Respiratory histology Flashcards

Terms Definitions

         The _________ portion consists of bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs and individual alveoli. This portion is where the exchange of oxygen and carbon dioxide takes place.
__________cells of the respiratory epithelium are columnar in shape with numerous microvilli on their apical surface and afferent nerve endings on the basal surface, thought to be sensory receptors.
- epithelium becomes non-keratinized- posteriorly lining changes to respiratory epithelium- pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells- vibrissae ( thick short hairs) filter large particles form inspired air- vascular lamina propria with seromucous glands
___________ cells of the olfactory epithelium are small spherical or cone-shaped at the base of the epithelium.

Which alveolar cell secretes surfactant
type II

_________ are regions around the respiratory bronchiole where alveolar openings are evident.

aveolar ducts

_________ have PSCC cells which decrease  to become ciliated simple columnar or ciliated simple cuboidal  epithelium in the smaller terminal bronchioles.
Larger bronchioles

____________ are also in the lamina propria of the conchae. These structures are large venous plexuses which on one side or the other of the nasal fossae become engorged with blood every 30 minutes, directing air to the opposite nasal fossae. This al
Swell bodies

The _________ of bronchioles show abundant smooth muscle and elastic fibers. Vagal nerve stimulation decreases the size of the bronchiole lumen, while sympathetic stimulation has the opposite effect.
lamina propria
Which bronchi is something more likely to become lodged in?
False vocal cords are movable or immovable?
Bowman's glands
- thin watery secretion- odorous substances dissolve- flushes epithelial surface

The ____________ is the first part of the pharnyx which continues caudally with the oropharnyx.  This region is lined by respiratory epithelium in the portion in contact with the soft palate.

When you see goblet cells and a large amount of cartilage, you know you are in the ___________ .

__________ are less than 5 mm in diameter and lack glands and cartilage, with only few goblet cells.
The __________ is the thinnest barrier between blood and air.
aveolar septum
What separates the false and true vocal folds?
laryngeal ventricle
What immune cells are found in the lamina propria of the thracheal mucosa.
olfactory cells
- bipolar nerve cells with bulbous apical projection (olfactory vesicle) with extensions of modified cilia
 Which cells of the respiratory epithelium are similar to basal cells but may be part of the diffuse neuroendocrine system which contain hormones, epinephrine, norepinephrine and serotonin?
Small granule cells
Secondary bronchi reduces in size, about 5 mm in diameter. The cartilage in the lamina propria becomes irregular (plates or islands). __________ fibers become more prominent with further division reductions.
smooth muscle and elastic
What are lamellar bodies?
secretory organelles of type II pneumocytes, which contain surfactant
What epithelium is found in true vocal cords?
stratified squamous
What type of epithelium lines:1) nasopharynx2)orophanynx3)laryngeal pharynx
1) respiratory epithelium
2) Stratified Squamous
3) Stratified Squamous
conducting portion
- airways that deliver air to the lungs- warm, moisten and filter air1) nose 2) nasopharynx3) larynx4) trachea5) bronchi6) bronchi7) bronchioles8) terminal bronchioles
The epiglottis projects from the rim of the larynx and extends into the pharynx, lined by ________ and at the base on the laryngeal surface the epithelium changes to _________ epithelium.
stratified squamous epithelium

The alveolar ducts and alveoli are lined by _________ with some smooth muscle.
Type I Aveolar cells
________ or dust cells are found on the surface of the alveolar septum. These cells derive from monocytes and eliminate small particles not trapped by mucous-coated ciliated epithelium and coughed out.
Alveolar macrophages
what comprises the blood-air barrier?
1) alveolar epithelial cells
2) basal lamina of alveolar epithelium3) basal lamina of capillaries
4) endothelial cells of capillaries
What type of epithelium is respiratory epithelium?
ciliated pseudostratified columnar epithelium with goblet cells
basal cells
- rest on basal lamina do not extend to the surface- from an incomplete layer of cells- regenerative for all 3 cell types
Supporting (sustentacular) cells
- most apically located nuclei of the 3 cell types- microvilli and prominent terminal web of filaments

 Type II alveolar cells have vesicles (lamellar bodies) within the cytoplasm. The contents of the lamellar bodies is released at the apical surface providing the coating of pulmonary surfactant.
   What is the role of surfactant in these cells?
Surfactant consists of protein and dipalmitoyl phophatidylcholine and phosphatidylglycerol. This mixture reduces surface tension of alveolar cells such that less inspiratory force is needed to inflate alveoli, reducing the work of breathing.
What are the regions around the respiratory bronchiole where alveolar openings are evident?

