant minimum % rather than a constant amount
Social Neuroscience
An area of research in social psychology that seeks knowledge about the neural and biological bases of social processes.
display rules
learned norms or rules, often taught very early, about when it is apropriate to express certain emotions and to whom one should show them
Mental Set
Phenomenon of becoming stuck in a specific problem-solving strategy, inhibiting our ability to generate alternatives
Evolutionary Psychology(p 21)
A field of psychology emphasizing evolutionary mechanisms that may help explain human commonalities in cognition, development, emotion, social practices, and other areas of behavior.
Corpus Callosum
The large band of neural fibers connection the two brain hemispheres and carrying messages between them.
What are concepts?
categorization of objects, events or people that share common properties
glial cells
cells in the nervous stystem that support, nourish, and protect neurons.
John B. Watson
Originated the school of psychology known as behaviorism.
law of effect
The principle that behaviors followed by positive (pleasurable) consequences are strengthened (and thus will likely occur in the future), while behaviors followed by negative consequences are weakened.
consciousness
the mind or the mental faculties as characterized by thought, feelings, and volition
Type A
in a rush, work harder, aggressive, competitive under stress, impatient, don’t deal well with stress
size constancy
Perception of an object as the same size regardless of the distance from which it is viewed
Adler's Theory of PersonalityIndividual Psychology
A conscious, self-aware component of an individuals personality
blind spot
the point at which the optic nerve leaves the eye, creating a "blind" spot because no receptor cells are located there
Optic nerve
A bundle of fibers composed of axons of ganglion cells that carries visual information to the brain
self efficacy 
the set of beliefs that one can perform adequately in a particular situation
extrinsic motivation
The desire to behave in certain ways to receive external rewards or avoid threatened punishment. Compare with intrinsic motivation.
Developmental Socialization
The process by which people learn to be more competent in playing their currently assumed role. "on-the-job-training". (162)
Soma
The "cell body," or the bulbous end of a neuron, containing the cell nucleus
What are always parts of research?
Mean, Median and Mode.
Gathering and Evaluating evidence for a study
Generate a hypothesis-Measure, Observe, Collect data to test hypothesis-analyze/examine results-Interpret your results-Disseminate data (share)
secondary aging
refers to changes that are more common as people age but are caused by health habits, genes, and other influences that vary from person to person
depth perception
the ability to see objects in three dimensions although the images that strike the retina are two-dimensional; allows us to judge distance
psychology
the science of the mind or of mental states and processes.
Cognitive Psychology
A shift away from a limited focus on behavior toward the study of mental processes in the broadest sense
classical conditioning
a simple form of learning in which one stimulus elicits the response usually elicited by another stimulus
Case Study
An in depth study of an individual/ a few individuals via observation, interviews, and perhaps psychological testing.
Two factor theory of intelligence
Thurston; every task requires a combination of general ability and skills that are specific to the task
3/11/09
7. One of the main determinates in sex organ (utero) development is what?
The presence of testosterone
I-O Psychology ψ 
Chapter 3
Specific Job Analysis Techniques
 
DOT
Dictionary of Occuopational Titles- A reference guide that classifies and describes over 40,000 jobs
What are the three types of learning?
Classical conditioning, operant conditioning, and observational learning
Sandi is a single mother living in a project in a poor section of the city. She has addiction issues and just lost custody if her three children. What type of psychologist is most likely to get involved in Sandi's situation?
Psychiatric Social Worker
Heart problems and blindness
What ailments may be caused by rubella and syphilis?
peripheral nervous system (PNS)
parts of the nervous system not housed in bone
Primary attachment figure
The person that a baby first forms a bond with.
measures what it's intended to measure
a test is valid if it ...
What is the formula for intelligence?
MA/CA x 100 Mental age times chronological age times 100
latency stage of psycho sexual development
the fourth stage in Freud's theory in which their is no erogenous zone, sexual feelings are repressed, and the focus is on cognitive and social development
"Brown et al. study on photo bias"
Subjects watch a film when a crime occurs
View photographs of suspects
Simultaneous line up
Having seen someone in the mug shots was enough to lead people to believe they were the ones who committed the crime when they had not
The tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them.
What is the tendency to search for and use information that supports our ideas rather than refutes them? C
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