Quiz 32 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
plast
particle
Exergonic
Releasing energy.
water properties
cohesion, adhesion
Potential Energy
stored energy
Omnivore
Eats producers and consumers
Do plants have centrioles?
No
endothermic rxn
net absorbing energy
scientific method step 1
observations
carbohydrates
molecules consisting of carbon, hydrogen and oxygen
stores energy, insulates, cushions organs
Hyrdophobic
may be saturated or unsaturated
 
Lipids
cast
rocklike modle of hte organism
species
group of potentially interbreeding individuals that can produce fertile offspring
Complete Metamorphosis
egg larva pupa adult
suspensions
mixtures of water and nondissolved materials; movemnet of water molecules keep the small particles suspended
Chordata
notochord, dorsal hollow nerve cord, pharyngeal slits, post-anal tail
importance of biodiversity
symbiotic relationshipmore food choicesless competitionmore nichesmedical research
Arteries carry blood ________ the heart
from
lysosome
a cell organelle that contains digestive enzymes
27.19. ______________is a disease caused by the degradation of the myelin sheath by the cytotoxic T cells.A) DiabetesB) LupisC) SchizophreniaD) Muscular dystrophyE) Multiple sclerosis
Multiple sclerosis
Give the correct medical term: Excessive bleeding between periods
menometrorrhagia
thalamus function
emotion control, sensations, arousal and alerting.
genotype
the genetic makeup of an organism
Earth's Atmospheric Composition
79% N2 
21% O2
>0.1% Misc.
Niche
Unique position occupied by a species
Physical use and function in a community
energy
the capacity for vigorous activity; available power:
enzyme
a macromolecule serving as a catalyst; a chemical agent that changes the rate of reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Case management
model of delivering care incorporates a multidisciplinary approach to documenting client care.
eukaryote
type of cell that has a membrane-bounded nucleus and organelles; found in organisms within the domain Eukarya
What does a Sensory neuron look like?
Theory
a widely accepted explanation of a natural phenomenon, has stood through continual testing
Predation
Interaction is which one organism (the predator) captures and feeds on another organism (the prey)
Define Evolution
Inherited changes in organisms over time
 
Embryology
Animals that are closely related will look alike during early development.
Metabolism
sum of all chemical reactions occuring in your body
Stroma
Stage two in the process of photosynthesis involves the production of glucose in this part of the chloroplasts
All the different species of organisms in the same area interacting with each other and with their physical environment (soil, atmosphere, water, etc.).
Ecosystem
Bohr effect
An increasing concentration of protons and/or carbon dioxide will reduce the oxygen affinity of hemoglobin
Climate
-acerage and variations in weather in a region over a long period of time.
stomata
tiny pores, or oppenings on underside of the leaf-CO2 enters-water and oxygen leave
prototroph
an organism or cell capable of synthesizing all its metabolites from inorganic material, requiring no organic nutrients
crustaceans
any chiefly aquatic arthropod of the class Crustacea, typically having the body covered with a hard shell or crust, including the lobsters, shrimps, crabs, barnacles, and wood lice.
Cytoplasm
The contents of the cell, exclusive of the nucleus and bounded by the plasma membrane
natural active imm
exposed to organism naturally and built an immune defense
The bird heart has how many chambers?
four chambers
Ingestion
The taking in of food from the enviroment
cofactors
any nonprotein molecule or ion that is required for the proper functioning of an enzyme
Neural crest
unique to craniates; a collection of cells that appears near the dorsal margins of the closing neural tube in an embryo. Neural crest cells disperse throughout the body, where they give rise to a variety of structures, including teeth, some of the bones and cartilage of the skull, the inner layer of skin of the facial region, several types of neurons, and the sensory capsules in which eyes and other sense organs develop.
Manipulated Variable
Factor in an experiment that a scientist purposely changes; also known as independent variable
Adenosine Triphosphate (ATP)
A compound that contains three phosphate groups and is one of the main chemical compounds used to store energy in cells
suspension feederssubstrate feedersfluid feedersbulk feeders
substrate-eat substrate they live in (clams)suspension-food particles from liquids (earthworms)fluid-suck liquid (mosquitos)bulk (large pieces of food (us))
___(#)different types of amino acids make up proteins; therefore, at least ___(#) of tRNAs must be ___in the cell.
20; 20; functioning
chromosomes line up down the middle of the cell and attach to spindle at centromere is called
metaphase
What produces ATP from high potential energy molecules such as glucos in a 4-stage process?
Cellular Respiration
citric acid cycle
a cycle of enzyme-catalyzed reactions in living cells that is the final series of reactions of aerobic metabolism of carbohydrates, proteins, and fatty acids, and by which carbon dioxide is produced, oxygen is reduced, and ATP is formed.
feedback inhibition
A method of metabolic control in which the end product of a metabolic pathway acts as an inhibitor of an enzyme within the pathway.


