Ecology Test 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
Plant eater
producers are _____
being eaten in predation
Another word for producers
Temperature, precipitation, humidity, cloudiness, wind, and other atmospheric conditions occurring at a specific place and time
the year-after-year conditions of temperature and precipitation in a particular region
primary producer examples
algae, marsh grass
human caused disturbances
human made disasters
Uniform Dispersion
individuals are evenly spaces
influenced by social interactions such as territoriality
ex) penguins
circulation systems that transport warm water to the poles
Early arrivals inhibit the colonization of a later species. Mechanisms include chemical and physical obstruction.
omnivores -
eat both plants and animals
animal (kingdom)
examples: opossum, white-tailed deer, squirrel, Eastern Box Turtle, bobcat
i.e. vultures, consume the carcasses of other animals
oceanic zone
deep= photic and aphotic zone
secondary succession
succession following a disturbance that destroys a community without destroying the soil
Organisms that relies on other organisms for its energy and food supply; also called a heterotroph.
The geographic extent of a population
O2 goes down, nutrients come up
essential for survival and growth of aquatic organisms
consists of populations of different plants and animal species interacting with each other in a given enviroment
hydrologic reservoirs
aquatic environments plus the atmosphere; water turns over in these reservoirs through precipitation, evaporation and flow. cycle is powered by the sun which drives wind and evaporation. Turn over time occurs at different rates due to size and exchange rates; atmosphere= 9 days; rivers 12-20 days; lakes=days to centuries; oceans= 3100 years
reproduce many times, small # offspring
Intrasexual selection
male vs male competition (strength)
individuals that move into the area from elsewhere and are added to the population
wetland formed where rivers meet the sea
the grouping of organisms based on common features
acid rain
can damage and release toxic elements
abiotic factors
Non-living things that affect the ecosystem. (Pollution, temperature, precipitation)
the variety of species living within an ecosystem
the periodic passage of groups of animals (especially birds or fishes) from one region to another for feeding or breeding
an ecosystem in which water either covers the soil or is present at or near the surface of the soil for at least part of the year.
competition (?/?)
(-/-)compete for supplies - mutually detrimental
battle for limited resources in an ecosystem; greatest for related species in same niche
Diefine co-evolution
where the interaction between species creates an evolutionary response in both
the system's ability to recover and return after the disturbance
Natural Selection Definition
*#1 cause of macro-evolution.Biol. process where members of pop. survive and reprod. more successfully than others and transmit to their offspring the heritable basis for such.
Ability for an organism to leave behind reproducing offspring
an inheritable change in the structure of genes
Organisms that rely on other organisms foir their energy and food supply
Energy Pyramid
energy conversions are not very efficient (lost energy as heat). At each link in a food chain, a substantial portion of the sun's energy - originally trapped by a photosynthesizing autotroph - is dissipated back to the environment (ultimately as heat).
an organism that breaks down dead compounds into nutrients
Nitrogen Cycle
The cycle where nitrogen is converted between its different chemical forms
photosynthetic producers
convert light energy to the chemical energy of organic compounds
learn not to do something because of consequences
Binomial Nomenclature
Using a unique combination of TWO names to identify a species
carrying capacity
maximum number of individuals in a species that an environment can support for the long term
move from one country or region to another and settle there / move periodically or seasonal
Sampling Effort (3)
Sample size requirements, number of required samples
1. size of density mean
2. dispersion pattern (spacing of individuals)
3. desired precision (allowable error)
Temperate Deciduous Forests
Relativly mild climates and plentiful rain promotes. The trees shed their leaves all at onece in the fall, they grow in relatively warm summers, cold winters, and sufficient precipitation.
Gets food from other living things. Lives inside a host
Nutrient Sink
A part of the biosphere where nutrients are absorbed faster than it is released.
The number of births per 1000 per year.
genes vs the environment
phenotypic variation among individuals in a population result from the combined effects of genes and environments
net photosynthesis

- what’s left for growth and reproduction
Facultative Species
Species which are found equally often in wet and non-wet ecosystems.Examples: Chinese Privet, Water Oak, Wax Myrtle, Red Maple
species richness
number of different species in a given area
death rate
the number of deaths in a population in a certain amount of time
the act of preying by a predator who kills and eats the prey
Survivorship Curve III
Type III curves occur when juvenile mortality is extremely high (e.g., plant and animal species producing many offspring of which few survive). In type III populations, it is often true that e_(i+1)>e_i for small i. In other words, life expectancy increases for individuals who survive their risky juvenile period.
