Psychology2 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
testable propositon
classical conditioning
Pavlov's dogs
disorganized symptoms
speech and behavior
positive correlation
both rise together
Which psychological perspective focuses on creative potential and psychological health?
receives sensory information --> seeing, hearing, touching, tasting NO SMELL
More subjective ideas, unreliable (i.e. god)
relatively enduring characteristics of individuals that account for their consistent patterns of responses to situations. Consistent across time and situation
exaggerated conception of individuals own importance
Brian Structures
Corpus callosum- connects 2 brain hemispheres
Three main brain sections
Hind brain- top of spinal cord
Mid brain- above te hind brain and surrounding
forebrain (Cerebrum)- Above all others, most complex and large
Hypthalemus- motivation, sexual behaviors, eating, sleeping
Central Tendencies
define what is normal
Early perspective in psychology associated with Wilhem Wundt and Edward Titchener, in which the focus of study is the structure or basic elements of the mind.
obscuring, partially or completely, one sensory process by another, as the dulling of the sense of taste by smoking
The simplest measure of variability, represented by the difference between the highest and the lowest vaules in a frequency distribution,
provides a sense of well being
Amphetamine Psychosis
Amphetamine repeated use: delusional and psychotic state with paranoia and hallucinations
Endogenous drug may link: PEA Phenylethlamine (substance with amphetamine like properties)
Promotes dopamine; blocks reuptake
Developmental Psychology
The psychological specialty that studies how organisms change over time as the result of biological and environmental influences.
awareness of oneself and the environment
REM Sleep
muscle paralysis, sexual arousal, similar to awakened brain activity, everyone dreams several times a night
Traditionally, what has been defined as a physical changes that occurs from conception to maturity
Sexual orientation
person’s sexual attraction and affection for members of either the opposite or the same sex.
sleep disorder characterized by a consistent inability to get to sleep or by frequent awakenings during sleep.
Post traumatic stress dis
sleep problems
4 or more weeks after
social withdrawal
Internal conflict
The emotional predicament people experience when making difficult choices.
removing a pleasant stimulus(usually after undersiable behavior)
research methods
surveys, case studies, longitudinal sudy, double and single blind studies
chemicals the brain produces in response to pain signals.substances derived from the fatty acids that are involved in body responses such as inflammation and menstrual cramping
an irresistible impulse to steal, stemming from emotional disturbance rather than economic need
channel anxiety into an acceptable activity -- video games, hunting, organizing
independent variable
the experimental factor that is manipulated; the variable whose effect is being studied
jerome kagan
demonstrated that some infants are born shy and some are born bold.
double-blind procedure
an experimental procedure in which both the research participants and the research staff are ignorant (blind) about whether the research participants have received the treatment or a placeo. Commonly used in drug-evaluation studies.
action potential
conduction of neural impulse along axon
The loss of information in memory through its non-use.
cerebral laterality
specialization of function for each hemisphere
Small molecule transmitter
class of quick acting neurotransmitters synthesized in hte axon terminal from products derived from the diet
Phases of development concerning different body parts
where each provides sexual gratification
Psycho Sexual Stages
Goodness stereotype
the tendency to perceive attractive people as more intelligent, poised, exciting, independent and better adjusted.
divided consciousness
a state of awareness characterizedby divided attention to two or more activities or tasks performed at the same time
the set of cognitive processes by which a person observes, evaluates, and regulates her behavior
thoughts about why people behave the way they do
display rules
norms that regulate the appropriate expression of emotionsvary among cultures* japan: suppress feelings of negative emotion in public* ifaluk: restrict displays of happiness
Evolutionary Psychology
Considers how behaviour is influenced by our genetic inheritance from our ancestors
Cognitive unconscious
The mental support processes outside our awareness that make our perception, memory, and thinking possible
Motor structure located over the thalamus responsible for control of deliberate movements
Basal Ganglia
The view that knowledge comes from experience via the senses and science flourishes through observation and experiment.
tissue destruction. A brain lesion is a naturally or experimentally caused destruction of brain tissue.
Sleep Cycle
Relaxed - Stage 4: 15-30 minutes
Stage 4 - 30 minutes
Stage 3 then Stage 2
Emergent Stage 1 (REM Sleep) - 40 minutes; Beta Waves
Cycle Repeats 5 times
clinical psychologists
focus on helping people with psychological disorders such as anxiety and depression
exposure to feared object or situation in large doses; client is prevented from avoiding the experience; idea is that eventually anxiety will be extinguished
the coexistence of distinct ethnic and cultural groups in the same society. individuals with a pluralistic stance usually advocate that cultural differences be maintained and appreciated
coping mechanism
an adaptation to environmental stress that is based on conscious or unconscious choice and that enhances control or gives psychological comfort
halo effect
a potential inaccuracy in observation due to overgeneralization from a limited amount of evidence or the influence of preconceived beliefs
Social context
combo of people, their activities & interactions, setting in which behavior occurs, and the expectations & social norms governing behavior in that setting
in reinforcement, the probability of a behavior ____; in punishment the probability of a behavior ____.
increases; decreases
parasympathetic nervous system
fosters bodily processes, such as digestion
- helps conserve energy by slowing other processes
- relaxing and digesting
a nerve cell; the basic building block of the nervous system
organ of corti
tissue containing the hair cells necessary for hearing
Basic Trust
According to Erik Erikson, a sense that the world is predictable and trustworthy; said to be formed during infancy by appropriate experiences with responsive caregivers.
theories paralleling many other theories of human developmental psychology, all of which focus on describing the stages of growth in humans.
