radiography 2 Flashcards

AP
Terms Definitions
Paroxysm
periodic, sudden attack
cyst means :
sack
What does antagonist mean?
Inhibits
Infestation of roundworms is:
Ascariasis
Slippage of vertebrae occurs with:
Spondylolithesis
Define osteoclasts.
"Osteoclasts enlarge medullary cavity by removing bone
Timer variance allowance is _____.
-0.05
What is hemoglobin?
Complex protein-iron compound
Viewing "O's" on a radiograph of a c-spine means that the patient was in _________ position.
Oblique
Pansinuitis
infection of all the sinus cavities
True or false. When altering techniques for increases or decreases in density, the primary controller of x-ray intensity is kVp and the 15% rule should be employed before changing the mAs.
FALSE
This pathology occurs in the seminiferous tubules and are rapidly growing.
Seminomas
an amp is a unit of:
Current
Cell destruction is also known as:
Hemolysis
True or false. The intercondylar eminence is part of the distal femur.
FALSE
How do you store film?
on end
The bony structures connected directly to the vertebral body are the ______.
Pedicles
DEFINE FOCAL SPOT
The target on the anode
extra oral exam
large area skull or jaw
Polycystic ovaries may lead to:
Amenorrhea and sterility
_________ consist of lymphocytes and monocytes.
Nongranular leukocytes
__________ is also a powerful stimulus for platelet activation and aggregation.
Thrombin
The digital standard adopted by the radiologic community for communication is:
DICOM
Describe intramuscular injection.
Common sites of injection: dorsogluteal, mid thigh, upper arm. Needle size: 20-23 gauge x 1 to 3 inches. Volume= 1-5 ml (ex. vaccines, narcotics, sedatives, vitamin B12, or lidocaine)
The type of xray interaction that never varies in energy levels is __________.
Characteristic
Wavelength is measured from :
Crest to crest
The maximum number of electrons that you will find in a K-Shell is:
2
What is the rectification constant for 3 phase 6 pulse?
1.35
What are contraindications for angiography?
"impaired renal function
_______ bring information to the cell body.
Dendrites
True or false. The correct CR placement for an AP projection of the knee is mid-patella.
FALSE
The most common vascular approach during pulmonary arteriography is the :
Femoral vein
What procedure uses devices such as coils to clot off vessels?
Embolization
In an tungsten atom, how many electrons occupy the P shell?
2
____ motors require slip rings to operate.If
AC
The alloy used in filaments is actually a blend of tungsten and _______.
Thorium
The type of personnel monitoring device that can measure exposures as low as 1 mrem and can detect whether an exposure was dynamic or static is:
The OSL
DEFINE ISOTOPE
Atoms of the same element having different mass #s [atoms that have the same # of nuclear protons (equal to the atomic # of the element) but different #s of nuclear neutrons]
Nosocomial Infection
infections that you get in the hospital
True or false. Image noise found of the viewing monitor in a fluoroscopic room is probably coming from the scatter radiation created by the patient.
FALSE
define hyperplasia
increase in number of cells (excessive proliferation)
What does the abbreviation stand for: cc
cubic centimeter
The man that gets credit for inventing CT is:
Hounsfield
What is the rectification number for a three phase 12 pulse and high frequency unit?
1.4
True or false. According to US Public Law 90-602, generators must terminate the exposure at 600 mAs for exposures above 50 KVP and 2000 mAs for exposures below 50 KVP.
TRUE
The source to object (SOD) distance for a stationary fluoroscopic tube is to be no closer than _____ from the patient.
38 cm
What is sheet distortion?
Vignetting or pincushion; image intensity is greater at center of image
The type of distortion caused by insufficient photon penetration during a fluoro procedure is known as:
Quantum mottle
The type of filming process that is almost free of any distortion because it doesn’t use divergent light is:
Laser
The type of silver recovery unit that should be used in a high-volume hospital or clinic is:
Electrolytic
True or false. The female pelvis is wide and more shallow?
TRUE
An overgrowth of the hands, feet, face and/or jaw caused by homone secretion is known as:
Acromegaly
What type of magnets can produce field strengths up to 4 Tesla or more, create little resistance at extremely low temperatures and are used for MRI?