What is hamilton's rule?
defines when creatures should be alturistic. this is when payoff in terms of common genes is enough to offset the cost of ones own genes. (c
nitrogen fixing bacteria
turn free nitrogen into nitrates so plants can absorb them
La Niña –
Eastern tropical Pacifi c is cold, high barometric pressure
the joint evolution of two or more non interbreeding species that share a close ecological relationship and are exposed to similar environmental pressures
nesting site
a place where a bird builds or is likely to build a nest
What is parasitism?
When one organism benefits at the cost to the other organism (host)
e.g. Ticks, tapeworms
alpha beta and gamma diversity
alpha - diversity within a community
beta - diversity between communities, habitats, ecosystems( # of species unique to each community)
gamma - diversity within a geographical area (# of total species)
What are the names of the cells that make up a stoma?
Guard Cells
Example of Intermediate Disturbance Hypothesis
Lubchencos work on algae in pools where the predator snail was acting as a disturbance agent. Intermediate abundances of the snail led to the highest diversity of snails
2 trophic food chains
grazing - high rates of herbivory, low standing crop biomass
detrital - high standing crop biomass, low rates of herbivory
Biomass is the total amount of __ an ecoxyxtem
living organic material in
What are obstacles to understanding historical ecology?
data on distribution and abundance are more limited
Can't perturb the past to study the response
how do you measure NPP in terrestrial environments?
LAI is calculated using remote sensing
LAI then converted to NPP
What is r in words and mathematically?
R is the birth rate minus the death rate and it is the rate of increase
Chapter 5
la costa
something that produces
1. Trophic/Energy levels
Number of prey encountered
Fast potential growth rate
air surrounding the Earth
interactions between populations within a community with abiotic factors
consume other organisms for energy
when individuals enter a population
Biological interaction between two organisms, where each individual derives a fitness benefit
Feed on consumers and producers.
an organism that eats meat
large scale distribution is
always CLUMPED
Food Webs
Complex overlapping interconnected food chains in an ecosystem.
day-to-day condition of Earth's atmosphere at a particular time and place
producers (autotrophs)
produces carbs through photosynthesis and chemosynthesis
Driest land biome, high temperature range, most wildlife is nocturnal and conserves energy during the day
forces that disrupt a natural ecosystem
abiotic: forest fires, floods
biotic: diseases, parasites
type of relationship where one organism is benefited and the other is neither helped or harmed
trends and fluctuations in abundance or density related to biotic or abiotic environment
nitrogen fixation
puts nitrogen into the grounf
Organisms that produce their own food.
smallest living unit of the biosphere
intrinsic rate of growth
(b-d) + (i-e)
i=net immigration
e=net emigration
parasites and microbes that cause disease
Limiting Nutrient
signel nutrient that is scarce
organisms survival depends on their actions
Limnetic Zone
away from shore
bottom edge where aphotic zone begins
primarily productivity based on phytoplankton, which are eaten by zooplanktion including small crustaceans
abiotic factor
A nonliving part of an ecosystem
the study of the relationship between organisms and their environment
succesion results in part from changes caused by ________
large region of the earth with particular plant and animal communities
small organisms that live in the waters of the photic zone
the relationship in which one organism hunts and eats another ex: eagle and fish
an interaction between two species in which one species is benefited and the other is neither benefited nor harmed.
Change in genetic makeup of a population
climax community
an equilibrium of richness and composition is reached
Carbon cycle
How carbon moves through Earth's atmoshere and its ecosystems.
food web
(ecology) a community of organisms where there are several interrelated food chains
Carrying Capicity
the largest population that an environment can support at any given time
trophic level of carnivores that eats already dead meat
Biochemical Cycles
Show how elements, compounds, and other matter are passed throughout the biosphere. Energy is recycled.
poop... phosphorus is also found in this
feeding on only one kind of food.
tertiary and quaternary consumers
igher trophic levels 4th/5th levels
group of organisms that can breed and produce fertile offspring
population density
the number of individuals per unit area
The thin volume of earth and its atmosphere that supports life
climax vegetation
The predominant type of vegetation in a climax community.
