Psychology. All words Flashcards

Terms Definitions
automatic movements
accessible population
local populations
Individualism vs. Collectivism
the first menstrual period
pain pleasure emotional motivation
Function Morphemes
Serve grammatical funtions
derived characteristic diagnostic for a group
focusing and consciousness
-how we direct the spotlight of awareness
Positive Punnishment
Adds something bad (spanking)
(Michel's) situationism
personality varies by context
Political Activism

Massive rallies, Volunteer in political campaigns, Vote, Write letters and Identify with political party

(electroencephalograph) a device that records electrical activity in the brain
complex reaction involving a subjective experience (cognitive), bodily arousal (physical), & overt expression (behavioral)
Brain lesion
scarring of brain dissue
A tone's experienced highness or lowness; depends on frequency.
Encode items in a special way.
Occipital lobe
receives and processes visual information. Light/dark, colors,shapes.Blow to the back of the head can cause blindness
making up acceptable excuse for unacceptable behavior
Animistic Thinking
Assigning animistic behaviors to inanimate abjects
Paranoid Schizophrenic
-delusions of persecution-feel spyed on and plotted against-will act on delusions, hear voices-delusions of grandeur-delusional jealousy
44 in englishsmallest in languageno meaningalphabet + ch, sh,etc
Milgram's original study found that approximately ____ of subjects exhibited obedience by administering all 30 levels of electric shock.
Test scores remain stable over time
The "where" stream
Perceptionand location of movement
Genetic influence on a characteristic which comes from genes and environment is called...
an individual's emotional response to bereavement
The global capacity to think rationally, act purposefully, and deal effectively with the environment.
chemical substances that are released by the endocrine glands
which school painting applied the theory of feature analysis to canvas building figures out of simple features?
the physical, mental, emotional, and social characteristics of an individual; the organized pattern of behavioral characteristics of the individual
the adjustable opening in the center of the eye through which light enters. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 205)
conditioned stimulus
a previously neutral stimulus that comes to elicit a conditioned response after it has been paired with an enconditioned stimulus
when you have stimulus generalization and eventually you learn to differentiate between two stimuli..
stimulus discrimination
reduced the number of traits to between 16 and 23 with a computer method called factor analysis.
Educational psychology
The study of how psychological processes affect and can enhance teaching and learning.
Postpartum Depression
Occurs when an individual experiences symptoms of depression following childbirth. Reasons: feelings of responsibility, hormonal changes, having attention shifted from parent to child. Most women that have children do not have postpartum depression. But those that do have Postpartum depression, it can be particularly nasty in that it can hang on for a while. Start showing symptoms within 4 weeks of the birth.
successive approximations
A behavior that gets incrementally closer to the overall desired behavior
the brain is divided into certain sections and depending on bumps on your head you could have an increase in that certain area of emotion
he had surgery to relieve debilitating epileptic seixures and his ability to form long term memories was wiped out but short term was fine. he doesnt recognize doctros treating him or routes... memory loss is attributed to hippocampus loss
Theory X
assumes that workers are basically lazy, error prone and extrinsically motivated by money and should be directed from above.
the process of converting an external energy or substance into neural activity
subliminal messages
messages that are not consciously perceived but that supposedly affect behavior
Temporal Lobe
At temples behind ear, auditory processing, hearing. Wernecke's Area- Language, comprehension, Wernecke's aphasia.
action potential
an abrupt wave of electrochemical changes traveling down an axon when a neuron becomes depolarized.
Case Study
A research method involving the intensive examination of some phenomenon in a particular individual, group, or situation
Continuous reinforcment
Reinforcing the desired response each time it occurs Good for rapid learning but not long term
TRANSIENCE - storage decay. Ex. Unused information fades.
a state of having sustained a loss
Optic nerve
collection of nerve fibers (actually the axons of the ganglion cells)
Emotional intelligence
Abilities relating to the emotional side of life -- abilites such as perceiving, using, understanding, and managing one's own emotions, as well as the emotions of others.
deja vu
the illusion of having previously experienced something actually being encountered for the first time.
declarative memory
memory for conversations, facts and events, normal thoughts of memory
Afferent Neurons
Also known as sensory neurons, takes information from the senses to the brain.
stimulus generalization
extension of the association UCS and CS ton include a broad array of similar stimuli
Gestalt Psychology
Approach to psychology most noted for emphasizing that our perception of a whole is different from our perception of the individual stimuli.
Association Area
Are of the brain that controls learning, remebering, thinking and speaking.
linear perspective
two parallel lines that extend into distance appear to come together at some point on horizon
Adrenal Gland
an endocrine gland located just above the kidney; in the female, it is the major producer of androgens
self effacing bias
tendency to attribute ones successes to external factors and failures to internal ones (modesty & humility)
clinical psychology
the field of practice and research directed toward helping people who suffer from psychological problems
