Renaissance 52 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
3D pictures
the work, production
leonardo da vinchi
father of rennaissance sculpture
author of the courtier
Who wrote Don Quixote?
Quattrocenta painter, perfected Giotto's techniquemastered perspective, first to paint nude figuresinspired large-scale pursuit of realism
Encyclopedia, Compiled articles from fine thinkers such as Voltaire and Montesquieu. Tried to change the way people thought by making information available.
Sonfonsiba Anguissola
gained international reputation, trained with father, painted strong women
Major: Milan, Naples (despots), Venice, Florence, Papal States (run by church) Turbulent, tough world, constant fighting. Tried to use diplomacy, actually spying on each other.
(theology) being determined in advance. especially the doctrine (usually associated with Calvin) that God has foreordained every event throughout eternity (including the final salvation of mankind).
a movement for religious reform
The Praise of Folly
Desiderius Erasmus
Spanish Jews who converted to Christianity rather than be expelled(1492). Their conversion was often questioned and they were tested-forced to eat pork, etc. They were often persecuted by Inquisition. Over 200,000 Jews left Spain -> N. Af., Italy, Ottoman Emp.(Sephardic) or Poland, Germany, Russia(Ashkenazic).
Giovanna Tornabuoni, Birth of the Virgin
a person who provides financial support for the arts.
believed that people should be baptized as adults
last 6 lines of a poem
Idealized motherhood in his paintings of sweet-faced Madonnas
A government controlled by religious leaders.
(1304-1374) Father of the Renaissance. He believed the first two centuries of the Roman Empire to represent the peak in the development of human civilization.
Stefaneschi Altarpiece - Christ Side; Giotto; 1320's; commissioned by Cardinal Stefaneschi
New papal tax devised during schism and applying to Christian West - to incr. revenue. Each bishopric and abbacy to send first year's revenue of office to pope. Big movt of funds -> establishment of banking system in Europe. Added to resentment of R.C. Church.
in ancient Rome, officials elected by plebeians to protect their interests
Scheme for improvising a third part between a plainchant in the treble and a lower voice. The outer voices form parallel sixths, while the middle voice is a fourth below the plainchant, though they start and end phrases with and octave/fifth.
the Church of England where Elizabeth was the head. (monarchy rules the Church not the pope)
religious group that has broken away from an established church
spanish writer, who wrote don quixote dela mancha
John Wyclif(fe)
Oxford don (professor). Late 1300s. Early cry for reform. Critical of Church's wealth. Said clergy not needed for communication to God. Challenged papacy. Taught salvation only thru Bible. Translated Bible into English from Latin. Had support of Lollards. Branded as heretics. Opposed Eucharist. After his death was tried for heresy, found guilty, bones exhumed, books burnt.
The prince
Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"
a country that is self contained within one city
Niccolo Machiavelli
(1469-1527) Wrote "The Prince" which contained a secular method of ruling a country. "End justifies the means."
a member of the Christian church founded on the principles of the reformation
The city that lost its Renaissance leadership after the interruption of Medici rule
Identify the following:6 feet of unstressed, unstressed, stressed.
Anapestic hexameter.
Pico Della Mirandola
Oration on the Dignity of Man
Human capacity/perspective
Individual achievements of humans
Secular-not religious
Humanism-individual achievement, glorified humans
Challenging Old Traditions-humans worthwhile, disagreed with Pope Innocent, positive attitude toward humans
Desiderius Erasmus
Dutch humanist and theologian who was the leading Renaissance scholar of northern Europe
One of the earliest orders of friars founded by Dominic, a Spanish priest. They emphasized the importance of study and many of them were scholars. This order was established in Spain in the early 1200s and still exists today. They were a popular Medicant order.
Civic Politics
Increased Papal power, but was run more like a government both secular and religious affairs were taken care of by the Pope.
Peace of Augusburg
agreement where german princes were allowed to choose religion of their state
a painting on wet plaster, means fresh in Italian.
Leonardo Da Vinci
Italian painter and sculptor and engineer and scientist and architect
Papal States
A group of territories in central Italy ruled by the popes from 754 until 1870. They were originally given to the papacy by Pepin the Short and reached their greatest extent in 1859. The last papal state—the Vatican City—was formally established as a separate state by the Lateran Treaty of 1929.
High Renaissance
period beginning in the late 15th century, it produced some of the most well-knownreligious and secular artwork of the period from such figures as leonardo, raphael, and michelangelo
albrecht durer
German artist known for his engravings and woodcuts
Isabella D'Este
"First woman of the Renaissance" ruled Mantua after the death of her husband, accomplished musician, Greek & Latin scholar
Frances Bacon
came up with the scienctific method; criticized Aristotle, English politician and writer
Cosimo de Medici
ren. patron, made the Platonic Academy
Republic of Florence
A moderatly large Italian city that was central to the Italian Renaissance because of its gifted individuals; Dante, Pretrach, Boccaccio, Machiavelli, Brunelleschi, Donatello, Masaccio, Boticelli and others. The city was ruled by the Medici familly, a family of great wealth. Still, the city continued to produce new ways of thinking and helped progress the Renaissance further.
Who was Leonardo da Vinci
universal man, renaissance man, artist, sculpture, architect, scientist, engineer and inventor
Pope Paul III
directed a council of cardinals to investigate indulgence selling and other abuses, approved jesuit order, used inquisition, council of trent
Ab'd al Ahrama III
caliph whose benevolent peace in Spain; unified Muslims in Spain (Umayyads), moors
English Royal Navy
Created by Henry VIII; defeated the Spanish Armada
the act of banishing a member of the Church from the communion of believers and the privileges of the Church. cutting a person off from a religious society
Urban society
a system in which cities are the center of political economic and social life
Laid grids on the map of the know world, these grids were used as measurement so sailors could now have an accurate understanding of distance/location.
Henry VII of England
restored the english monarchy and crushed the nobility. Improved the cloth industry and setup the merchant marine
All of the above
Which of the following contributed to the rise of the merchant aristocracies in Italy?
Italian who wrote a book on how to run a state, and said to do whatever it takes to win
Is a secular of music with 4 to 6 parts, topic's were love and spring time, also was an acapella
Heliocentric Theory
theory that the Sun is the center of the universe
Machiavelli, The Prince
A patriot of Italy, he wrote the most lasting work of the Italian Renaissance, a quintessential political treatise. In it, he wrote of how he dreamed that when citizens of his native Florence, or all of Italy, should behave like early Romans--show virility in their politics, fight in citizen armies for patriotic causes, and uphold their dignity before Europe. He admired the leaders of France, Spain and England because they knew how to exercise poer and how to build strong states. (ends justify means, for rulers it is better to be feared than loved).
Henry divorced Catherine of Aragon
cause of problems between England and Spain
King Henry VIII
28 June 1491 - 28 January 1547, was King of England from 21 April 1509 until his death.
Sack of Rome, 1527
May 5, 1527 - A military event carried out by the mutinous troops of Charles V, Holy Roman Emperor in Rome, then part of the Papal States. It marked a crucial imperial victory in the conflict between Charles I of Spain Holy Roman Emperor, and the League of Cognac (1526-1529) — the alliance of France, Milan, Venice, Florence and the Papacy.
Why is the Renaissance considered the beginning of the modern age?
While most Renaissance people were very religious, they were beginning to look at the secular world around them and ask questions.
Reduces your sins once your in heaven
What thing could the indulgences not do
What happened when the economy of the Renaissance grew?
People used their money to become political powers and to sponsor art clients.
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