Oligotrophic lake
Deep; nutrient-poor ; oxygen rich ; sparse phytoplankton
Stage 4
Chromosomes split apart and are pulled to opposite ends of cells
limiting factors
anything that restricts or limits the number of individuals in an area
Invasive Species
Species that enter new ecosystems and multiply, harming native species and their habitats
Temperate Deciduous Forest
Biome usually having four distinct seasons and climax communities of deciduous forest.
pioneer species
in primary succession on a terrestrial site the plants lichens and microbes that first colonize the site
food chain
The pathway along which food is transferred from trophic level to trophic level, beginning with producers.
sensory exploitation
evolution in males of an attractive signal that "exploits" sound or colors; ex. frogs "chuck" sound
competition (relationship)
(-/-) both species experience cost (in poulation size), lions and hyenas
law of thermodynamics
any of three principles variously stated in equivalent forms, being the principle that the change of energy of a thermodynamic system is equal to the heat transferred minus the work done
run off
when water flows down hill into lakes river or streams
levels of simple organization
atom molecule organelle cell tissue organ organsystem
Figure 13.18
3 species with response curves on 2 niche dimensions
What 3 examples of habitat?
Forests, deserts and coral reefs.
exotic species
organisms that are not native to a particular area
Exponential Population Growth
The rate at which individuals are added to the population is:
dN/dt = rN
This equation encompasses two principles:
the exponential growth rate (r) expresses population increase on a "per individual" or "per capita" basis
the rate of increase (dN/dt) varies in direct proportion to N
A population exhibiting exponential growth has a smooth curve of population increase as a function of time.
Renewable resources
minerals that can be used and replaced over a relatively short time period; ex: trees, beans, bananas, sugar, tea
point sources, nonpoint sources
pollution comes from ___________ and ___________.
gross primary productivity
the rate at which producers in an ecosytem capture energy
Nitric Acid (2HNO3 + NO)
Nitrate + Moisture (3NO2 + H2O)
C4 vs. C3 and light
C4 has higher light compensation points and light saturation points but lower light intensity than C3
each level is influenced by....
properties that occur at other levels.
What is a density-dependent factor?
These factors have an increasing effect as the population increases (disease, competition, parisites)
What are marine animals' adaptations to water enivornments?
They remain hypotonic to the ocean
Distinguish between basin wetlands, riveriine wetlands, and fringe wetlands
basin: found in shallow basins ranging from upland topographic depressions (like prairie potholes) to filled in lakes and ponds
riverine: (river bottoms) shallow and periodically flooded banks of rivers and streams
fringe: along coastal areas of large lakes on edge of marine estuaries
compare and contrast exponental and logistic growth models
exponential models keep on going where as logistic models level out as they reach the carrying compacity
stop polluting, put a wetland between the course and the stream, create rain gardens to slow the water
three ways to prevent eutrophication are____________, ___________________, and______________.
Encelia shrubs in the desert have pubescent leaves if they can tap intro groundwater, but they have shiny lieaves when growing on shallow dry slopes
Tigers exhibit extreme rarity in which they have restricted ranges, small habitat tolerance and small local population size
A squirrel in a forest is a member of __________.
an ecosystem, a population, and a community
Meat Eaters
el huracan
Where organisms live
Species with narrow niches
Trophic interactions
Who eats who.
Organism that consumes meat
body solute concentration = environment
spreading widely or driving off
Trophic levels
producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers, tertiary consumers
Dodo Bird
Extinct. Hunted for sport.
The relationship between organisms whre both benefit or even need each other for their survival
organisms with wide tolerance ranges:
Photosynthesis is responsible for adding oxygen to- and removing- __ from earth's atmosphere.
Carbon Dioxide
Oligotrophic lakes
are nutrition-poor and generally oxygen-rich.
nutrient cycles
nutrient cycles help maintain homostasias in the enviornment. they include the water, carbon and nitrogen cycle
the early arrivals may _____ establishment of later species, so that successful colonization by later species occurs in spite of the activities of the early species
gene flow
exchange of genes between populations
carbon-oxygen cycle
is when photosysnthesis and resperation work together to exchange carbon and oxygen
natural selection
differential survival and reproduction of individuals with different phenotypes
kranz leaf anatomy occurs in
C-4 plants
Batesian mimicry
harmless/palatable species looks like a harmful/unpalatable species;
larva of hawkmoth puff up head and thorax and act like green parrot snake
Random Sampling
Scientist take random population samples along a transect and use the
biotic factor
biological influence on organisms within an ecosystem (living)
herbivore/primary producer/autotrophs
organisms that obtain energy from plant material
every living and nonliving thing that surrounds an organism
k-selected population
constant size, low reproductive rates, lots of postnatal care
A01 (soil profile)
"litter"; undecomposed, loose, species source clearly recognizable
A pioneer organism that is a combination of an algae and a fungus which exist in a mutually beneficial relationship.