Maslow's heiracrhy of needs
Cardiovascular System
Heart, blood vessels, and lungs. Used to transport blood to cells.
general intelligence (g)
a general intelligence factor that, according to spearman and others, underlies specific mental abilities and is therefore measured by every task on an intelligence test
alpha waves
relatively slow brain waves of a relaxed awake state
Defense Mechanisms
Unrealistic strategies used by the ego to discharge tension, such as displacement, sublimation, projection, regression, rationalization, repression, denial.
case study
study of one individual in great detail.
Definition of Threshold
Minimum level intensity required to trigger an impulse.
extrasensory perception
the ability to perceive and know things without using the ordinary senses
Statistically Significant
1.      An outcome in which the observed outcome would be expected to have occurred by chance with a probability of .05 or less.
composite criterion approach
combining individual criteria into a single score. *disadv: some things more imp than others.
Critical Thinking
The process of assessing claims or assertions and making judgements about them on the basis of well supported evidence.
Ventral Stream
Travels across the brain and tells what an object is (the what pathway)
state-dependent memory
memory is enhanced when our internal state at encoding matches our internal state at retrieval
This personality, once associated with time urgency, is now associated with unresolved anger issues
Type A personality
Type A
pertaining to a pattern of behavior characterized by competitiveness, a sense of urgency, impatience, perfectionism, and assertiveness
gender role
a set of expected behaviors for males and for females. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 131)
What is personality psychology?
The study of individuals/how their personality is reflected through actions, emotions, facebook, etc.
refers to how the body responds to any number of physical or emotional stimuli.-increased heart rate, respiratory rate, sweating, skin problems, increased blood pressure, metabolism, changes in circulating fats
Wechler's warning against intelligence tests.
Wechsler cautioned that definitions always reflect the culture within which we live - they reflect whatever society at the moment views as worthwhile, meaningful, and valuable.
striving for superiority
a universal drive to adapt, improve oneself, and master life's challenges-is the prime goal of life
modularity hypothesis
th eidea that the human brain contains an innate, self contained language module that is separate from other aspects of cognitive functioning
Agonist drugs
A drug that mimics or increases a neurotransmitter's effect
consent, before
  even if deception is involved, ... from subjects must be obtained ... they participate in the research.
explicit memory
memories that can be retrieved at will and represented in STM; verbal and visual are this type of memory
A reinforcement schedule in which a reinforcer is delivered after a fixed number of responses has occurred.
fixed-ratio (FR) schedule
Cognitive Dissonance
An unpleasant state that arises when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his or her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
what is hemispheric specialization
left and right hemispheres do different things
manic-depressive psychosis
one of the predecessors to the current mental illness classification system
Dogs strapped into a harness and given repeated and unavoidable shocks developed
C) learned helplessness
Five Factor Model of Personality Traits
Extraversion, Neuroticism, Openness to experience, Agreeableness, Conscientiousness
Erikson's College conflict of intimacy vs. Isolation
Intimacy involves a mutually satisfying, close relationship with another person-Must balance needs for independence and intimacy 1.W/out independence- define self only in terms of partner2.W/out intimacy - face isolation, loneliness, self-absorption 3. Positive resolution- intimacy,committed relationship w/ sacrifice, compromise
Temporal Lobes
are just above on either side of the ears; involved in hearing
Dialectical Reasoning(p 329)
A process in which opposing facts or ideas are weighed and compared, with a view to determining the best solution or resolving differences.
history of mental illness treatment
people were confined to cells, chained1403- London Bedlam, first mental institution1950s- deinstitutionalization; people released. first antipsychotics/depressantsDorothy Dix- helped reform
Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI)
A psychological test widely used by psychologists to assess specific mental disorders.
autonomy vs shame & doubt
2-3 yrs old, during potty training, child must begin to take some responsibility for feeding, dressing and bathing, if all goes well-acquires sense of self-sufficiency
indication of big five: emotional stability
calm, relaxed, stable vs. moody, anxious, insecure
What is Gestalt psychology
That the mind must be understood in terms of organized wholes and not elementary parts.
When a distribution includes an extreme score, the distribution is said to be____________.
positively skewed; mean is higher than the mode
Principle of Trichromacy, discovered by Thomas Young
Any colour can be matched by adding together lights of three different hues
what do cells in the Medial Superior Temporal (MST) cortex respond to?
exapnsion and contraction or rotation of visual stimulus
ex. star wars effect- stars going past 
if a response is followed by a reward, that response will be strenghened & will be more likely to be performed later strength of a response is adjusted according to that response's consequencesresponse (R) has the effect of obtaining a reward (RX)eventually the R that has the effect of obtaining the RX rises to the top of the hierarchy of responses & is most likely to be produced firstchosen by trial & error; not w/ any understandingtakes a long time
Give an example of the flow of an "I" statement
"When you..(statement of behavior)"
"I feel..(your feelings)"
"I would prefer.. (behavioral alternative)"
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