Aveolar Ducts
The alveolar ducts and alveoli are lined by Type I alveolar cells with some smooth muscle.
The alveolar ducts open into the atrium which communicates with an alveolar sac.
Elastic fibers allow alveoli to expand and contract, reticular fibers prevent over distention.
Place these in the order that air passes through them:
Larynx, Nasal Cavities, Terminal Bronchioles, Alveolar Sacs, Nasopharynx, Alveoli, bronchioles, trachea, oropharynx, bronchi, respiratoy bronchioles, alveolar ducts
nasal cavities, nasopharynx, oropharynx, larynx, trachea, brinchi, bronchioles, terminal bronchioles, respiratory bronchioles, alveolar ducts, alveolar sacs, alveoli
How do olfactory receptors operate?
They bind a ligand, which stimulates them to act on ion channels. These ion channels open, depolarizing the cell and inducing an action potential.
Goblet cells of the respiratory epithelium contain  ___________ 
Goblet cells contain mucus droplets in their apical cytoplasm are the next most abundant cell type after ciliated columnar cells.
What are the three parts of the nasal cavity?
Vestibule, Respiratory Segment, Olfactory Segment
What type of neuron is an olfactory neuron?1) Pseudounipolar2) Bipolar3) Multipolar
Bipolar(special senses contain bipolar neurons)

The respiratory system consists of ___________
the lungs and tubes that connect sites of gas exchange with the outside environment.
What are the 5 cell types of respiratory epithelium?
1) Ciliated Columnar
2) Mucous Goblet Cells
3) Brush Cells
4) Basal Cells (stem cells)
5) Small Granule Cells
Which cells of the respiratory epithelium likely have mitotic capability and can differentiate into other cell types of the epithelium?
Basal cells are small cells which lie on the basal lamina and do not reach the luminal surface of the epithelium. These cells likely have mitotic capability and can differentiate into other cell types of the epithelium
What is the function of bombesin and serotonin?
to control the functioning of other respiratory cells
What causes the pharynx to be so susceptible during an allergic reaction?
Its high content of mast cells release histamine, causing vasodilation and increased blood flow. This can result in edema, which swells the pharynx and occludes the airway.
in severe cases, this can be life-threatening
Respiratory Epithelium (FYI)
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar (PSCC) epithelium lines most of the conducting portion of the respiratory system, which gradually change to simple cuboidal epithelium in the terminal bronchioles.
A goblet cell population

Aveoli (FYI)
The blood-air barrier consists of cytoplasm from Type I alveolar cells, basal lamina from Type I alveolar cells, basal lamina from capillary endothelium and the cytoplasm of the capillary endothelial cells.
The basement membrane results

The___________ system which is divided into the nasal cavity, nasopharnyx, larynx, trachea, bronchi, bronchioles and terminal bronchiole provides a channel where air is cleaned, moistened and warmed before entering the lungs.

Supporting cells of the olfactory epithelium have a narrow base and cylindrical apex and contain _______ on the surface with a serous-mucoid secretion.
Alveolar pores within the interalveolar septum connect _______ and serve to equalize pressure.
adjacent alveoli
______________ epithelium lines most of the conducting portion of the respiratory system. The PSCC cells gradually change to simple cuboidal epithelium in the terminal bronchioles.
Pseudostratified ciliated columnar
How many different olfactory receptor types can an olfactory neuron produce?
The alveolar ducts open into the ________ which communicates with an alveolar sac.

The trachea is lined by respiratory epithelium and has a lamina propria containing ________ C-shaped rings of _______ cartilage.

The __________ is the most anterior and dilated part of the nasal cavity, consisting of the nares and vibrissae (thick short hairs). The epithelium changes from keratinized to typical respiratory epithelium before entering the nasal fossae.
Olfactory epithelium is a pseudostratified columnar epithelium consisting of three cell types.  These cell types are ________________.
-Supporting cells 
-Basal cells
-Olfactory cells

Each terminal bronchiole divides into 2 or 3 respiratory bronchioles. The respiratory bronchiole represents the transition between the ____________ portion of the respiratory system.
conducting and respiratory
What happens to smooth muscle and elastic tissue as you progress down the airways?
What are 2 examples of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)?
If you find stratified squamous cells in the respiratory epithelium, this is an example of what?
- nostrils- outer portions lined by thin skin

If you see ciliated cells and goblet cells, you know you are viewing ________epithelium.  The goblet cells are not present in the ________epithelium.
respiratory, olfactory
________ of the aveolar ducts allow alveoli to expand and contract, reticular fibers prevent over distention.
Elastic fibers
What do Small Granule Cells secrete?
bombesin and serotonin
what are macrophages in the alvoleolar region known as?
dust cells
Where does the respiratory portion of the system begin?
Respiratory bronchioles

Interaveolar Septum consists of endothelial cells of capillaries are continuous and nonfenestrated.