animal that hunts and eats other animals
A unicellular organism that lacks a nucleus and membrane bound organelles
tertiary consumer
gets food from secondary consumers. also called third level consumers.
mutualism is...?
both species enhance their survival, growth or reproduction
the group used for the standard against which results are comparison in an experiment ("normal conditions" to compare the experimental group against)
faciliated diffusion
the movement of specific molecules across a cell membrane through protein channels
- the study of the interrelationships of organisms with each other and with their nonliving environment.
two different types of organisms that live together
2 Main things that allowed human population to increase:
levels of organization of the living world in order from least to greatest
an organism whose cells have rigid cell walls like plants but do not undergo photosynthesis
the major energy source for all living things
The uppermost layer of vegetation in a terrestrial biome
the remains of something that has been destroyed or broken up
Human + influences
-Hunting, Pollution (clean air and water), and Custom laws
-Endangered species protection
-Organic farming:natural pesticides
-Alternative fuels/ wind power/ nuclear
-New refrigerants/aerosols
Any organism that uses or consumes its food, rather that producing it.
Examples of standing water ecosystems are?
lake or pond
Reproduction of Protists
Life cycle from diploid to haploid
gross reproductive rate
sum of bx on fecundity table
Greenhouse effect
when carbon dioxide, water, and methan molecules absorb energy reradiated by the Earth's surface and slow the release of this energy from the atmosphere.
what is ecology?
Scientific study of the interactions that determine the distribution and abundance of organisms
in a life table dx stands for
number dead
A type of relationship in which an individual of one sex mates with several of the other.
renewable resource
any resource, such as wood, wind, water or solar energy, that can or will be replenished
*the unique role of a species within an ecosystem.
*physical home, the environmental factors necessary for the species survival and all of the species interactions with other organisms.
r-selected species
species that reproduce early in their life span and produce large numbers of usually small, short-lived offspring in a short period
every life and fecundity table..
describes a life history strategy
Hazardous waste
Any waste that is a risk to health
Refers to a plant or animal which has not yet matured sexually.
Gross Primary Production
total amount of carbon fixed by autotrophs in an ecosystem
Gene pool
all the alleles of all the individuals in a population
What are te traditional solutions for dealing with solid waste?
Inceration, landfill, recycling
Kelp Forests and Coral Reefs
-Shallow areas along continental margins and around islands
-Kelp forests dominate in temperate areas; rocky shores, max water temp <20 C
-Coral reefs dominate in the tropics; absent from shores where silted by large rivers; circle band around equator
biogeochemical cycel
a system for giving each organism a two-word scientific name that consists of the genus name followed by the specific name
climate effects on soil
Tropical: humid and lots of rain. Topsoil is very thin (because of leaching).
Desert: hot and little rain. Most plants cannot survive in desert soil.
Temperate: just the right amount of rain (U.S.) Rich, thick, fertile soils
Arctic: cold and little precipitation. Soil is thin, like a cold desert.
efficiency of energy transfer (%s represent % transfer of energy)
insectivorous (0.9%); birds (1.3%); small mammals (1.5%); large animals (10%); invertebrates (21%); carnivorous invertebrates (28%); detritivores (36%)
No two species can occupy the same niche; one will eventually exclude the other
Competitive Exclusion Principle
Competitive Exclusion
If two species are so similar in their requirements that the same resource limits both species' growth, one species my suceed over the other
What does the biosphere include?
Includes the topmost crust, the water and the surrounding atmosphere.
broad leaves, branching, taller, vines
adaptations of plants to capture more light (4)
What does a numbers pyramid show?
number of individual organisms at a trophic level
Where are Hot Subtropical Deserts located?
Around 30 degrees North and South. Associated with subsidence from Hadley cells.
What is the difference between reducing and reusing?
Reducing simply means to buy less of something.

Reusing means to use something more than once, not to just throw it away.
Learning often plays a part here - if a predator can _____ and ____ a particular prey type it may ____.
Learning often plays a part here - if a predator can (learn to capture)and (eat (handle)) a particular prey type it may (switch to that prey type).
Thermohaline Circulation
coined biosphere
Protists live where?
denitrifying bacteria
goes into air
energy is lost as:
nitrogen forms ________ bonds
Characteristics that increase chanced of survival
Anything addded to the environment that is harmful to living things
Having a climate with pronounced annual fluctuations in temperature (i.e., warm summers and cold winters) but typically neither as hot as the tropics nor as cold as the poles.
