Q&A from DIT emailed questions 3 Flashcards

Standardized Tests
Terms Definitions
Study that measures Relative Risk
Abnormality a/w with calf pseudohypertrophy
Ototoxic and nephrotoxic antibiotics
Vancomycin and Aminoglycosides
Abnormality a/w with subluxation of the lenses
Three symptoms of pellagra
Diarrhea, dermatitis, dementia
What teratogen causes cervical clear cell adenocarcinoma?
What is Cushings triad?
Hypertension, bradycardia, respiratory depression
Explain the Renin-Angiotnesin-Aldosterone pathway
Renin stimulates conversion of Angiotensinogen to angiotensin I which is converted to angiotensin II by ACE. Angio II then stimulates aldosterone production from adrenal cortex (amongst other things)
Which IV anesthetic is a/w hallucinations and bad dreams?
Ketamine (Arylcyclohexylamines)
Causes of pellagra
Hartnup disease, malignant carcinoid syndrome, INH
Findings in Cushing's Syndrome
Hypertension, weight gain, moon facies, truncal obesity, buffalo hump, hyperglycemia (insulin resistance), skin changes (thinning, striae), osteoporosis, amenorrhea, and immune suppresion
Clinical use for Tamoxifen?
Breast cancer and preventing osteoporosis
Two causes of Homocystinuria
- Cystathionine synthase deficiency
- Decreased affinity of cystathionine synthase for pyridoxal phosphate
Nerve innervation for tongue taste in the anterior 2/3's
VII (Chrodatympani)
Which IV anesthetic is used for rapid anesthesia induction?
Which lysosomal storage disease is a demyelinating disease that affects peripheral nerves?
Metachromatic leukodystrophy
Valve most commonly involved in acute rheumatic fever?
Mital valve
From which arteries do the umbilical arteries arise?
Internal iliac arteries
Treatment for Cystathionine synthanse deficiency
Decrease Methionine and increase Cystine, and increase B12 and Folate in diet
In neuroleptic toxicity, describe Akinesia
4 d – parkinsonian symptoms
What antibiotic has an MOA that blocks nucleotide synthesis?
Sulfonamides, trimethoprim
Opportunistic mold with septate hyphae that branch at a 45 degree angle
Aspergillus fumigates (broom-like structure on silver stain)
Give the neurotransmitter levels in Hungtington's
Dec GABA, Dec ACh
What are Brunner’s glands?
Glands that secrete alkaline mucus to neutralize acid contents entering the duodenum from the stomach
What is glucokiinase?
Liver and B cells with low affinity (high Km), high capacity (high Vmax), induced be inlusin
Clinical findings in pt with lead poisoning
Encephalopathy and erythrocyte basophilic stippling, abdominal colic, constipation, headaches, peripheral neuropathy (wrist/foot drop), sideroblastic anemia (mycrocytic, hypochromic)
What are the signs of right-sided heart failure?
Hepatomegaly (nutmeg liver), ankle/sacral edema, jugular venous distention
Jones criteria for the diagnosis of acute rheumatic fever?
Major Criteria: Migratory polyarthritis, Carditis, Subcutaneous nodules (Aschoff bodies), Ertythema marginatum, Sydenham’s chorea (St. Vitus’ dance)
What is the underlying problem in Crigler-Najjar syndrome (type I)?
Absent UDP-glucuronyl transferase, presents early in life. Inc unconjugated bilirubin, kernicterus
What is a hallucination?
perceptions in the absence of external stimuli
Classic presentation of a pt with Takayasu’s arteritis?
“Pulseless disease” – Fever, Arthritis, Night sweats, Myalgia, Skin nodules, Ocular disturbances, Weak pulses in upper extremities, Constriction of Ao
In neuroleptic toxicity, describe acute dystonia
4 hrs – muscle spasm, stiffness, oculogyric crisis
Pathway by which light affects melatonin secretion
Suprachiasmatic nucleus (SCN) -> NE release -> pineal gland -> melatonin
Reactions involved in Phase I hepatic metabolism?
HOR - Hydrolysis, Oxidation, Reduction
What are the signs and symptoms of poliomyelitis?
Malaise, headache, fever, nausea, abdominal pain, sore throat. Signs of LMN lesions – muscle weakness and atrophy, fasciculations, fibrillation, and hyporeflexia
Artery most often the culprit in an MI
LAD > RCA > Circumflex
Explain the development of the thyroid gland
Diverticulum arises form floor of primitive pharynx, descends into neck
Where would you expect to find type II collagen?
Cartilage (including hyaline), vitreous body, nucleus pulposus
What are the signs of liver failure?
coma, sclera icterus, fetor hepaticus (corpse breath), spider nevi, gynecomastia, jaundice, testicular atrophy, liver “flap” (asterixis), bleeding tendency, anemia, ankle edema, decreased lipids & platelets
What part of the body is infected in Hansen's Dz?
Skin and superficial nerves infected
What is type I (alpha) error?
A false positive error, will show that something “is” when it really “isn’t”
Why is heparin given concurrently as Warfarin is initiated
Heparin has a faster onset of action, while Warfarin takes time to have an effect, so while warfarin takes effect, one gives Heparin
What is the typical profile of a pt with ankylosing spondylitis?
Young male with morning stiffness (ankylosis), uveitis, and Ao regurgitation
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