Made up of cells
Reproduce
Genetic Code
Grow and Develop
Require Energy
Respond and Adapt


6 characteristics of all living organisms
Describe the bacterial structure
-plasma membrane-many have cell wall with peptidolglycans
organ system
a group of organs that work together to perform a specific function
what 2 things do all cells have?
ribosomes and proteins
Medulla Oblongata
the lowest part of the brain stem, located between the pons and the spinal cord, whose nerve centers control such vital functions as breathing and heartbeat
5 PROPERTIES OF WATER
GOOD SOLVENT - DISSOLVES EASILYHIGH SPECIFIC HEAT- TEMP STABILIZINGHIGH HEAT VAPORATION- ICE FLOATS- SOLID FORM IS LESS DENSEHIGH COHESION- SUPPORTS DENSE OBJECTS
alluvial fan
water has moved the materials to a place
microclimate
the climate of a small area, as of confined spaces such as caves or houses
___ and ___ are inhibitory neurotransmitters in the CNS, decreasing the probability of the next cell having an AP by creating a hyperpolarizing event
glycine and GABA (gamma-aminobutryric acid)
class oligochaete: four parts of the front gut
pharynx, esophagus, crop, gizzard
Describe Mendel's principle of independent assortment
-Alleles of different loci are distributed randomly into gametes-Recombination produces new gene combos not present in parental generations-members of different gene pairs assort randomly into gametes
how to change the shape of enzymes
allosteric activators, allosteric inhibitors, and covalent modifications
What type of algae gave rise to true land plants?
Green Algae
First Law of Thermodynamics
energy can be converted from one form to another, but can not be created or destroyed
Chorodata (Amphibia) [DEUTEROSTOMES]
Can live in water and land and have moist mucus covering skin; carnivores; most have 4 well deeloped limbs;
endotoxin-bacteria itself are toxic
how do fungi do damage? give 2 examples
Why is mRNA essential to Prokaryotic Translation?
Serves as recipe for polypeptide chain
What is that most important innovation of the arthropd body plan?
The most important innovation of the arthropod body was the assembly of repetitive, basic body units. The success of this comes from the flexibility of the segments to perform different functions such as forming the head, thorax and abdomen. This design also allows for segments to develop into accessory structures such as appendages, antennae, eyes and wings.
A Na+ ion has an atomic # of 11 and a positive charge. How many electrons are in the outer shell of the Na+ ion?
8
What are the end products of glycolisis?
2 pyruvate molecules, 2 ATP, 2 NADH
Why is the ventricle much more thicker than the atrium in the teleost fish
in the teleost fish, this is much thicker because it has to pump blood through the system.
If a compound has a low specific heat, that means
that the amount of heat required to increase the temperature of one gram of the compound is low.
19
reinforcer
circadium
biological rhythm
development of language
left hippocampus
verbal info
lithium
helps treat bipolar disorder
Latency
6-puberty Dormant sexual feelings
hostile aggression
end in itself
Comparative psychologist
compare different animal species
PMS
Women notice depression or irritability when these moods occur premenstrual but overlook times when moods are absent premenstrual. No connection between PMS and behavior
 
