Quiz 113 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
risperidone
antipsychotic
genotype
genetic makeup
human memory
"information processing"
What is disulfiram?
Antabuse.
Reinforcement
causes increase in behavior
people or animals studied
participants
microsystem
in Bronfenbrenner's ecological perspective on development, a setting in which the child interacts with others face-to-face, such as a family or classroom
Section H
Resolving Ethical Issues
Wake
Relaxed Alpha EEG, 8-12 hz
facticity
similar to heidinger's "throwness" --wehave certain things that we are born into; certain aspects that are intangible. from our facticity, we ahve infinite possibilities from this starting point.
Survey
researchers use interviews and/or questionnares to gather information about the attitudes beliefs experiences or behaviours of a group of people
psychophysics
examines our psychological experiences of physical stimuli
Define dependence.
Physiological or psychological cravings - compulsive urge to use substance. Body tissues are adjusted to having the substance (physiological dependence).
synthesia
-“joining the senses”: some individuals experience sensory crossovers
-PET scans reveal that when individuals with synesthesia are blindfolded and listen to words, their visual cortex is activated
checker board problem
Representational Change Problem: restructing makes easier to solve
Kaplan & Simon
10. Professor Reed asked her introductory psychology students to give an example of a covert behavior. Which of the following world be an example of a covert behavior?
classical conditioning: extinction
disappearance of previously conditioned response
aggression
any physical or verbal behavior intended to hurt or destroy
Loudness
the physical intensity of sound, determined by its amplitude, measured in decibels (dB)
Work Motivation
The conditions and processes responsible for the arousal, direction, magnitude, and maintenance of effort or workers on the job
metacognition
knowing about knowing; When children have first-order cognitive skills, they know bout the world, when they have second-order cognitive skills , they know something about their own knowledge
_________________________ is like when you don't speak to or hang out with your friends, disrespectful to your parents for no real reason.
Antisocial Personality.
Gestalt Psychology
emphasizes that individuals perceive objects and patterns as whole units and that the perceived whole is more than just the sum of it's parts
has the test been constructed adequately would be what type of validity
content
retina
the light-sensitive inner surface of the eye containing the receptor rods and cones plus layers of neurons that begin the processing of visual information
The frustration-aggression hypothesis suggests that:
frustration produces aggression
Negative Symptoms
In schizophrenia, symptoms that reflect defects or deficits in normal functioning, including flat affect, alogia, and avolition.
epigenesis
the gradual process through which organisms develop over time in an increasingly differentiated and complex fashion as a consequence of the interaction between genes and the environment
self-conception
a cognitive construction that reflects the child's level of mental development and a social construction that reflects the child's interactions and experiences with other people
Transference
In psychoanalysis, the process by which emotions and disires originally associated with a significant person in the patient’s life, such as a parent, are unconsciously transferred to psychoanalyst.
Rogers
When self-concept and ideal self agree, we move naturally toward self-actualization
reductionism
attempt to understand behavior in simple units,
the whole IS the sum of its parts
Charles Spearman
-ONE general intelligence (g) underlies specific mental abilities
-People who score high on one factor tend to score high on other factors
Culture
The specific manifestations of a social group's design for living, developed over the years to provide a social structure for the group members' life together
tenative explanation of a phenomenon vased on observation
hypothesis
Affect
abnormal aspects of the mood, feelings, or emotional tone of a person
57. Wundt observed stimuli of various kinds and then used a process called _______ to probe his reactions to these stimuli.
introspection
PNS
the nervous system located outside the skull and spine
operant conditioning
organisms learn from the consequences of past behavior *B.F. Skinner*
altruism
unselfish regard for the welfare of others
Scientific Method
Initial observation or question, form a hypothesis, design the study, analyze the data and draw conclusions, report findings, consider open questions, act on open questions.
the process of observing an imitating a specific behavior.
Modeling
fixed interval schedule
in operant conditioning, a reinforcement schedule that reinforces a response only after a specified time has elapsed.
Unconditional positive regard
Unqualified caring and nonjudgemental acceptance of another
brainstorming
a technique in which people are encouraged to come up with creative ideas in a group;play off each other's ideas, and say practically whatever come to mind that seems relevant to a particular issue; hold off on criticizing others; ideas
You must choose between multiple options, each of which has pleasurable & disagreeable aspects: Should I stay home & wait for my girlfriend to call me or should I just go out with my friends & miss the call?
Double Approach-Avoidance.
The scientific study of behavior and mental processess.