Superconductive
In which type of hydrocephalus may we also see brain shrinkage?
Ex-vacuo
A temporary localized reduction of blood flow in the brain is a ___________.
Transient ischemic attack
What pathologic condition appears as a worm-like esophagus?
esophageal varices
The reducing agents in a processor are found in the ____________.
Developer
An ischemic stroke that occurs from an embolism at a foreign site has what type of onset?
Sudden
What type of breast tumor is estrogen dependent?
Fibroadenoma
What types of mechanical digestion and/or movement occur in the stomach?
Peristalsis and mixing
Females are born with about 1 million "eggs". They do not produce additional eggs or ova during their lifetime. At the time of puberty girls generally have about _________ remaining.
400,000
What is Stein-Leventhal syndrome?
An endocrine abnormality inhibiting maturation and release of ova.
Which modality is useful in thyroid and adrenal diagnosis?
Nuclear medicine
Identify that area of the digestive system least likely to develop neoplasms:
small bowel
What is another term for a negative contrast medium?
radiolucent
What type of contrast is used for lymphangiography?
Oily
The natural filtration created by the glass and oil between the focal spot and the patient is _____________.
Inherent filtration
What are the developer reducing agents?
Phenidone and Hydroquinone
look @ joints with a scope, reqires anesthesia
arthroscopy
define diagnostic radiograph
I dentificationD ensity C ontrast O utline S ize S hape
What is toxic megacolon?
Bacterial growth with fluid and electrolyte imbalance
What type of frequency does a high contrast image have?
High frequency
With CT images, image noise is a result of statistical fluctuations in the information recorded by:
The detectors
What does the abbreviation stand for: gr
grain, 60 milligrams
Name the two abdominal organs most dramatically effected by body habitus?
stomach and gallbladder
A mechanical blockage of the lumen of bowel, involving a stone migrating from biliary system to GI is called
gallstone ileus
How does osteomalacia occur?
From inadequate intake or absorption of calcium, phosphors, or vitamin D or inhibited absoprtion of dietary fats.
A radiograph of an AP pelvis reveals that the left obturator foramen is more open or elongated as compared to the right. What is the error?
Right rotation
Prolapsed intervertebral disks most commonly occur in the :
C spine and L spine
What is a vector?
Insect or animal that transmits disease
What is it called when there is a stricture of the esophagus?
achlasia
What may an enlarged recess in the proximal esophagus indicate?
Zenker's Diverticulum
What is the alternate name for the calcaneous?
Os Calcis
How many degrees and in which direction should the CR be directed for the Axiolateral oblique projection (Schuller method) for TMJs?
25 degrees caudal
That malabsorption disorder which is a sensitivity to gluten and increases lymphocyte production is:
celiac disease (sprue)
What cranial bones does the sphenoid articulate with?
All of them!
What is the name of the condition that results from a viral infection of the parotid gland?
Mumps
What operates on DC?
Continuous source, like a battery (cell phones, etc.)
monitor aspiration site for hematoma, pressure dsg. for drainage & do neurovascular checks after this
bone or muscle biopsy
What is the term for the speed with which barium passes through the GI tract?
gastric motility
Which bones fuse to form the acetabulum?
Ischium, pubis, and ilium
This type of stimuli is in response to sympathetic nervous system.
Neural stimuli
What is keV?
used to measure intensity of beam and is the binding energy of electrons
What does the abbreviation stand for: PM
post meridiem, after noon
What does the abbreviation stand for: pc
post cibum, after meals
If an atom has 6 electrons and is not a positive ion, then the atomic number of that atom is:
6
The testing done to evaluate the added filtration of the beam is the ____:
Half value layer
What was the first generation of CT scanners like?
"Only did head scans
What does the abbreviation stand for: i, ii
one, two (as in "gr","gr")
In an electric motor, we are converting:
Electrical energy to mechanical energy
Where is the pancreas located?
behind the stomach, crosses the left side of abdomen
If a grid has lead lines that are 2 mm in height and there is .25 mm interspace between each line, the ratio of this grid is:
8:01
What are the functions of neuroglia or glial cells?