 
Maslows hierarchy of needs
Chronological order
 
1.Physiological needs
2. Safety needs
3. Belongingness and love needs
4. Esteem needs
5. Self actualization
Vocational testing introduced in _____
1940's
Narcotics
drugs that produce drowsiness, insensitivity to pain, and decreased responsiveness (opiates)
 
stimulate endorphins- inhibit chronic pain
The observable traits of characteristics of an organism as determined by the interaction of genetics and environmental factors.
phenotype
Max Wertheimer (1880–1943)
led Gestalt psychology
Experimental group
Group that receives the treatment
Dimensional Approach
Method of categorizing characteristics on a continuum rather than on a binary, either-or, or all-or-one basis.
Sociocultural domain**
focus on socialization and enculturation
Hormones
chemical substances released by the endocrine glands.
Industrial/Organizational Psychology
Studies the relationship between people and work.
Asch's Paradigm
Showed social influences on conformity
Joseph Gall
localized functions of the brain
binocular disparity
difference between the imagethe greater the disparity the closer something is (finger test)
photoreceptors
convert light energy to neural activity
PTSD
An anxiety disorder characterized by haunting memories, nightmares, social withdrawal, jumpy anxiety, and/or insomnia that lingers for four weeks or more after a traumatic experience.
Spurious Correlations
Correlations that arise because variables are related to a third variable.  Causual link does not exist between two variables.
Classical Conditioning
(also Pavlovian or Respondent Conditioning) is a form of associative learning that was first demonstrated by Ivan Pavlov[1] . The typical procedure for inducing classical conditioning involves presentations of a neutral stimulus along with a stimulus of some significance. The neutral stimulus could be any event that does not result in an overt behavioral response from the organism under investigation. Pavlov referred to this as a Conditioned Stimulus (CS). Conversely, presentation of the significant stimulus necessarily evokes an innate, often reflexive, response. Pavlov called these the Unconditioned Stimulus (US) and Unconditioned Response (UR), respectively. If the CS and the US are repeatedly paired, eventually the two stimuli become associated and the organism begins to produce a behavioral response to the CS. Pavlov called this the Conditioned Response (CR).Classical conditioning has been demonstrated in only three species using a variety of methodologies. Popular forms of classical conditioning that are used to study neural structures and functions that underlie learning and memory include fear conditioning, eyeblink conditioning, and Classical Conditioning of Aplysia gill and siphon withdrawal reflex.
gender stereotypes
general beliefs about characteristics that men and women are presumed to have.
Retrieval
The process of recalling information stored in memory.
Experiment
only research method to identify cause-effect between variables.
compulsive
characterized by an irresistible urge to act; governed by an obsessive need to conform coupled with an inability to express positive emotions
ambivert
one whose personality type is intermediate between extrovert and introvert
dissociation
a split in consciousness, which allows some thoughts and behaviors to occur simultaneously with others. (Myers Psychology 8e p. 293)
double barreled question
inappropriately combines two separate ideas and requires a single response:asking for parents' view point instead of mom's and dad's seperately
Scaffolding
occurs when the assistance provided to a child is adjusted as learning progresses
token economy
method in which desirable behaviours are rewarded with tokens that patients can exchange for tangible rewards
grasping reflex
infant’s clinging response to a touch on the palm of his or her hand
forgetting curve
Graphic representation of speed and amount of forgetting that occurs.
medical model
concept that diseases have physical causes that can be dx trated and cured. when applied to psychological d/o the medical model assumes that httese mental illnesses can be dx on basis thier sx and curred through therapy
comprehension language
understanding what others say (comes first)
Temporal Lobe
Long term memory, emotions, auditory cortex
psychological practitioners
those who apply findings from psychological science in order to assist people in their daily lives
thoery
an explanation using an integrated set of principles that organizes and predicts observations
Mediated generalization
is another name for stimulus generalization.
Object Permanence
realization that objects continue to exist when they are not in view. Key achievement of the sensorimotor stage.
Equity
A condition in which people receive from a relationship in proportion to what they give to it.
double-blind study
a study during which neither participants nor researchers know to which group any subject belongs
Transvestic Fetishism
A paraphilia consisting of repeated and intense sexual urges, fantasies, or behaviors that involve dressing in clothes of the opposite sex.
reflex
an automatic motor response to a sensory stimulus
What score indicates how one individual compares to others on an intelligence test?
intelligence quotient
Müller-Lyer illusion
Two equal-length lines tipped with inward or outward pointing V's appear to be of different lengths.
Behavior
Observable actions of human beings and nonhuman animals
reliability
consistency of scores from one testing to the next
social and cultural factors that influence math achievement
-language
-school systems
-organization
behaviorism
the theory that human psychology can only be accurately studied through the analysis of objectively observable and quantifiable behavioral events
afterimage
a visual image or other sense impression that persists after the stimulus that caused it is no longer operative
kinesthesis [kin-ehs-THEE-sehs]
the system for sensing the position and movement of individual body parts. This sense allows you to accurately touch your mouth, nose, and chin with your index finger with your eyes closed.(Myers Psychology 8e p. 233)
inattentional blindness
failing to see visible objects when our attention is directed elsewhere
Erikson's Stage Theory
Stage 4
Industry Versus inferiority
 