Psychology
Sequential Studies
Research in which researchers examine a number of different age groups over several points of time
syntax
the aspect of grammar that specifies the rules for arranging and combining words to form phrases and sentences
circadian rhythms
the regulation of biological cycles into regular patters
Parents as Managers
Parents manage children opportunities, monitor behavior, and initiate social contact-mother are more likely than fathers to engage in managerial role-important to maintain a structured and organized family environment
dissociative disorder
Disorder in which individuals feel detached from themselves or their surroundings and feel reality, experience, and identity may disintegrate
Alfred Adler's theory is called _______ because of the emphasis on the wholeness of the person.
individual psychology
Token economies
Applied to groups (e.g. classrooms, mental hospital wards) Involves distribution of “tokens” contingent on desired behaviors Tokens can later be exchanged for privileges, food, or other reinforcers
Mood Disorders
A category of psychological disorders in which significant and persistent disruptions in mood or emotions cause impaired cognitive, behavioral, and physical functioning; also call affective disorders.
texture gradient
as uniformly texture surface recedes, its texture continuously becomes denser
microgenetic analysis
a research strategy that involves frequent, detailed observations of behavior
gene expression
the process through which genes influence the production of specific proteins, which in turn influence the phenotype
concrete operations
the third stage of cognitive development in Piaget's theory when mental activities become more logical with respect to actual objects and materials
percent related to either parent or any sibling
50%
schema
a mental representation of a category of objects, people, or events. constructive memory is accomplished through the use of schemas.
Which of these television "families" depicts a typical, biological nuclear family?
The Simpsons
Wellness
a new approach to thinking about health that encompasses a growing emphasis on lifestyle, preventive care, and the need to maintain wellness rather than thinking of health matters only when the body is sick
Harold Goolishen
at Galveston Family Institute, used postmodern collaborative approach, collaborative language approach
communications theory
emphasis on here and now....what theory
foils
-Should have 4 – 8
-Should look like the actual suspect
-Reduce actual suspect’s distinctiveness (height, dress, etc.)
Preformism
The belief that every aspect of development is set in advance by genes and then is gradually manifested in the course of maturation
Correlation
A # indicating the degree of relationship between 2 variables, expressed in terms of the likelihood that 1 variable (or does not) occur when the other variable does (or does not). A correlation is NOT an indication that one variable causes the other.
Sleep Stage 1
Lasts about 5 minutes.
Breathing becomes deeper and more regular
Brain waves lessen.
You can be easily awakened in this stage.
If awaken you do not feel like you even fell asleep.
Body jerks.
Normative influence
People conform becausethey fear the consequences of appearing deviant.
92. maslow proposed a need to develop ones' potential and be the best one can be, whcih he called
self-actualization
convergence
inward movement of the eyes when we focus on nearby objects
possible consequences of behavior
reinforcement increases likelihood and punishment decreases likelihood
Stage 4
same as 3, advanced equipment to see
CONFABULATION
CONFUSION OF AN EVENT THAT HAPPENED TO SOMEONE ELSE WITH ONE THAT HAPPENED TO YOU, OR A BELIEF THAT YOU REMEMBER SOMETHING WHEN IT NEVER ACTUALLY HAPPENED.
Tolerance
physical adaptation to a drug so that a person needs an increased amount in order to produce the original effect
Keyword Method
System of associating new words or concepts with similar-sounding cue words and images
Homeostatis
The natural tendency of the body to maintain a balanced internal state in order to ensure physical survival
bad faith
result of not wanting to take responsibility for our lives.
myelin sheath
a layer of fatty tissue segmentally encasing the fibers of many neurons; enables vastly greater transmission speed of neural impulses as the impulse hops from one node to the next.ex:
Having to do with an organism's thinking & understanding is called the...
Cognitive Theory.
Physical Well-being
The optimal functioning of the body's eight physiological systems (e.g., respiratory, skeletal).
Mike is walking down the street when he is approached by 3 gang members. His heart rate and blood pressure increase. What division of the nervous system is regulating these reactions?
Sympathetic.
mindfulness meditation
you let your thoughts flow freely, paying attention to them but trying not to react to them
Moral Character
a person with willpower, desires, and integrity to behave morally
GENERALIZED AMNESIA
loss of memory of ALL PERSONAL information, including IDENTITY
Ethnocentrism
The belief that one’s own culture or ethnic group is superior to all others and the related tendency to use one’s own culture as a standard by which to judge all other cultures.
electrodermal activity
due to increased sweat with arousal, skin conductance of electricity increases
bipolar, amacrine, and horizontal cells
cells in the retina
later adulthood
the period of development from about age 65 on
spina bifida
a developmental condition in which the spinal cord does not close completely
gender socialization
social norms conveyed to children that concern characteristics associated with being male of female
Free Association
A technique used in psychoanalysis in which the patient spontaneously reports all thoughts, feelings, and mental images as they come to mind, as a way of reveling the unconscious thoughts and emotions.
Adam and Marie were recently married, all seemed to be going well until a disagreement erupted over how they will celebrate Christmas, and with whom. This argument was really about
Family boundaries
Approach-Avoidance Conflict
A conflict arising when the same choice has both desirable and undesirable features.
Definition of trait?
a stable typical style of behavior.
Light & Shadow
-light objects appear closer whereas dinner objects appear farther away. Shading also provides information about light source
Habituation
The process of getting used to an object or event through repeated exposure to it.
Three subtypes of criterion related validity
Predictive validity
Concurrent validity
Postdictive validity
what are the three c's?
control, challenge and commitment
health psychology (short)
health psych is devoted to understanding psychological influences on how people stay healthy, why they become ill, and how they respond when they do get ill
glial cells
outnumber neurons 10 to 1: four kinds: oligodendrocytes, schwann cells, astrocytes, and microglia
what are self-report tests?
individual answers to questions about behavior, attitudes, etc, ex myers briggs
According to Maslow, the need for love and affiliation is satisfied _________ basic biological needs and the need for safety.