"-provide physical and nutritional support for neurons
The symphysis pubis is at the level of _____.
Base of the coccyx
What does the abbreviation stand for: ug, mcg
microgram, one millionth of a gram
What is the treatment for endometriosis?
Mild cases are treated with hormones. Can be treated surgically.
What is the exocrine function of the pancreas?
Production of digestive enzymes discharged through the pancreatic duct
Describe a pressure mechanism used in contrast medium injection devices.
Jackscrew that controls speed and quantity of injection
what is the purpose, type of film, technique of Interproximal examination?
Purpouse: crowns on single film technique:interproximal examination type film: bite wing
How is film speed determined?
By the size of the halide crystals and the concentration of them in the emulsion
What are the four factors that impact attenuation:
xray energy, tissue thickness, tissue density, atomic #
Describe how the beam hits the intensification tube.
After the primary beam exits the patient, it strikes the input screen of the intensifier which is a vacuum tube with a cathode and anode.
IDENTIFY THE FIVE STEPS OF THE IMAGING PROCESS
1. image acquistion2. image processing3. image archiving4. image display5. image analysis
How can humidity during film storage have an impact on the film?
fungus from high and static from low humidity
High speed film has what type of latitude and contrast?
Narrow or short latitude and high contrast
What are the two things that we measure with keV?
The binding energy of an electron in orbit around a nucleus and the energy of the x-rays we produce.
If you are standing 2 feet from a patient that is being exposed to radiation and you step back 2 more feet so that you are 4 feet from the patient, how will this affect your exposure to the scatter radiation?
You will decrease your exposure by a factor of 4.
ABG
Arterial Blood Gases
__________ attacks antigens.
Lymphocytes
Identify pathology(s) which demonstrate radiographically as cystic or necrosed boney intrusion.
"hemophilia
Quantum mottle in radiography increases as film screen speed _________.
Increases
That congenital condition which decreased blood supply to the abdomen and lower extemities but allows unimpeded flow to the upper extremities is:
Coarction
"Little People" that are well proportioned suffer from:
Hypopituitarism
Mucus
secretion of lining of resipiratory and digestive tracts.
What is the ear "lip" called?
Tragus
That diverticulum occurring at the pharyngoesophaeal junction is called:
Zenker's
Who invented and refined fluoroscopy?
Thomas Edison
Which thyroid disease will be indicated by high serum calcium levels?
Hyperparathyroidism
define palliative
designed to relieve pain only
This distal tib/fib joint is classified as __________.
Fibrous
Induction motors operate on ____ current.
AC
That organism responsible for syhpillis is:
treponema pallidum
PPD Skin Test
Purified Protein Derivative (skin test for tuberculosis)
_____________ result fro faulty reabsorption of the fluid from incompletely developed follicles.
Follicular ovarian cysts
True or false. Window level is associated with density.
TRUE
Benign breast tumors that are usually unilateral and consist of solid, well defined mass that does not invade surrounding tissue is:
Fibroadenoma
What is the function of lymphocytes?
Make antibodies
Gallstones are a common finding in carcinoma of the gallbladder, occuring in about _____of identified cancers.
75%
What are halide crystals mainly composed of?
Silver bromide
In order to keep the projectile electrons in a small area before completing an exposure the focusing cup will exhibit a _________ charge.
Negative
define pathogenesis
after injury, cellular changes leading to manifestation (observable changes)
define fibrous joints
synarthroidal, immovable (ex. skull sutures)
______ speed anodes have higher heating capacities than _______ speed anodes(often 50% greater)
high, regular
True or false. The image intensifier of a fluoroscopic imaging unit is actually a cathode tube.
TRUE
_____________ occurs as a sudden, unexpected, intense apprehension.
Panic disorder
True or false. All radiographs have some distortion because of the divergence of the beam.
TRUE
What system is affected by typhoid fever?
Blood
The type of Nuclear Medicine imaging that can be reformated into 3D images is :
PET
During what interaction does the incident photon loses some or all of its energy when it impacts with an inner k shell electron and removes it from orbit. The filling of this vacancy produces a characteristic x-ray of low energy.
