Reformation Quiz-AP EURO Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Movement within the seventeenth-century Catholic Church. It opposed the Jesuits and advocated that humans could only achieve salvation through divine grace, not through good works.
1598-1650, personified baroque architecture and sculpture
small, intelligent middle class group
John Knox
Scottish theologian who founded Presbyterianism in Scotland and wrote a history of the Reformation in Scotland (1514-1572)
questions the Church and demands reform; was a threat to cardinals; hussites
Causes intellectually
renaissance's new ideas help contribute. individuals tried to form relationship between them and God, leaving Pope out. bibles were printed in vernacular. questionable attitude lead some to doubt churches authority and power
The English Reformation was peculiar because the government broke with ____ when there was no religious dispute b/w king and pope.
favoring family members in the appointment of Church offices
Peter Paul Rubens
prolific Flemish baroque painter
Charles V
A Habsburg emperor who inherited Spain, the Netherlands, Southern Italy, Austria, and much of the Holy Roman Emperor from his grandfather Maximilian I.
Spanish Inquisition
established under Ferdinand & Isabella in 1480 to root out Moslems and Jews. Was a religious tribunal. Used very brutal methods. Aim to achieve religious conformity. Ferd. used it for political purposes also. Helped ensure reconquista & expulsion of Jews. Those who converted and stayed were still often subjected to it. Later used in countries ruled by Spain to fight Protestantism. Ex. Netherlands where Calvinism active
Multiple Benefices
The occurrence of buying multiple Church positions/offices
those who demanded for reform or religious changes in the roman catholic church
religion formed by John Calvin and would catch on in Europe
Ulrich Zwingli was responsible for the Protestant conversion of _______.
Diet of Worms
-Emperor Charles V insisted Luther recanted ideas
-18 April: Luther refused to recant
-26 May: Charles V issued imperial Edict condemning Luther's doctrines
Christian Humanism
goal: the reform of Christianity, focused on sources from early Christianity/Holy scriptures, reform program: education--to create an inward religious feeling--lead to reform of church/society
-Thomas More
Treaty of Westphalia
Calvinism legalized in HRE, Switzerland and Netherlands recognized as independent countries. principle of sovereignty formalizes.
The practice of lending money for interest.
Francis II
Husband of Mary Queen of Scots, controlled by mother.
High papalism of Jesuits - devotion to pope and church. At C of T upheld the interests of pope over national bishops. This aspect of Jesuits smtms made them as obnoxious to
caths. as to prots.
Thomas Cromwell
shut down monasteries and added them to Henry's treasury and wealth
become queen of England and wants to change back to Catholic. many clashes come of this and she ends up killing 300 people (BLOODY MARY)
dancing and gambling
Calvinist laws prohibited _____ & ______.
Tragedy at Münster
1534, combined armies of Protestant and Catholic forces captured the city and executed Anabaptist leaders
Johann Eck
He defeated Luther in the Leipzig Debate over indulgences in July 1519. He forced Luther to deny authority of popes and councils.
lesser lords. a person granted the use of land in return for homage, fealty, and usually military service pr its equivilant to a lord or other superior
Needs priest to interpret Bible Vs. Individual can read Bible
Catholic vs. Lutheran
Leo X
Pope that used the sale of indulgences to rebuild a basilica and he was also the pope who challenged Martin Luther.
Martin Luther
believed that we can only know the truth based on a personal reflection of scripture based on conscience and justification by faith alone
Council at Trent
3 sessions- last 1545- 1563. meetings on how can change church policies to bring people back. reaffirms that pope is supreme and church doesn't have authority to interpret Bible. Prohibits nepatism, simony, and selling of indulgences. required that clergy renounce pleasures. authorizes an INDEX. each diosy had to establish seminary
League of Schmalkalden
in Northern Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
Peace of Augsburg (1555)
-Between Emperor Charles V & Schmalkaldic League
-Agreement declaring the religion of each German state would be decided by its ruler
-Any future German princes to turn Lutheran could not take Church property w/ them
-NO recognition of Calvinism
95 Thesis
written by Martin Luther in 1517, they are widely regarded as the primary catalyst for the Protestant Reformation. Luther used these theses to display his displeasure with some of the Church's clergy's abuses, most notably the sale of indulgences; this ultimately gave birth to Protestantism.
Luther's German Bible
Luther presented his views before the diet of worms in April of 1521 and was placed under the imperial ban, which made him an outlaw. Friends hid him in Wartburg Castle, where he translated the NT into German
Who were Henry VIII's wives?
Catherine of Aragon (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella), bore Mary (Bloody Mary); Anne Boleyn, bore Elizabeth (the Virgin Queen); Jane Seymour, bore Edward VI; Anne of Cleaves; Catherine Howard; Catherine Parr
Council of Troubles
Reign of terror under Duke of Alva, resistance forced to organize.
Act of Supremacy
made Henry VIII and later Elizabeth I the heads of the church in England
Index of prohibited books
A weapon of the Counter-Reformation of the Catholic Church; this documented books that disagreed with or criticized the Church. There was an early one issued by Pope Paul IV and another from the Council of Trent. This was supposed to protect people from immoral or incorrect theological works, but included scientific writing.
Who was Charles V's son?
Phillip II, married Mary I (Bloody Mary)
Address to the Christian Nobility
questions the separation of the Church vs the state. Luther's appeal to German nobility that they can change the church.
The Thirty Years War
A war that occurred between 1618 and 1648; it was mainly a civil war in Germany and the Holy Roman Empire over religious and political issues; it also involved the countries of Spain, France, Denmark, and Sweden
Council of Trent
Called by Pope Paul III to reform the church and secure reconciliation with the Protestants. Lutherans and Calvinists did not attend.
he needed the wealth they would bring
Henry VIII dissolved the monasteries largely because ______
what was Luther's stance on the peasant revolts that claimed to use Luther's teachers as an excuse?
they should not use religious means to bring up their economic status. Luther advised that the king massacre all of them.
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