Psychology Test 9 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Left Brain
fertilized egg cell
neurotransmitter that influences voluntary movement, attention, alertness; lack of dopamine linked with Parkinson's disease; too much is linked with schizophrenia
THINKERS see Feelers as....
illogical over-emotional weak hysterical irrational
Cell body
cell's life support
Adapting one's current understandings to incorporate new information.
Antisocial personality disorder
Dramatic-emotional personality disorder characterized by extremely impulsive, deceptive, violent, ruthless, and callous behaviors; a serious and potentially dangerous disorder.
during excitement phase, engorgement of blood vessels-produces penile erection & swollen testes in males, lead to swelling & hardening of the clitoris, expansion of the vaginal lips and vaginal lubrication in females
behavioral reactions to obsessions intended to reduce anxiety
Psychological Disorder
Deviant, distressful, and dysfunctional behaviour patterns.
love/belonging needs
friendship, family, sexual intimacy
Evidence-Based Practice
clinical decision-making that integrates the best available research with clinical expertise and patient characteristics and preferences
mental images collectively, especially those produced by the imagination
Linguistic determinism
Benjamin Whorf's hypothesis that language determines the way we think.
unconditioned response
an automatic, unlearned physiological response to a stimulus
therapy in which the therapist actively gives interpretations of a client's statements and may suggest certain behavior or actions. Psychoanalysis today is more directive
a set of hereditary physical characteristics that distinguishes major groups of people
semantic memory
general knowledge of the world
ex---eggs are breakfast food
stop at a traffic light or stop sign 
epidemiology of body dismorphic disorder:
30-50yo females>males
variable ratio
In operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response after an unpredictable number of responses.
a sleep disorder characterized by uncontrollable sleep attacks
Links psychological processes to ativities in the nervous system and other bodily processes.
Behavioral neuroscience
sense of taste-five major taste sensations: sweet, sour, salty, bitterm and unami (delicious-recently added in 2003, taste receptor thats sensitive to glutamate-found in protein)
A diagnostic scanning technique that produces high-resolution images of the structures of the brain
inferential statistics
mathematical procedures that help psychologists make inferences about what data mean
Pituitary gland
master gland; regulates other endocrine glands; releases horomones
an emotional attachment that between primary caregiver and infant within a few hours or days after birth
A consequence that occurs after behavior and decreases the likelihood that that behavior will recur.
the coexistence within an individual of simultaneous positive and negative feelings toward the same person or object
characterized by an irresistible urge to act; governed by an obsessive need to conform coupled with an inability to express positive emotions
Belief bias
The tendency for one's preexisting beliefs to distort logical reasoning, sometimes by making invaled conclusions seem valid, or valid conclusions seem invalid.
Degree to which two variables are associated, In a positive correlation, the two variables increase or decrease together, In a negative correlation, one variable decreases as the other increases.
Contemporary theories of cognitive development
Domain-General Cognitive AccountsSociocultural AccountsModular Accounts
dissociative amnesia
inability to recall important personal information-most often related to a stressful experience-that can't be explained by ordinary forgetfulness
our sense of touch, temperature and pain
observer bias
error introduced into measurement when an observer overemphasizes behaviors he or she expects to find and fails to notice behaviors he or she does not expect
A propensity for learning particular kinds of associations over others.
menstrual synchrony
isolate pheramones that predict a synchronization of menstrual cycle;there are pheramonal cues or relations; this study done by Martha McClentock
temporal lobe
(meaning “near the temples”) lies below the parietal lobe. Contains area devoted to auditory processing.
Environmental Influences affecting Timing of Puberty
-Nutrition, Weight, Dieting, Exercise-Psychosocial aspects- Links between earlier pubertal timing and stress, divorce, father absence, family conflict
Lawrence Kohlberg's 3 Stages of Moral Reasoning
Alfred Adler
who came up with inferiority complex
optic nerve
collects info from ganglion, bipolar and amacrine cells & sends to occipital lobe
If one of 2 alternatives is recognized, go with it
groupthink (509)
strong pressure to conform prevents its members from criticizing the emerging group consensus. (509)
THC attaches to receptors that control memory and movement
excites receptors of both excitatory and inhibitory transmitters
our current view and knowledge. We learn what a bird is, then everything we see that is flying we think is a bird.
the base of the brainstem; controls heartbeat and breathing.
A psychological predicament in which fear that you will be evaluated in terms of a negative stereotype about a group to which you belong creates anxiety and self-doubt, lowering performance in a particular domain that is important to you.
stereotype threat
Framing Effects
Occur when people give different answers to the same problem depending on how the problem is phrased (or framed)
Disorder marked by extreme mood swings, including both depressive and manic episodes
bipolar disorder
A term used to describe speaking aspects such as volume, tone, and pitch, that actually color verbal language
conditioned response
a response that becomes associated with a previously unrelated stimulus as a result of pairing it with another that normally yields the response
ego psychology
a school of neo-Freudian psychology holding that the ego has autonomous energy and functions independently.
health psychology
a subfield of psychology that provides psychology's contribution to behavioral medicine. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 549)
central nervous system
the brain and the spinal cord
Autonomic nervous system
Subdivision of the peripheral nervous system that controls involuntary functions. It includes the sympathetic nervous system and the parasympathetic nerous system.
Axis 2 disorders
In DSM-IV-TR, the more long-standing personality disorders as well as mental retardation.
