Reconstruction vocabulary Flashcards

Terms Definitions
13th
No Slavery
amnesty
An official pardon
Booth
Charged with Lincoln's murder
Black Codes
Restricted African American rights;specifically voting rights;
Literacy Tests;Poll Tax; Grandfather Clause
17th Amendment
Direct election of senators.
This country violated the Monroe Doctrine during the Civil War.
France
Impeach
to ACCUSE someone of WRONG DOING
Johnson's plan
A reconstruction plan/pardons that would...
Pardons would be granted to those taking a loyalty oath
No pardons would be available to high Confederate officials and persons owning property valued in excess of $20,000
A state needed to abolish slavery before being readmitted
A state was required to repeal its secession ordinance before being readmitted.
scalawag
a native white Southerner who collaborated with the occupying forces during Reconstruction, often for personal gain.
readmit
(verb) to allow someone or something to once again enter a place, a country, or a group that they were once a part of but had left for a period of time
15th Amendment
voting rights are guaranteed to freedmen
Vagrancy Laws
Freedmen convicted of vagrancy-- that is, not working; could be sold, fined, or whipped.
veto
To forbid something from becoming a law. (The president has the power to veto!)
First amendment passed since 1804; "neither slavery nor involuntary servitude, except as a punishment for a crime whereof the party shall have been duly convicted, shall exist within the United States."
13th Amendment
PANIC OF 1873
overspeculation by financiers and overbuilding by industry and RR led to business failures and depression

Grant vetoed a bill calling for the release of additional Greenbacks
racial segregation
the forced separation of whites and African Americans in pubic places
Lynching
Murder by a mob. This was mostly African American victims. Over 1000 were killed by many jobless whites who took out there anger on blacks. This worsened after the deprssion of 1893.
10% Plan
Lincoln's plan; 10 % of Southern voters had to pledge loyalty to the USA;Abolished Slavery;Set up Freedmen's Bureau and aide freed slaves;Gave amnesty to Southern Confederate leaders. Easy on the South
Reconstruction Act
Divided the south into five districts that were controlled by military commanders
Fourteenth Amendment
an amendment to the U.S. Constitution ratified in 1868 that gave African Americans citizenship and equal protection under the law
Ku Klux Klan
worked to keep African Americans and white Republicans out of office, spread terror
industrialized economy in the South
Southern leaders saw the industrialized northern economy and realized a unique opportunity to build an.
Clinton and Johnson
The two pres. that have been impeached
Most southern states had laws which enforced segregation. What were these laws called?
Jim Crow laws
John Wilkes Booth
southerner who shot Abraham Lincoln in the back of the head
Civil Rights act of 1866
Granted citizenship rights to African Americans and guaranteed the Civil Rights Act of all people Except Native Americans.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
Divided the South into five military districts AND that southern states had to ratify (approve) the 14th amendment in order to rejoin the Union.
Along with the requirement to ratify the 14th Amendment, this act divided the former Confederate states (except Tennessee) into five military districts in order to recognize and protect African-Americans right to vote. Johnson vetoed, but overridden.
Reconstruction Act of 1867
freedmen's bureau
an agency of the War Department set up in 1865 to assist freed slaves in obtaining relief, land, jobs, fair treatment, and education.
Myth of the Lost Cause
attempt to explain and justify the loss to the North. Religious ideology was heavily employed in order to argue that, although the South suffered a military defeat, it nevertheless achieved a moral victory.
2 main reasons for the downfall of reconstruction between 1868-72
White terrorism
Division withing the republican party
Why was President Andrew Johnson impeached?
because he fired his secretary of war (Edwin Stanton) without the approval of the Senate, even though Congress had just passed a new law making it illegal for him to fire any cabinet officials without the approval of the Senate
The North would help with the internal improvements in the South
3rd part of the Compromise of 1877
Slaughterhouse cases
.
Compromise of 1877
.
Tenure of Office Act
.
Redeemers
Individuals behind the democratic party's return to power in the south at the end of reconstruction
13th Amendment
-abolished slavery-african americans were no longer forced into slavery
NAACP
or National Association for the Advancement of Colored People. Both blacks and whites were in this program. They worked for equal rights for all races.
Sharecropping
Landowners give farm workers land, seed and tools in return for part of the crops they raise
What did Southern Democrats call white southern Republicans who cooperated with the Reconstruction governments? This word meant liars and cheats.
scalawags
Freedman's Bureau
government agency that provided food, medicine, and education to southern people in need. Primarily for the freed slaves but also helped poor white people.
T/F The south had greater adjustments to make to life after the Civil War than the North.
True
radical reconstruction
period begining in 1867, the Republicans, who had control in both houses of Congress took charge of reconstruction.
ended
As federal troops withdrew from the south, black suffrage _____
Congressional Reconstruction
The "real" reconstruction plan, it involved the Radical Republican's plans which override Johnson's vetoes
19th amendment
guarantees women the right to vote
andrew johnson
seventeenth president of the U.S. 1865–69.
Fourteenth (14th) Amendment
a constitutional amendment ratified in 1868 that gave full rights of citizenship to all people born or naturalized in the United States, except for American Indians
Rutherford B. Hayes
the republicans choice for the election of 1876
true equality
The Radicals insisted that the main goal of Reconstruction should be a restructuring of society to guarantee black people ____
Poll Taxes
taxes levied as a qualification for voting
What group in Congress considered the Black Codes to be undemocratic and cruel?
Radical Republicans
BUILDING BLACK COMMUNITIESeducation
paid educated blacks to teach
black colleges: howard, atlandta, fisk and morehouse trained black ministers and teachers
sharecroppers
farmers hired to work an area of a plantation and got to keep a portion of the crops
Legislative Elections
In 1870 Southern black men were able to vote in _____________for the first time
Become president
The Compromise of 1877 let Hayes do what?
Congressional Phase of Reconstruction
Pass 14th and 15th amendmentrequire southern states to adhere to it if they want to rejoin the unionInsisted on a Federal Presence in South making sure they enforce ratified amendments
CONGRESS'S PLAN OF RECONSTRUCTION CLAUSES
1. DISQUALIFIED FORMER CONFEDERATE POLITICAL LEADERS FROM HOLDING STATE OR FEDERAL OFFICES
2. REPUDIATED THE DEBTS OF DEFEATED GOVERNMENT OF CONFEDERACY
3. PENALIZED A STATE IF IT KEPT ANY ELIGIBLE PERSON FROM VOTING BY REDUCING THAT STATE'S PROPORTIONAL REPRESENTATION IN CONGRESS AND ELECTORAL COLLEGE
When did the end of Reconstruction come?
The election of 1876
A person who rents a plot of land from another person and farms it in exchange for a share of the crop.
Sharecropper
Support for Hayes as Pres. by Southern Dems if federal troops withdrew from LA & SC; federal money for RR from TX to West Coast & improvements for Southern rivers, harbors, bridges; appointment of a conservative Southerner to Pres. Hayes's cabinet.
Compromise of 1877
Waving The Bloody ShirtELECTION OF 1866
radical northern Republicans to defeat southern Democrats by using impassioned oratory about bloody sacrifice designed to keep alive the hatreds and prejudices of the Civil War period.
Lincons goal in reconstruction was:
to re-unify the country and to prevent another civil war
Senate, high crimes and misdemeanors, one vote
The ______ tried Pres Johnson for ____ _______ and __________ but Johnson escaped removal from office by ___ ____
shortly after the end of the Civil war former confederate officials were OFTEN:
re-elected to federal office after being pardoned
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