Name the disorder of development that is characterized by the body's lack of enzymes to convert phenylalanine into tyrosine?
Phenylketonuria (PKU)
- the view that psychology (1) should be an objective science that (2) studies behaviour without reference to mental processes. Must research psychologists today agree with 1 AND 2.
drugs that increase the action of a neurotransmitter
Impersonal communication
Behavior that treats others as objects rather than individuals. See also Interpersonal communication
sociocultural approach
studies the impact of social, ethnic, racial, and religious groups on behavior
hypnotic analgesia
a reduction of pain reported by patients after undergoing hypnosis
the way in which words are put together
The tendency, in explaining other people's behavior, to overestimate personality factors and underestimate the influence of the situation.
lobe that is the final destination for visual information
occipital lobe
biological perspective
emphasizes the influence of biology on behavior
What is reuptake?
Process by which neurotransmitters are taken back into the synaptic vesicles.(Like a suction tube sucking the chemicals back into the vesicles)
cognitive psychology
the study of how people perceive, remember, think, speak, and solve problems.
the part of the psyche, residing in the unconscious, that is the source of instinctive impulses that seek satisfaction in accordance with the pleasure principle and are modified by the ego and the superego before they are given overt expression.
Adrenal Glands
A pair of endocrine glands just above the kidneys. These secrete the hormones epinephrine and norepinephrine, which help to arouse the body in times of stress.
Stimulus discrimination
Refers to a learned response to a specific stimulus, but not to other similar stimuli.
Fixed Interval Schedule (FI)
An operant conditioning principle in which reinforcements are presented at fixed time periods, provided that the appropriate response is made.
Assessment of Stress
A type of psychological assessment. Can be done physiologically with blood pressure readings and cardiograms, or psychologically with questionnaires.
solomon Asch's famous experiment addressing conformity
different line comparison. people would agree with actors when they were the only one that didn't answer along with them.
experimental group
the group that is exposed to the treatment, that is, to one version of the independent variable
all the cases in a group, from which samples may be drawn for a study
REM behavior disorder:
disorder in which muscle control is not inhibited during REM sleep, thus people act out their dreams
Industrial/Organizational psychologist
Dr. Lipka focuses on ways to improve employee job satisfaction and productivity. Dr. Lipka is most likely a(n)
(6.3) Fred has a nasal voice and Ted has a gravelly voice. Which psychological dimension of hearing describes the difference?
the effect of promising da reward for doing something a person already likes to do
Neurotransmitters (NT)
chemicals that are stored at ends of axon
What is the most primitive part of the brain?
theory that predicts that the American flag would have a green, black, and yellow after image?
opponet process theory
Paul Broca found loss of ability to SPEAK intelligently is associated with damage to
left frontal lobe
What are two roles of glial cells?
Getting nutrients to neurons.
What were Piagets Stages of Cognitive Development?
Sensorimotor, Preoperation, Concrete Operational and Formal Operational
playing hard to get
this is a reproductive advantage for women b/c it raises value of her to the male and shows she will not play around
What are the small, fast brain waves? the slow, larger waves?
fast--beta wavesslow--alpha waves
relearning method
ratio of how much less time it takes to relearn something
Baillargeon's "Car Study"
Babies see track for car with a curtain covering part of it
Baby sees...
1. Possible
2. Impossible - babies stare longer at impossible
fMRI (functional magnetic resonance imaging)
a technique for revealing blood flow and, therefore, brain activity by comparing successive MRI scans. MRI scans show brain anatomy; ____ scans show brain function. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 069)
A child that uses "wawa" to refer to not just water but all drinks is...
Overextending the word
Modal Model: Atkinson & Shiffrin (1971)
Based on the biology of sensoryreceptors not the CNSNot influenced by top-downprocessesVery short durations (e.g., 50ms- 350ms)Limited capacityMaintained byrehearsalInfo lost whenattention is switchedor over timeDigit span approx. 7
What is the definition of stress?
response of individuals to the circumstances and events (stressors) that threaten them and tax their coping abilities
What were the results of the bobo doll study?

ØMore imitative physical aggression occurred among males

ØMales particularly influenced by same-gender model

ØMore imitative verbal aggression occurred when model was same gender as child

5. Chris is very passive and peaceful. Friends and family have never seen him get angry or hurt anyone. They are also quite puzzled that he spends so much of his free time building furniture out in the garage. Chris's behavior most likely illustrates whic
a) denialb) displacementc) reaction formationd) sublimation e) a and b
how does alcohol affect the process of sealing recent experiences into permanent memories?
alcohol suppresses REM sleep, during which memories are imprinted into our minds
A Few Problems w/ Absolute Threshold
*1.* When a sensory stimulus is near absolute threshold, some people are more likely to say “Yes, I perceive it” and others more likely to say “No, I don't.” *2.* People may be more sensitive to sensory input, so much so that they might say they saw or heard something that was not there.
Learning that occurs when we make a connection, or an association, between two events.
What is learning that occurs when we make a connection, or an association, between two events? A
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