Photoelectric effect
________ makes up the innermost tissue layer of the heart.
Endocardium
True or false. The right common carotid originates from the aortic arch.
FALSE
The heart chamber located most anteriorly and forming the anterior border of the cardiac shadow on a lateral chest xray is:
Right ventricle
What type of hydrocephalus occurs with damage to the brain caused by stroke or injury?
Ex-vacuo
Identify that neoplastic growth which is usually benign, affects hormone production and may erode the sella turcia:
Pituitary adenoma
1 MB equals how many bytes?
1 million
List the stomach anatomy from inferior to superior.
"Pylorus
Between 80-100 kVp, about 80-90% of the beam is:
Brehmmstruhlung
True or false. All vascular imaging studies that involve an injection of contrast to visualize the intended structures should start with a scout film of that region.
TRUE
What are stomach contents called once they are churned into a semifluid mass?
Chyme
How may millimeters are in a meter?
1000
DEFINE BETA PARTICLE
Ionizing radiation that consists of one electron. FREE ELECTRON IN SPACE W/O A NUCLEUS.
define radiograph
film exposed to x-rays produces image when processed
What does the abbreviation stand for: VO
verbal order
What male reproductive pathology is testosterone dependent?
Adenocarcinoma of prostate
The labeled kVp setting on any x-ray unit must be within ____ of the actual measured kVp.
#NAME?
Below 75 kVp, _________ is the most predominant interaction.
Photoelectric
True or false. The light produced by an intensifying screen during the exposure to radiation is mostly a result of the photoelectric effect.
TRUE
Who has been credited with the invention of CT?
Godfrey Hounsfield
Vignetting is caused by:
Electrostatic repulsion of the electrons traveling from cathode to anode.
Which cancer kills the most women overall?
Lung cancer.
The type of interaction that results in the complete absorption of the primary photon, the production of a seconday photon, and is a major factor in diagnostic imaging is known as:
Photoelectric effect
the LPO position for SI joints will demonstrate the right joint, true/false?
TRUE
The lower costal margin is at the level of _______.
L2-L3
What is the recommended amount of abduction, of the femurs, for an AP bilateral frog-leg projection?
40-45 degrees
On the LPO position of the lumbar spine, which zygapophyseal joint is demonstrated?
Left
The hepatopancreatic ampulla is also known as the :
ampulla of Vater
The part of the intensification tube that has a small 1" screen where the image is reproduced is called the _____________.
Output phosphor
True or false. If a patient exhibits itching, sneezing and tearing of the eyes with no other symptoms, during an UGI, they are most likely having a severe reaction to a contrast media.
FALSE
Your patient history reads "suspected pneumoperitoneum". As you further evaluate your patient you notice that they are quadraplegic. What position will be preferred to demonstrate this condition if present?
left lateral decub abdomen
This organ is located inferior to the thalamus and just superior to the pituitary.
Hypothalamus
Edema in the right lower extremity is probably a result of obstruction of the _______ lymphatic duct.
Left
Patient prep for an esophagram series includes:
no prep
Which of the following Leukemia most often strike with children with a sudden onset?
Acute leukemia
There is an increase in production of ____________ cells with inflammation.
Thrombocytes
True or false. CT allows lymph node assessment.
TRUE
What is teletherapy?
The application of external beam radiation, which historically has been of three types: x-ray type units, cobalt-60 gamma ray, and linear accelerator.
What is the outermost layer of the circulatory vessels called?
Adventitia
Gated cardiac blood pool scans are also called:
radionuclide ventriculograms
What is the term for enlargement of the heart?
cardiomegaly
What part of the male anatomy is responsible for sperm and hormone secretion?
Testes
dye can be used with all of these
tomography,myleography,
arthrography
define dental radiograph
teeth and related structures on film by x-rays
Describe mammo generators.
High frequency, do not require an autotransformer, line compensation circuit or space charge compensation circuit. Operates on single phase incoming power.
In a static homogenous magnetic field, all protons in a nucleus of a given type element will rotate with exactly the same frequency. This frequency is known as:
The Larmor frequency
The type of scanner that uses slip-ring technology and records data as the patient is being moved through the gantry is also known as:
Helix or MSCT
What is the allowance for the CR matching the IR?
w/in 1%
What type of diabetes causes autoimmune destruction of pancreatic B cells, producing little or no insulin?