(meteorology) the vertical movement of heat or other properties by massive motion within the atmosphere
animals that drift in aquatic environments
substances that the body cannot manufacture but that are needed for forming healthy bones and teeth and regulating many vital body processes
primary consumer
an organisms that eats producers
...association between two or more organisms in which one organism preys upon the other (plant).+/-
less water than taiga
grasses grow quickly, die quickly
primary succession
the colonization of new sites
tropic efficiency
percent production transferred from one trophic level to the next
- selective absorption and storage- dilute toxins
Evolutionary History
Species not found in suitable habitat.
behaviors or traits that allow species to live successfully in their eccosystem
Endangered species
a species in danger of extinction
warning coloration
conspicuous coloration or markings of an animal serving to warn off predators
microbe that causes decay or breakdown of dead plants and animals
a rotating disk shaped to convert circular into linear motion, a biochemical pathway in certain plants in which CO2 is incorperated into organic acids at night and released for fixation in the calvin cycle during the basic unit of life
Heirarchical Framework for the Concept of a Population
Local Population
Subspecies (Ecotype)
absorb energy from light & create organic compounds
internal cycling
movement or cycling of nutrients through components of ecosystems
secondary compounds
chemical compounds produced by plants strictly for repelling or attracting predators or pollinators.
A narrow stratum of rapid temperature change in the ocean and in many temperate-zone lakes
area where trash companies dump the waste they collect
typical soils of coniferous, or Boreal forests, minerals are leached from horizon a and deposited in B horizon
the process of changing from a gaseous to a liquid or solid state
Which of the following is a highly infectious disease that affects the liver?
coefficient of relatedness
average proportion of genes 2 individuals have in common(siblings-50%); higher COR=more altruistic
number of individuals per unit area of volume
Sink population?
Individuals in a population are not increasing population numbers by births
biogeochemical cycling
cycling of nutrients from abiotic to biotic sources through biological, geological, and chemical processes.
source of stream/river
cold, low in nutrients, clear, shallow, narrow, algea, anthropods in benthic feeding on algae, leaves, and e/o, and trout that eat insects
global warming
an increase in the average temperature of the earth's atmosphere (especially a sustained increase that causes climatic changes)
T/F on the december solstice the sun's rays at noon are perpendicupar to the tropic of cancer
the total mass of all the organisms or the total mass of a certain kind of organism
directional selection
: a form of natural selection that favors an extreme phenotype over other phenotypes
an organism obtains food, water, shelter and other things it needs to live, grow and reproduce from its environment
things an organism needs
S Curve Logistical Growth
population increases and then levels out to its carrying capacity. forms an S shape
life history
A record of major events relating to an organism's growth, development, reproduction, and survival.
What becomes inportant for preemptive competition?
Each species is a _____.
Who "wins" is based on ________ of N1 and N2.
Assembly order becomes important.
Each species is a strong interspecific competitor.
Who "wins" is based on initial densities of N1 and N2.
Species Composition
1. What species there are in an environment
a change in the genetic frequency of a trait in a population or species over time
Electricity from nuclear power
radioactive uranium atoms are unstable when struck by a high-energy subatomic particle called a neutron, they under go nuclear fission (splitting) releasing energy and more neutrons
what an animal does and how it does it
What is a change in an organisms DNA called?
Coniferous Forest (taiga)
S. of tundra; cold and severe winters; low precipitation; acidic soil; moose, brown bears, siberian tigers
Intraspecific Competition
Attempts by two or more members of the same species to use the same resources in an ecosystem
Hardy Weinberg equilibrium
A measure of allele equilibrium in a population (often not seen) but used as a measuring stick. Ask: Why ISNT the population in Hardy Weinberg equilibrium?
tropical rain forest
near equator, warm and humid, lots of rain, lots of diversity; incects birds reptiles and mammals
Why do different organisms live in different habitats?
because they have different requirements for survival.
optimal foraging theory
organisms forage in such a way as to maximize energy intake per unit time
in the keystone predator hypothesis, piscivores decreased algal biomass by feeding on fish fry that feed on the chironomid midges that feed on algae
Which is an example of symbiosis?
True, because coconut seeds are larger.
T/F Coconuts produce less seeds than orchids?
Define adaptive radiation and give a possible example of adaptive radiation
generation of a number of different forms from a basic stock.
ex: with vacant environmental niches: mammals when dinosaurs disappeared
What is the northern limit of the Red Maple (Acer rubrum)? Give an example of another geographic barrier to dispersal.
-40 degrees minimum winter temperature in SE Canada.

The Ocean.
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