Ecology the biosphere Flashcards

Terms Definitions
biotic
living
ecology
literally means home
Biotic Factor
Living components
profundal zone
deep aphotic region
detritivores
organisms that consume decaying organisms
Mycelium
the feeding network of hyphae
examples of herbivores
catepillars & squirells
B.B.E.C.P.O
Levels of Organization; Biosphere, Biomes, Ecosystem, Community, Population, Organism.
Wetland
An ecosystem intermediate between an aquatic one and a terrestrial one. Wetland soil is saturated with water permanently or periodically
abiotic
nonliving, physical features of the environment, including air, water, sunlight, soil, temperature, and climate
parasitism
1 is helped; 1 is harmed
Habitat
a place where an organism lives
Biome
The major ecological associations that occupy broad geographic regions of land and water.
dispersal
the distribution of individuals within geographic population boundaries
exampels of omnivores
black bear, racoons, humans
Permafrost
Permanently frozen subsoil found in artic and alpine tundra
Climate
The average weather conditions of an area
precautionary principle
A guiding principle in making decisions about the environment, cautioning to consider carefully the potential consequences of actions.
ecotone
transition from one type of ecosystem or habitat to another
tropical rain forest
terrestrial biome characterized by high levels of precipitation and high temperatures year round
population
group of individuals of the same species living in an area
heterotrophs
organisms that rely on other organisms for their energy and food supply; also called consumers
Benthic Zone
seafloor; where no light shines through an photosynthesis can NOT occur
Wrote Silent Spring, started the modern enviromental movement
Racheal Carson
Few ________ organisms are adapted to high-salinity habitats
terrestrial
75%
Oceans make up ________ of the Earth.
examples of carnivores
lions, shark, mosquitoes, lady bugs
Population ecology
concentrates mainly on factors that affect population density and growth
Marine Biomes
Intertidal zones, Coral Reefs, Pelagic Zone, Benthic Zone and Abyssal Zone
Community
All of the organisms living in a particular place
oligotrophic lake
nutrient poor and oxygen rich lake, sterile
Denitrification
conversion of nitrates in the soil by bacteria into nitrogen gas
detrivores
feed on plant and animal remains and other dead matter (i.e. mites, earthworms, snails, crabs)
Pelagic Zone
oceans, includes all open water from low water on shore to the deepest part of an ocean (the width from land across a body of water, in a sense)
Integrated Pest Management
uses a combination of biological, chemical and culturing methods to control agricultural pests. It relies on knowledge of population ecology of the pest and its associated predators and parasites
Global climate patterns are determined largely by ______ ______ and the plants ________ in space
solar energy, movement
Mammals and birds expend energy to regulate their ________ _________
internal temperature
Community Ecology
Deals with the whole array of interacting species in a community.
ecosystems
a collection of all the organisms that live in a particular place, together with their nonliving, or physical environment.
Carbon Footprint
measure of the impact human activities have on the environment in terms of the amount of greenhouse gases produced, measured in units of carbon dioxide
Conifer
A tree that produces cones such as pines firs and redwoods.
Ecosystem
All the organisms in a given area as well as the abiotic factors with which they interact; a community and its physical environment.
species
a group of organisms so similar to one another that they can breed and produce fertile offspring
Fruit
The ripened ovary of a flower, is an adaptation that helps disperse seeds
Sunlight Intensity
Plays a major part in determining the Earth's climate patterns.
aphotic zone
The part of the ocean beneath the photic zone, where light does not penetrate sufficiently for photosynthesis to occur.
Characterists of soil that limit distribution of plants and the animals that feed upon them:
physical structure, pH, mineral composition
Estuary
A biome found at the mouth of a river where salt water and fresh water meet
Type 3 survivor ship curves
a rapid drop in beginning (high death rate in beginning) flattens out, flat at end; feed lots of offspring and don't invest much in them; low death rate as gets older
the global ecosystem
biosphere
eutrophic
shallow and nutrient high
desert
terrestrial biome characterized by very low precipitation
The ____-_____ prevailing weather conditions in an area constitute its climate
long-term
condensation
atmospheric moisture that has condensed because of cold
Temperate Zones
These areas experience seasonal temperature changes
oceanic pelagic
water far from shore (ocean)
cell
smallest level at which life exists
Mycorrhiza
meaning "fungus root"; it absorbs phosphorous and other essential minerals and makes the available to the plant
The scientific study of the interactions between organisms and their environment
Ecology
biomass
the total # of living tissue
Savannas
grasslands with scattered trees. Yet are tropical so they have high temperatures but less water than rain forests
autotrophs
organisms that use energy from the environment to fuel the assembly of simple, inorganic compounds into complex organic molecules.
Temperate grasslands
A terrestrial biome dominated by grasses and forbs.
temperate grassland
a terrestrial biome dominated by grasses and forbs
chaparral
A scrubland biome of dense, spiny evergreen shrubs found at midlatitudes along coasts where cold ocean currents circulate offshore; characterized by mild, rainy winters and long, hot, dry summers.
benthos
The communites of organisms living in the benthic zone of an aquatic biome.
dependent variable
one that responds to the change
Consists of patterns on the global, regional, and local level
Macroclimate
Neocectria
Beech tree disease, spread by an exotic scale insect.
producers
organisms that make their own food using inorganic raw materials in their environment with photosynthesis or chemosynthesis
5 types of consumers
1. herbivores
2. carnivores
3. omnivores
4. detritivores
5. decomposers
Intertidal zone
Where the ocean interfaces with land
coral Reefs
A marine biome composed of invertebrate animals associated with photosynthetic algea and covered by a calcium carbonate shell
biomass pyramid
the total amount of living tissue within a given tropic level
northern coniferous forest
a terrestrial biome characterized by long, cold winters and dominated by cone-bearing trees
Biosphere
part of Earth in which life exists including land, water, and air or atmosphere
independent variable
one that the scientist changes or manipulates
Spore
in plants and algae; a haploid cell that can develop into a multicellular individual without fusing with another cell
Imperfect fungi
fungi that have NO SEXUAL stage; includes many molds and yeasts
_____ _____ account for the largest part of the biosphere in terms of area
aquatic biomes
Cells may freeze and rupture below:
0 degrees C
limnetic zone
well lit, open surface waters father from the shore
Greenhouse gases
Gases such as carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, water vapor, and ozone in the atmosphere which are involved in the greenhouse effect.
Biotic vs. abiotic
living factors (biotic) no living origin (abiotic) --temp, sun, wind, precipitation, substrait
Ecosystem ecology
The study of energy flow and the cycling of chemicals among the various biotic and abiotic factors in an ecosystem.
tundra
A biome at the extreme limits of plant growth. At the northernmost limits, it is called arctic tundra, and at high altitudes, where plant forms are limited to low shrubby or matlike vegetation, it is called alpine tundra.
Oligotrophic
A lake that has low or no nutrient concentration and low plant growth
examples of consumers
all fungi, all animals, and many bacteria/protist
Temperate rain forests
• Are found along coastal North America from
Alaska to Oregon
• Are also coniferous forest
oceanic pelagic biome
Most of the ocean's waters far from shore, constantly mixed by ocean currents.
Many aquatic biomes are _______ into zones or layers defined by:
stratified, light penetration, temperature, and depth
Anther
a sac at the top of each filament on a flower; contains male sporangia and will eventually release pollen
in a food chain, the 1st link is always _____.
a base of a food chain
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Term:
Definition:
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