Type 1 Diabetes mellitus
The part of the intensifying tube that converts x-rays into light photons is the:
input phosphor
True or false. If a cicuit is carrying 500 volts and has a resistance of 1 ohm, the amperage in this circuit is 500 A.
TRUE
________ is a neoplasm that is usually benign and affects hormone production.
Pituitary adenoma
How much obliquity of the body should be used for posterior oblique positions for the SI joints?
25-30 degrees
Filters, to halt the movement of emboli. are most commonly placed in the _________
Inferior vena cava
__________ is the route by which a drug is administered when the stomach is traumatized or when the digestive enzymes can change it.
Rectal route
Define endothelium.
the layer of cells lining the inside of blood and lymph vessels, heart and other closed cavities
What does the abbreviation stand for: q4h, q4*
every 4 hours
The xiphoid tip is at the level of ________.
T9-T10
What is an atom?
Smallest unit of life.
Consists of protons, neutrons, and electrons.
True or false. A beryllium window on an x-ray tube is necessary to increase the inherent filtration when compared to a glass window.
False (decrease filtration)
What are risk factors associated with atherosclerosis?
Hypertension and cigarette smoking
What is Meckel's diverticulum?
remnant of duct connected small bowel to umbilicus in fetus
What is a warming device?
Thermal sleeve attached to the injector to maintain contrast temperature near 37 degrees C
The type of coils used to control the pulsing of the magnetic field are called:
Gradient coils
True or false. An autotransformer can only decrease voltage in a circuit.
False, increase or decrease
eWhat is it called when a portion of the stomach protrudes through the diaphragmatic opening?
Hiatal hernia
The conversion of data from numbers to a visual image is done using:
inverse Fourier transformation
NEMA (national electrical manufacturers association) specifies focal spot requirements. What are they?
"Smaller than .8 mm may be 50% larger than stated nominal size
A single-phase half-wave rectified x-ray machine will produce x-rays about:
50% of the duration of the exposure
Define the half value layer
The amount of material required to reduce the xray beam to half its original value.
When using an air gap technique, increasing the OID also will _______________.
Increase magnification and decrease detail
In order to check if a single exposure could damage a tube you should check the:
Tube rating chart
With the Kodak CR system, an exposure index value of 2500 reflects:
Overexposure to the patient
BRIEFLY EXPLAIN THE LAW OF CONSERVATION OF ENERGY AND HOW IT RELATES TO EXTERNAL WORK, POTENTIAL ENERGY, AND KINETIC ENERGY.
Energy can be neither created nor destroyed, the total amount of energy in the universe being constant; however, energy in one form can be changed into an equivalent amount of energy in other forms.Example: External work converts to potential energy which converts to kinetic energy
The release of bile into the duodemun is triggered by:
high fat meal and cholecystokinin
What is the amount of abduction of the femurs recommended for an AP bilateral frog-leg projection?
40 - 45 degrees
What are risk factors for cystadenocarcinoma?
High fat diet, late child bearing, delayed menopause, family history
What is it called when there is less fluid outside a vessel and more inside? What are the symptoms?
vasodilation, skin flushing experience during injection
What are some clinical signs of a myocardial infarction?
Shortness of breath, crushing chest pain, neck pain
What is the endocrine function of the pancreas?
Production of insulin and glucagon which specialized cells (Islets of Langerhans) secrete directly into the blood.
LIST & DESCRIBE THE BASIC PROPERTIES OF X-RAYS
DENSITY - degree of blackening of the filmCONTRAST - difference between adjacent densities (makes details visible)RECORDED DETAIL - degree of definition/sharpenessDISTORTION - misrepresentation of size & shape
True or false. Reciprocity law failure is not very significant in diagnostic radiology.
True, because it only occurs in very low and very high levels of radiation (outside of diagnostic range)
What will blood tests show if a patient has mono?
Elevated white blood cell count with atypical lymphocytes
What happens when filtration is added to the x-ray beam?