A) Instead of
B) Before
C) At the same time
D) After
D) After
despair of infinitude
see many possibilities; commit to none and this way will experience infinitude.
The primary consequences of long-term exposure to stress are...
Fear, pressure, & stress.
validity
ability of a test to measure what it is intended to measure
-Characteristics of Carl Roger’s Person-Centered therapy
Empathy active listening, paraphrase, invite clarification, reflect feelings
Gender Stereotypes (cognitive development)
early evidence of some differences have diminished (math, verbal abilities) men tend to have better math & visuospatial skills but difference are small; females tend to perform better than males on reading and writings tasks.
The area of psychology that focuses on how people are influenced by the real, imagined, or implied presence of others is called:
social psychology
Withdrawl, slower reaction time, impaired judgement
Effects of too much alcohol
respiratory distress syndrome
a condition common to preterm babies whose lungs do not produce enough surfactant that helps carry oxygen into and carbon dioxide out of the lungs
What are the long-term psychological effects of barbiturate use?
Mood swings, irritability, inappropriate & obnoxious behavior
Manipulation, nervousness, confusion, anxiety
Lack of coordination, hyperactivity, insomnia, nightmares, hallucinations
Grown children who grew up in stepfamilies report
Less family cohesion
Feminist critique of GST
GST assumes everyone has equal power
circular causality holds each member responsible in abusive relationship
women as nurturers, labeled enmeshment, pathologized it
Evaluation of Sensation
-is subjective and thus cannot be measured using objective instruments
-Evaluated using psychophysics
Longitudinal Research
A research method in which the same individuals are studied over a long period of time.
the lowest level of stimulation that a person can consciously detect 50% of the time the stimulation is present
absolute threshold
low balling technique
a two step compliance technique in which the infleuncer secures agreement with a request but then increases the size of the request by revealing hidden costs
Auditory scene
the array of all sound sources in the enviornment
Define Developmental Psychology
The study of how humans grow, develop, and change throughout the life span.
Information Processing Approach
Models that seek to identify the ways individuals take in, use, & store information.
three methods of estimating test reliability
test-retest, parallel form, and internal consistency
Social Phobia (Social Anxiety Disorder)
An anxiety disorder involving the extreme and irrational fear of being embarrassed, judged, or scrutinized by others in social situations.
types of T lymphocytes
Cytotoxic T, Helper T, Suppressor T, Memory T, and Delayed-Hypersensitivity T cells
For women who suddenly become stepmothers, it is advisable to
Avoid being an immediate disciplinarian
what are techniques for good communication? (10)
leveling, editing, balancing, 'I language', mind reading, documenting, give limited choices, listening, validation, and disagreeing
Socioeconomic Status (SES)
An indicator of a person's social and economic standing, measured through a combination of family income, educational level, place of residence, occupation, and other variables.
the further away from zero
the stronger the relationship (whether negative or positive)
23. the psychological goal of understanding behavior is achieved when
psychololgist can explain why a behavioral phenomenon occurs.
What am I now? (3 points)
possibilities are limitless; at any given time we can change, negate, or engage our existence. the mere fact we exist, we get awe and wonder
What is sensory adaptation?
is a gradual decline in sensitivity to prolonged stimulation. It is an automatic, built in process into change.
Neonatal Behavioral Assessment Scale
a test for newborns that uses reflexes and social interaction to assess their overall well-being, including motor capabilities, state changes, attention, and central nervous system stability
What are the short-term physiological effects of hallucinogens?
Dilated pupils
Increased HR, BP, body temp
Sweating, salivating
Short-term memory loss
Muscular weakness
N&V, loss of appetite
Slurred speech
REM
Convulsions, seizures.
What is the Achievement goal theory?
individuals seek to demonstrate high ability and people seek to avoid demonstrating low ability.
What are the three main types of validity evidence?
Construct-related, criterion related, content related
3.Psychology would best be described as
the scientific study of behavior and mental processes.
What are the sleep stages?
Stage 1- light sleep that lasts 1-7 minutes.Stage 2 - lasts 10-25 minutes.Stage 3 or 4 - takes about 30 minutes to achieve and lasts about 30 minutes.Stage 5 - REM sleepSleep cycles reverse and move back upwards to lighter sleep.
What is the toxicity level of nicotine?
40mg. Causes sweating, nausea, tremors.
What does the Spearman's concept mean?
Approximately half of the variance in a set of diverse mental-ablitly tests is represented in the (g) factor
-Basic philosophy of Family Therapy
no person is an island it's not only effecting the person but the family
What is the definition of intensity?
Degree of energy or amount of effort (low/high)
Which portion of the nervous system is responsible for the "fight or flight" response?
The sympathetic nervous system - which is part of the autonomic nervous system, therefore a part of the PNS.
who is an example of antegrade amnesia, though what was he still able to do?
HM was still able to learn how to play the piano (procedural memories)
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