age 6 through puberty
 
the challenge of learnning to function sociallyis extended beyond to the broader ssocial realm of the neighborhood and School.
Holmes and Rahe
creaters of the "social readjustment rating scale", or stress test.
Aversive Conditioning
(Behavior Therapies)
making certain behaviors unpleasant so that one will learn to avoid it
Guided Self-regulation
 The ability of toddlers to regulate their own behavior with guidance from caregivers.
link method
involves forming a mental image to items to be remembered in a way that links them together
dopamine hypothesis
the view that schizophrenia is related to, and may by caused by, excessive activity of the neurotransmitter dopamine in the brain
Down syndrome
The condition in which a child inherits an extra chromosome #21 resulting in a total of 47 chromosomes instead of 46. Causes mental retardation and certain physical features. Pg 404
what can correlational studies do?
*dont indicate cause-and-effect relationships but can help predict behavior/point to where to look for possible causes
Seriation
The ability to arrange things in a logical progression, such as from oldest to newest.
embodied identity
those elements of identity that are generated through others perceptions of our physical traits. (way we are perceived in physical world)
role of play
acquring skills, learning rules and acquiring self control
Psychodynamic approach?
 
manifest content
latent content?
free association - ink blot (Freud)
dream analysis
-manifest - things that you say
-latent - things u dig deep for
OCD
An anxiety disorder in which a person feels trapped in repetitive, persistent thoughts (obsessions) and repetitive, ritualized behaviors.
Negative Correlation
a correlation where as one variable increases, the other decreases.
Partial Reinforcement
Reinforcing a response only part of the timeBuilds behavior slowlyMore resistant to extinction
Define Social Norms
Unspoken rules that define acceptable and expected behavior for members of a group (blacks vs. whites
Type A personality
Friedman and Rosemna's term for competitive, hard-driving, impatient, verbally aggressive, and anger-prone poeple
Antagonist
What are the cells in the nervous system that support, nourish and protect neurons?
Biofeedback:
A procedure in whicha person learns to control throughconscious thought internalphysiological processes such as bloodpressure, heart and respiration rate,skin temperature, sweating, and theconstriction of particular muscles.
Type B
a pattern of behavior characterized by an unhurried, patient, tolerant manner, an ability to relax easily, and amiability
Inventory
a paper and pencil test with questions about your thoughts and feeling and responses are scored in standard format
polyphyletic group
a group consisting of 2 or more distantly related species; in cladistics, this is an invalid grouping b/c it does not express evolutionary relationships
intrinsic motivation
A person learns French just for the "fun of it" ; A young man does volunteer work at a hospital because it makes him feel good.
Dissociation theory
Ernest Hilgard
involves a split in consciousness in which one part of the mind operates differently from the rest of the consciousness
Low-ball Technique
Comply with a low cost request and later hidden extra costs are revealed.
pituitary gland
a kind of master gland that controls the release of hormones from other glands in response to signals from the hypothalamus.
cons of field research
lack of control, small sample, predation
visual texture
depth perception based on how rough or smooth objects appear
cingulate cortex in emotion
* processing of pain-related emotional distress* activated when people wrestle with emotion laden conflicts about choices
Imaginary Audience
The feeling of being an actor, the feeling of being watch constantly by peers
Trichromatic Theory(p 201)
A theory of color perception that proposes three mechanisms in the visual system, each sensitive to a certain range of wavelengths; their interaction is assumed to produce all the difference experiences ofhuse.
Sam wants to borrow his father's car to use on a date. Because his dad becomes absorbed in reading the newspaper,Sam must repeat his request several times before he gets his dad's attention. From week to week he does not know how many requests he will ha
variable ratio
What is all-or-none transmission?
Neurons either fire or they don't
fixed-ratio schedule
the reinforcer is given after a fixed number of nonreinforced responses
stream of consciousness
thought regarded as a succession of ideas and images constantly moving forward in time
3 types of Neurons
 