The overall average energy of the beam increases
The greatest concentration of charge in a solid metallic wire will be:
On the outside surface at an area of sharpest curvature.
What is the purpose of a focusing cup?
To keep the space charge intact by exhibiting a negative charge
Where are the collimators located on a CT scanner?
One at the tube exit and another at the detector entrance
IDENTIFY FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE EACH OF THE FOUR RADIOGRAPHC PROPERTIES & ALSO THE FACTORS THAT INFLUENCE SUBJECT CONTRAST
PROPERTY FACTORSDensity- mAs, fog, grids, screen speed, OID, filtration, beam restriction, processing, power supply, patient, & pathologyContrast- kVp, filtration, power, grids, screen speed, OID, beam restrictionResolution- SID, OID, FSS, pt. thickness, screen speed, film/screen contact, motion Distortion- SID, OID, pt. thickness, CR alignment, IR alignment, direction/degree of CR angleSubject contrast- atomic #, density, condition, kVp used, & thickness of part
PCP
Pneumocystis Carinii Pnemonia
What is cholelithiasis?
Gallstones
Exposure reproduceability measurements are done by measuring sequential exposures made with the same mAs and measured with a dosimeter. The differences between these exposures cannot exceed ____.
-0.05
What does gravid mean?
Pregnant
Name that disease. Uncontrollable discharge of neurons on BOTH sides of the brain is most common. The seizure starts in one area of the brain and spreads across the brain.
Epilepsy
define atrophy
decrease of cell size
Identify that condition commonly considered autoimmune or viral which leads to deficiency in platelets:
Thrombocytopenia
Purpura refers to:
Deficiency of platelets
PTC best images:
distal duct obstruction
That congenital pathology which creates two closed vascular systems, systems that do not communicate or share blood with one another is:
Transposition
Bronchodilator
any agent that expans the bronchi
What are seventh generation CT scanners like?
"MSCT
This gland is significant in establishing immune system.
Thymus
What pathology causes aganglionic bowel preventing peristalsis?
Hirschsprung's Disease
Which component limits oxidation of crystals during their formation?
Gelatin
Where do fusiform aneurysms commonly occur?
Abdomen
Non-digital fluoroscopic x-ray tubes typically operate in the range of:
.5-5 mA
Transformers operate by means of __________ induction.
Mutual
White matter consists of:
myelinated nerve bundles
True or false. Contrast currently being used for myelography, starts to be absorbed by the body within 20 – 30 minutes.
TRUE
With any electromagnetic radiation, as wavelength increases, what has to decrease?
frequency
Secondary metastases usually occur from:
Lung carcinoma
Emphysema
stretching of lung tissue casued by the alveoli becoming distended and losing elasticity
What causes lymph edema?
Blockage of lymphatic vessels
True or false. The Gurney-Mott theory states that after exposure to light, a silver bromine crystal will release electrons within the crystal. These electrons then travel to the sensitivity specks where they attract silver ions and convert them to silver
TRUE
What does the abbreviation stand for: q or quaque
every
What does the abbreviation stand for: SC, SQ
subcutaneous
Most film cassettes should be replaced every how many years?
7-May
What is necrosis?
death or decay of tissue
What does the abbreviation stand for: c (or cum)
with
define iatrogenic
adverse response to medical treatment (ex. ruptured vessel during angioplasty)
What are fluid filled scrotal masses within testes?
Spermatoceles
What are hydroceles?
collection of fluid in scrotum
What organ is responsible for sperm and hormon secretion?
Testes
Superadditivity is:
When two compounds work better together than they do separately.
What is the unit of potential difference?
Volt
What is the atomic number for tungsten?
74
The devices within the image intensifier that control the image size sent to the output phosphor are called:
Electrostatic lenses
Plasma composes about ____% of the total blood volume.
55%
Direct current can be converted into alternating current with the use of:
Inverters
What system is affected by lyme disease?
Blood
Which of the following procedures is not a likely theraputic option in ERCP?
cholecystectomy
Esophageal varicies can be directly related to:
hepaticportal hypertension
Early CT detectors consisted of :
scintillation crystals
Name the interaction. When an incident photon collides with an outer shell electron, the original photon continues in a different direction minus the energy that it took to remove the electron from its orbit.