(incites riots) a loss of one's sense of individuality and responsibility when in a group
scripted situation
a situation in which certain events are expected to occur in a particular sequence
A reaction that resembles an unconditioned response but is produced by a conditioned stimulus.
Top-Down Processing
cortex sends signals to the CNS; higher level mental processes; constructing perceptions drawing on our experience and expectations
Affectionless characters
their relationships are for their use not for bonding
physiological dependence
state of physical dependence on drug caused by repeated usage, changes body chemistry
Night Terrors
a sleep disorder characterized by high arousal and an appearence of being terrified
getting people to agree to a small request to increase the chances that they will agree to a larger request later
dissocaitve identity disorder
rare dissocative disorder, exhibit 2 or more distinct personalities
What are the pieces of the mind? Examined using introspection.
The largest part of the brain where cognitive functions as well as many of the motor functions of the brain are carried out. 
social loafing
is a reduction in effort by individuals when they work in groups as compared to when they work by themselves, caused by the diffusion of responsibility in groups, individuals can hide in the crowd, more likely in larger groups, activities where individual output is hard to evaluate and where they expect co-workers to perform well and "carry them", less likely in collectivistic cultures
Emotional regulation
Learning how and when to express emotions.
1. parent tending to child
2. not being allowed to show emotion
The rate of vibration, or the number of sound waves per second.
Primacy Effect
A characteristic of memory in which recall of the first two or three items in a list is particularly good.
brain becomes aware before deep muscle relaxation of REM stops
Sleep Paralysis
changes in a persons behavior induced by the presence or actions of others is known as
social influence
concentration of the mind on a single object or thought selected with a view to limiting or clarifying receptivity by narrowing the range of stimuli
Theory of mind
People's ideas about their own and others' mental states- about their feelings, percetpions, and thoughts and the behavior these might predict.
secondary (or conditioned) reinforcers
reinforcers that are learned by association, usually via classical conditioning
Having observed participants in his simulated prison study. Philip Zimbardo offered an explanation for the destructive behavior of U.S. military guards at Iraq's Abu Ghraib Prison. Zimbardo's explanation best exemplified
C) a situational attribution
role of the motor association cortex
planning and initiating movements
what makes a good experiement?
internal & external validity, experimental realism, mudane realism, reliablity scale
One of the students in your class often asks questions of your professor. You see that the professor rolls her eyes each time the student asks a question. You find that you are reluctant to ask the professor a question. What have you experienced?
Observational Learning
When we "see in others" that which we are unwilling to see in ourselves
extraordinary claims
the more a claim contradicts what we already know, the more persuasive the evidence for this claim must be before we should accept it. ex. big foot
Measurement Artifacts
The biased results that occur when the process of measuring sensitize participants, when measurements are imprecise, or made at the wrong time.
cognitive factors of somatoform disorders
ppl draw catastrophic conclusions about minor body complaints, seem to apply a faulty standard to good health, associating good health with a complete absence of symptoms & discomfort
parellel play
two children playing side by side at similar activities but paying little attention or no attention to each other, the earliest kind of social interaction between toddlers.
Santiago Ramon y Cajal
Discovered the shape, parts, and existance of neurons
A thin film, located at the very back of the eyeball, that contains cells, called photoreceptors, that are extremely sensitive to light. The retina consists of three layers, the third and deepest of which contains two kinds of photoreceptors, rods and cones, that perform transduction—that is, they change light waves into nerve impulses.
control group
in an experiment, a group similar to the experimental group that is exposed to the same experimental environment but is not given the treatment
what is one function of sleep and dreams?
conservation of energy
perceptual adaptation
in vision the ability to adjust to an artificially displaced or even inverted visual field
Neo-Freudians or "after" Freud
Adler, Jung, Horney, and Erikson are all know as...
path of light through eye
cornea, aqueous humor, pupil, lens, vitreous humor, retina
Sleep Cycle (stages)
1-light, brief images, 2, 3, 4... REM as you rise back up to first again
Fixed interval schedule
A reinfocer is given only when a correct response is made after a set amount of time has passed since the last reinforced response. Responses made during the time interval are not reinforced.
The Science of Explanation 15
1. Significance
-helps determine if random assignment failed
-calculate odds random assignment failed
--differences between control and experiment group likely to be caused by third variable?
What is an experiment? What makes it different from other research methods?
Involves systematically manipulating one variable and examining its effects on another. Its different because the researcher as some control over the experiment.
foot in the door
people have be safe, then get drive carfully
I-O Psychology ψ 
Chapter 3
Job Analysis
Personnel Psychology
The specialty area of I/O Psychology focusing on an organization's human resources
If you are watching sleep researchers monitor the sleep of a normal adult. The participant is hooked up to an EEG. What brain waves would you observe as the person becomes drowsy and then enters the first stage of sleep?
Alpha waves then replaced by theta
what is the fundamental attribution error
the fundamental attribution error is the tendency to overestimate the impact of personal disposition and underestimate the impact of the situations in analyzing the behaviors of others
what does a hypothesis always describe
how a dependant variable depends on the value of the independent variable
Each Year from age 2-6, well nurished children add almost how many inches and FT.
3 inches and gain 4.5 Pounds.
The removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior.
What is the removal of an unpleasant stimulus following a given behavior in order to increase the frequency of that behavior? N
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