Glia Cells
1. Sensory (Input): located in peripheral nervous system; controlled by a simple touch
 
2. Motor (Output): attached to skeletal muscles, located in peripheral
 
3. Interneurons (In between): mechanism for spinal reflex
 
*Glia Cells--
-made of fatty tissue
-fill in space between neurons(support/protect)
-remove waste
-help some neurons communicate more effectively
Obsessive Compulsive Disorder
An anxiety disorder in which the mind is flooded with persistent and uncontrollable thoughts or the individual is compelled to repeat certain acts again and again, causing significant distress and interference with everyday functioning.
Descriptive Research Study: Natrualistic Obsercation: Problems?
ADV: Naturally acting, you can observe many different people
DISADV: Can't control any of the other variables
General Adaptaion Syndrome
Mobilization of the body to ward off threats, characterized by a 3-stage pattern of alarm reaction, the resistance stage, and the exhaustion stage.
What is structuralism?
The first formal school of thought in pyschology, aimed at analyzing the basic elements, or structure, of conscious mental experience.
Social psychology and obedience: Milgrams experiment
obedience although they knew person was in pain they followed the experimentors instructions
activation-synthesis theory of dreams
The idea that dreaming represents the random and meaningless activity of nerve cells in the brain. According to this theory, the pons, an area in the brain, sends millions of random nerve impulses to the cortex; in turn, the cortex tries to make sense of these signals by creating the feelings, imagined movements, perceptions, changing scenes, and meaningless images that we define as dreams.
Cycles per second (cps)
14 cps before bedStage 1: 3-7Stage 2: Sleep Spindles (minute bursts of electrical activity) 12-16Stage 3: Deep relaxation 1-2Stage 4: Deeper
Choosing a cutoff point
- It may be chosen on substantive grounds (professional opinion about who needs a medical treatment).
 
- Statistical power and the estimation of interactions are both facilitated if the cutoff is the mean of the distribution of assignment variable scores (not possible if Ps trickle into the study slowly over time).
 
... 
What is Spontanious Recovery?
The reapperence after a pause of an extingueshed CR
which of the following statements regarding sex and gender is FALSE
Gender differences refer to biological characteristics while sex differneces refer to psychological and social factors
Oral Stage (Birth - Age 1)
Mouth is primary stimulation of sexual pleasure
Tversky and Kahnerman's Disaster Questions
Major fire in building:
Plan A - 100% chance to save 200 ppl
or
Plan A- 100% chance 400 ppl die
Framing Effects: Depending on how you frame a question, either "losses" or "gains" are presented to ppl.
Loss Aversion: Tendency to fear negative outcomes more than value gains of positive ones.
What is the premotor cortex responsible for?
mirror neurons are active in a motion and seeing other, sensory triggered movement
What is the role of the amygdala in emotions?
o it shows the differences in activation during emotions of anger and rage. Left/happy. Right/depressed.
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