Compton's
_________ are sometimes used in reducing varicose veins.
Sclerosing agents
The nerves travelling beyond the spinal cord ending at L1-L3 are referred to as ________.
Cauda equina
_______ is a disruption or imbalance of flow of cerebrospinal fluid.
Hydrocephalus
What cranial bones form the upper lateral walls of the calvarium?
Parietals
What pathologic indications may result in the early fusion of the SI joints?
Ankylosing spondylitis
What body habitus would have a J-shaped stomach that is more vertical and lower in the abdomen with the duodenal bulb at the level of L3-L4?
Hyposthenic/Asthenic
What is the Hounsfield unit for water?
Zero
What are the biological catalysts that speed up the process of digestion?
enzymes
What term describes the junction between the duodenum and the jejunum?
duodenojejunal flexure
The absence of menstrual cycle is called:
Amenorrhea
True or false. The type of single-phase x-ray waveform that is the result of converting the opposing half of the incoming electron flow so that none of the current is 'wasted' is known as full-wave rectification.
TRUE
DEFINE SIMPLE SUBSTANCE
a.k.a. elementElements that cannot be decomposed to simpler substances by ordinary means.Ex. sodium/Na, iron/Fe, lead/Pb
radiographs are important
because detect disease conditions get detected obtain info
Which part of the intervertebral disk is composed of semigelatinous material?
Nucleus Pulposus
ROCM is responsible for __% of all acute renal failure events.
10
True or false. If a distance indicator on the collimator of a tube reads 180 CM and the actual distance is 165 cm, this unit needs to removed from service and recalibrated.
FALSE
___________ occurs when a low energy photon impacts with an entire atom without ionizing the atom. The incident photon then changes direction.
Coherent Scattering
_______ is a malignant tumor of the metaphysis.
Fibrosarcoma
True or false. With the Kodak CR system, the exposure index is inversely proportional to the actual exposure to the imaging plate.
FALSE
With fluoroscopy, the ESE or entrance skin exposure from a fluoroscopic tube can be no greater than:
10 R/min
True or false. Added filtration is not a neccessary component to a typical CT scanner.
FALSE
The superior vertebral notch of one vertebrae and the inferior notch of the vertebrae above it form the _________.
Intervertebral foramen
A known technique with an extremity cassette of 100 RS is 70 kVp at 5 mAs. If you replaced this cassette with a 500-speed cassette, your new mAs would be:
1 mAs
True or false. ROCM can pass the placental barrier.
TRUE
Describe IV injection.
Used when immediate effects are needed. Most common sites: basilic or cephalic veins on back of hand, basilic vein on anterior forearm and elbow or cephalic vein on elbow. Needle: winged tip or butterfly 18-27 gauge, 1/4 to 1 1/4 inch in length.
Converting AC current to DC current is done with a semiconductor called a:
Rectifier
The type of interaction that produces two photons of 0.51 Megavolts is:
Pair production
What is the "ear drum"?
Attic or epitympanic recess
Which aspect of the stomach will fill with air when the patient is prone?
Fundus
True or false. The entrance and exits of the stomach are called the cardiac and pyloric orificices, respectively.
TRUE
Which cells are most important in the development of immunity?
lymphocytes
What type of diabetes causes polyuria, weight loss and increased thirst?
Diabetes insipidus
Which of the following are directly related to the Rh factors of mother and fetus?
Erythroblastosis fetalis
The current that is responsible for thermionic emission is the ___________.
Filament current
___________ are located in the abdomen and provide fluid to assist in travel of sperm.
Seminal vessicles
How many filaments are found in a modern radiograph unit?
2
define radiolucent
black or white film that has no density or resistance
What is atresia?
absence or closure of normal body orifice
What type of grid has lead lines that run perpendicular to the plane of the film all across the grid?
Parallel
In order for a c-arm assembly to move completely around one end of the table in a cardiovascular suite, the table is:
Cantilevered
What is the purpose of using grids?
