Renaissance Reformation 6 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
renaissance
rebirth
Isabella d'Este
.
raphael
painter and architect
Italy
Where the Renaissance began
Characteristic of Renaissance art
realism
bureaucracy
an administrative organization that relies on nonelective officials and regular procedures
chiarrusco
contrast between light and dark
theocracy
government run by church leaders.
Perspective
This artistic technique was rediscovered in the Renaissance. It involved creating a 3 dimensional image for the viewer
Broadsides
single page sheets of news
Define patron and perspectivea. financial supporter; illusion of depthb. martyr;landscape scenesc. neither
a
(John) Knox
(1505-1572) Scottish noblemen who convinced the Scottish parliment to abolish Papal authority. He established the Presbyterian church on strong Calvinist beliefs. He wrote "Book of Common Order" which became the liturgical directory for the church.
virtu
the striving of excellence; humanistic aspect of Renaissance
Florence
ultimate example of a Renaissance city, flowering of arts, politics, thinking, science
humanism
a Renaissance intellectual movement in which thinkers studied classical text and focuses on human achievements
milan
located in northern italy at crossroads of the main trade routes; was one of the richest city-states
Marsilio Ficino
was responsible for widespread diffusion of Neo-Platonism
Republic
political system in which citizens elect representatives to run government
Hanseatic League
a commercial and defensive confederation of free cities in northern Germany and surrounding areas
dissenters
people who disagree with official opinions
Secularism
indifferance to or rejection of religion
More
A Northern humanist. He wrote Utopia which gives an account of a perfect society.
Masaccio
Tribute Money, the Expulsion of Adam and Eve from Eden, Brancacci Chapel, Florence, Italy
Albrecht Durer
Famous Northern Renaissance artist, he often used woodcutting along with Italian Renaissance techniques like proportion, perspective and modeling. (Knight Death, and Devil; Four Apostles)
The Prince
Written by machiavelli, described that power is more important, "better to be feared than loved"
hypothesis
unproved theory, an idea you would attempt to prove using the scientific method
Edict of Worms
Made Martin Luther an outlaw
city-state
independent state consisting of a city and surrounding land and villages
Torquemada
first Inquisitor General who was known for his zeal in seeking out heretics during the Spanish Inquisition
The "Defender of the Faith"
King Henry XIII
Machiavelli
Renaissance writer who wrote the book "The Prince".
William Shakespeare
English poet and dramatist considered one of the greatest English writers (1564-1616)
Edward VI
(1547-1553) King Henry VIII's only son. Sickly, and became King at 9 years old. Since he wasn't capable of governing his country the Protestant church was soon brought in through his advisors Cromwell and Cranmer.
humanim
doctrine (belief) or attitude that is concerned primarily with human beings and their vaules, capacities, and achievements
Pluralism/Absenteeism
bishops and high ranking memebers of the clergy often held several different offices and were often never in their own churches. they sometimes even paid a poorer cleric a small percent of their salary to preach in their place
Renaissance Man
well rounded, educated, usually excels at more then 3 things
recant
to withdraw or disavow (a statement, opinion, etc.), esp. formally; retract.
Dante
Hi most famous work is the Divine Comedy
predestination
the belief that God has determined in advanced who will be saved and who will be damned
Titan
A Venetian man who created the style of mannerism in which artists sometimes distorted figures to express emotion and drama
Lorenzo Valla
(1406-1457) On Pleasure, and On the False Donation of Constantine, which challenged the authority of the papacy. Father of modern historical criticism.
peace of augsburg
agreement that religion would be decided by ruler
indulgence
a release from all or part of punishment for sin by the Catholic Church, reducing time in purgatory after death
da vinci
born 1452, inventer, most known for his paintings. the most famous paintings are the mona lisa, and the last supper., Italian painter, sculptor, engineer, scientist, architect, and musician; versatile Renaissance genius.
Henry V
Henry IV's son who reached a compromise with the papacy
In northern Italy did the people live in city-states?
yes
Spanish Inquisition
This was the harsh and violent conversion of Spain back into Catholicism. They used several versions of torture and fear tactics to convert people back to Catholicism
Jesuits
members of the Society of Jesus, a Roman Catholic religious order founded by Ignatius of Loyola, founded good schools thr out Euro, teachers were trained in classical studies and theology, 2nd mission was 2 convert non-Christians to Catholicism so they sent out missionaries, 3rd goal was 2 stop protestantism from spreading
Counter-Reformation
The name for the movement by the Catholic Church to make changes within itself.
Henry VIII
king who divided himself from Catholic church in order to divorce wife and thus established Church of England
Tithe
to pay 1/10 of one's income to church
(John) Wycliffe
Was an English man who questioned the Church and said people should interpret the bible for themselves. He also translated the bible into English.
sfumato
This is the term for the "smoky" or blurred edges that Leonardo developed in his paintings to increase their realism.
dowry
a gift of money or property paid at the time of marriage, either by the bride's parents to her husband
*Which countries supported Catholicism and Protestantism during Reformation/Counter Reformation?
• Catholicism: Spain, France, Portugal, Italy
• Protestantism: England, Scotland, most of Germany
Mary Queen of Scots
Catholic relative to Protestant Queen Elizabeth I of England. She allegedly plotted with Spain's Philip II to overthrow Elizabeth and reassert Catholicism in England. Elizabeth had her beheaded.
Anglican Church
church that King Henry VIII of England creates so that he can marry and divorce as he pleases
scapegoat
a person or group made to bear the blame for others or to suffer in their place.
League of Schmalkalden
union in N. Germany formed by newly Protestant (Lutheran) princes to defend themselves against Charles V's drive to re-Catholicize Germany
catholic reformation
pope paul III set out to revive the moral authority church and to stop the protestant tide. as a result the reforms did slow down the protestant tide, and returned some areas back to catholic church. still europe was divided into catholic south, and protestant north.
In what year did Jan van Eyck develop a distinctive Flemish style of painting?
early 1400
Sack of Rome, 1527
armies of Emperor Charles V (king of Spain); symbolized end of Renaissance in Italy
Explain the religious policy of queen elizabeth I:
compromise b/t catholic and protestants
Describe the ideal renaissance man and give some examples.
well-rounded: (specifics) excells in many things, inventor, tries lots of things ex) benjamin franklin and leonardo da vinci
How did the Medici benefit from helping the pirate Cosa become Pope John 23rd?
-Cosa becomes pope in 1410
-Medici known as God's bankers--> more business
Pico Della Mirandola Oration on the Dignitiy of Man
described humans to be free to become whatever they choose
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