echocardiography final Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Restrictive/Infiltrative cardiomyopathy creates excessively rigid walls and abnormal diastolic filling
true
Pericarditis auscultation sound
friction rub
Iron storage disease, multisystem
Hemochromatosis
Extracellular deposition of protein
Amyloidosis
Mean PA Pressure
4(Early PI jet)^2
Dilated chambers and regurgitaion, Apical thrombus probable, and Increased volume and mass are in what cardiomyopathy disease state?
Dilated/Congestive
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy is the least common of the cardiomyopathy disease states
False
Which Medication relaxes smooth muscles and widens blood vessels and lowers BP?
Nitrates
What is the average LVOT diameter
2cm
echo’s equivalent to cath’s Peak-to-Peak
Mean Velocity
What medication descreases the body's retention of salt and water, and helps to lower BP and decreases the workload of the heart?
Diuretics
Three complications of CHF
a)Increased ventricular pressure
b)Elevated systemic & pulmonary pressure
c)decreased CO
Ischemic heart disease means
Low cardiac output
Constrictive Pericarditis doppler findings
similar to tamponade
PAEDP
4(End PI jet)^2 + RAP (assume 10mmHg)
PAP
PAP = RVSP 4(Peak TRjet)^2 + RAP
The pathophysiology of complete transposition of the great arteries is Pulmonary Artery orginates from the _________ carrying ________ blood to the lungs
Left Ventricle, Saturated
Cardiac Tamponade treatment
pericardiocentesis or a pericardial window
in order to distinguish between Pleural and Pericardial Effusion on 2D echo (PLAX), it is helpful to identify
Descending aorta
The pulse associated with cardiac tamponade is
Pulses paradoxus
The leakage of fluid from capillaries into interstitium is the cause of
Edema
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy etiology (HCOM)
Idiopathic, genetic origin
Cellular malformation affecting myocardium
heart becomes enlarged and thickened, usually occurs early in life
Glycogen storage
Which medication is used to increase the force of the heart's contraction and slows certain heart rhythms?
Digitals
In CHF MR or AI disease causes
Regurgitaion
Pericardial Effusion definition
fluid in the pericardial sac
CAD
LAD = Anterior wall & ApexRCA= Right Atrium Inferior wallCirc = Lateral wall
The most common symptom of patients with Eisenmenger's Syndrome (ES) is
Exertional Dyspnea
The syndrome that is associated with Coarctation of the Aorta is
Turner's Syndrome
long standing Pericardial Effusion findings
fibrin strands in fluid
what cardiac arrhythmias are associated with CHF
Tachy, Brady, & AFIB
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy complication
Mitral regurgitation is common and sudden cardiac death
BAE and BVH are common findings of restrictive/infiltrative cardiomyopathy disease states
true
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy heart shapes
Assymmetric septal hypertrophy causing a possible outflow tract obstruction is classic finding, but may be concentric hypertrophy
Diastolic collapse of the RV anterior wall is consistent with:
Cardiac Tamponade
formula the cath lab use to calculate the Peak-to-Peak Velocity
Gorlin formula
RVSP w/ VSD
RVSP =Systolic BP - 4(Peak VSD Velocity)^2
The surgery that excises the AV and places the PV annulus and trunk into the aortic position with re-implatation of the coronary arteries. On the pulmonic side a homograft conduit is placed between the RV and the Pulmonary Artery is called
Ross Procedure
A _________ is necessary for the survival of patients with Complete Transposition of the Great Arteries
ASD, PDA, VSD
Dilated cardiomyopathy echo findings
4 chamber enlargement, decreased EF, regurgitant valves, thin walls, thrombus in apex and puffs of smoke(spontaneous contrast) indicating slow moving blood.
Cardiac Tamponade heart views
Usually large effusions with swinging heart. Fills rapidly
Dilated cardiomyopathy heart shapes
Round, global or spherical in shape
Three causes / etiology of AS
Rheumatic Fever / Degeneration / Congenital
Congestive Heart Failure definition
The heart's Inability to pump adequate amount of blood to meet metabolic demands of the body for Oxygen. Usually a dilated heart, but not always
what is cardiomyopathy (CMO)?
CMO is a disease that diffusely affects the myocardium, resulting in enlargement and/or ventricular dysfunction.
Cardiac Tamponade echo findings
RV collapse during Diastole. RA will collapse more easily, so if the RV is collapsing, the pressure is increased.
The chambers that are typically dilated with Eisenmenger's Syndrome (ES) are
Right Atrium, Right Ventricular and Pulmonary Artery
Doppler evidence of Constrictive Pericarditis include:
Increased peak velocity across the TV with inspiration
Pericardial Effusion how to quantify severity
Measuring fluid helps to quantify severity
Hypertrophic cardiomyopathy echo findings
When obstruction is present due to ASH and SAM, it is HOCM and the CW Doppler waveform will be dagger shaped and the PW of the LVOT will alias
What is common in CHF that occurs at a rate of 6 to 9 times of that of the general population
Sudden death
A pt w/ an of EF 20% would have a _______AVA than someone with an EF of 60%
no different
The indication for VSD repair is
Qp/Qs > 1.5:1 with LVE or AI
The EKG finding most seen in patients with Congenitally Corrected Transposition of the Great Arteries is:
 
Variable degrees of AV block
Congestive Heart Failure right heart findings
Blood backs into venous system. Causes peripheral/pedal edema. May have enlarged liver with ascites and bulging neck veins. Also dilated IVC
Congestive Heart Failure common causes
HTN and may have LVH from the body’s attempts to work harder to provide the blood needed or from valvular disease preventing blood flow from moving out of heart
During a physical exam, what are two indications a pt might have AS?
Low Systolic BP / Pulsus Parvus et Tardus
Pericardial Effusion to differentiate it from a Pleural effusion
use the DAO as a landmark in the PLAX. Fluid anterior to the DAO is pericardial, posterior is pleural
If and AS pt has a low EF, would the gradient between V1 and V2 be large or small
small because there isn’t enough power to generate a powerful contractionNo matter the degree of stenosis
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Term:
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Definition:

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