To improve contrast
When a disease is known to to cause your bones to increase the production of bone tissue, this disease is known as:
Osteoblastic
A patient with a possible pleural effusion in the right lung enters the ER. The patient is unable to stand or sit erect. Which position would best demonstrate this condition?
Right lateral decub
What is the proper name for the frog-leg projection?
Modified cleaves
Which agent is used to help decrease the oxidation of the reducing agents when they are combined with air?
The preservative
Name the cranial bones that each temporal bone articulates with.
Parietal, occipital, sphenoid
True or false. The male pelvis has an obtuse angle of the pubic arch.
FALSE
What is the coiled filament called on the cathode?
tungsten wire
At a setting of 68 kVp with a tungsten anode, the percentage of your beam is composed of characteristic x-rays is:
The nose of the scottie dog is the ___________.
Transverse process
What imaging procedures may be used to demonstrate an abdominal aneurysm?
Angiography, CT, ultrasound
Moving the image intensifier towards the body part (increasing the SOD) will have what type of effect on magnification and detail?
Magnification decreases and image detail increases
What does the abbreviation stand for: OD
oculus dexter, right eye
What does the abbreviation stand for: U
unit, a dosage measure
What are indications for a hysterosalpingogram?
evaluate functional or structural defects of uterus and uterine tubes, evaluate fertility, can be therapeutic
What is the function of the brainstem?
Regulates primary functions like respiration
The filtration on an x-ray tube with a molybdenum anode will be:
.03 mm molybdenum
What does the abbreviation stand for: SOS
si opus sit, if necessary
Trypsin may begin to autodigest if:
"Pancreatitis is caused. May be caused by:
The leg of one scottie dog and the ear of another scottie dog make up the ____________.
Zygapophyseal joint
A known technique of 55 kVp @ 4 mAs with a 400 RS cassette is used for hand radiography. What would the technique be if the cassette were a 200-speed detail cassette?
8 maS
What is the formula for changing or adding/removing a grid?
mAs1/mAs2 = conversion factor1/conversion factor2
Explain total brightness gain.
A measurement of the increase in image intensity achieved by an image intensification tube. It is determined by minification gain and flux gain.
STATE THE CORRECT FORMULA TO CONVERT FROM CELSIUS TO FAHRENHEIT
(C + 40) 9/5 - 40
When does lidocaine become unstable?
When expired or when exposed to heat > 40 degrees celsius. Should also be administered via separate IV line due to adverse effects with other medications.
What is the treatment for esophageal stricture?
Balloon dilation (Hurst & Maloney dilators)
What can predispose a woman to cervical cancer?
HPV, STDs and multiple sex partners
How do you compute the MF for fluoro?
Original input screen diamenter/input screen diameter during mag
What were fourth generation CT scanners like?
"Developed as a result of a contract awarded by the US Institutes of health
What is the imaging modality of choice for COR pulmonale?
Echo, Nuc Med cardiac studies, CXR
What does the abbreviation stand for: tid
ter in die, three times a day
What type of cysts are common and a normal part of menstrual cycle?
Follicular and corpus luteum cysts
DEFINE NOISE AS IT APPLIES TO RADIOGRAPHIC IMAGES
Noise is a blotchy appearance on an image
Will an orbiting electron moving from the P shell into the L shell produce a photon in diagnostic range?
No (only an electron that moves into the K shell)
When does sodium bicarbonate become unstable?
Until expired or if not kept at temps ranging from 15-30 degrees celsius
What events must be completed before the exposure process can continue by pressing the second part of the exposure switch?
The space charge is formed by applying the filament current and the rotor is spinning at a high RPM
At what location does CSF exit into the subarachnoid space?
At the fourth ventricle via the median and lateral foramina.
What is step two of an oral cholecystogram?
Fatty meal or CCK to stimulate bile production
Where is the CR placed for an AP projection of the pelvis?
midway between the ASIS and the symphysis pubis
The unit of power is the watt. One watt is produced by:
1 ampere flowing with a pressure of one volt.
At what point do US public law require that generators automatically terminate AEC exposures?
At 600 mAs or 60 kW seconds above 50 kVp and 2000 mAs below 50 kVp
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Term:
Definition:
Definition:

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