The_________ alveolar cells make up 40% of the cells that line 90% of the alveolar surface. These cells have desmosomes and occluding junctions and f
Type I
Type II
_______   are found in the lamina propria and provide serous secretions.
Bowman’s glands
what is the respiratory treatment for a premature baby?
synthetic surfactant and glucocorticoids
What are the C-shaped rings in the trachea made from?
hyaline cartilage
What is Kartagener's Syndrome?
also known as 'immotil cilia syndrome', it is an inherited condition in which cilia fail to function normally due to a lack of dynein.  Airways are improperly cleared and the individual is more susceptible to bacterial infection.
What type of epithelium is Olfactory Epithelium
pseudostratified columnar epithelium
respiratory portion
location within the lung where O2 in inspired air is exchanged for CO2 in blood.
olfactory epithelium
- roof of nasal cavity, on either side of nasal septum on superior nasal conchae- tall pseudostrtified columnar epithelium- olfactory cells- sustentacular cells- basal cells- lamina propia: veins, unmyelinated nerves, bowman glands

A ventilation mechanism is important for ____________ and consists of____________.
movement of air through the lungs
the thoracic cage, intercostal muscles and the diaphragm.

The __________ connects the pharynx to the trachea.
-Large hyaline cartilages and smaller elastic cartilage are found within the lamina propria.
-Ligaments bind the cartilages together.
-The epiglottis projects from the rim of the larynx, extends into the pharynx, lined by stratified squamous epithelium, at the base on the laryngeal surface the epithelium becomes respiratory epithelium.
What treatments are used for asthma?
Steroids and B2-agonists
(relax bronchial smooth muscle)
What do alveolar pores of Kohn do?
equalize pressure between alveoli
What distinguishes bronchi from bronchioles?
Bronchioles do not have cartilage associated with them
what epithelium is found in the false vocal cords?
Respiratory Epithelium
(ciliated pseudostratified columnar w/ goblet cells)
What are Bowman's Glands?  Where are they located?
Serous-secreting glands located beneath the olfactory epithelium
What type of cartilage is found in the epiglottis?
Elastic Cartilage
olfactory cilia (olfactory hairs)
- long non-motile cilia extend over the surface of the olfactory epithelium- proximal 1/3: 9 + 2 axoneme pattern- distal 2/3 = 9 perpheral singlet mt srrounding a central pr. of mt- odor receptors

What are the sac-like structures in the respiratory bronchiole and outcroppings of the alveolar ducts and alveolar sacs where oxygen and carbon dioxide are exchanged?
-An interalveolar wall or septum lies between adjacent alveoli.
Name Five cell types found in the respiratory epithelium
-Ciliated columnar cells
-Goblet cells
-Brush cells
-Basal cells
-Small granule cells
what are the bony shelves projecting from the vestibule of the nasal cavity? What is their function?
nasal conchae (aka turbinates)
They create turbulence, which circulates the air to warm, moisten and clean it

-Two pair of folds, below the epiglottis, extend into the lumen of the larynx. The upper pair is the ________, lined by respiratory epithelium.

-The lower pair of folds are the _________, lined by a squamous epithelium. Bundles of skeletal m., the v
false vocal cords, true vocal cords

Which cell of the respiratory epithelium is the most abundant?
Ciliated columnar cells are the most abundant.
Cigarette smoking is the major cause of emphysema.  How does this lung disease decrease the O2 absorption in the lungs?
destruction or impaired synthesis of elastic fibers leads to fewer and larger alveoli with less total surface area.  This decreases O2 absorption efficiency.
What happens to olfactory neurons after 1 month?
They are degraded and replaced by newly differentiated basal cells

 In the trachea, the cartilage is bridged by a fibroelastic ligament and the trachealis muscle. This ligament prevents ______________.
over distension of the tracheal lumen and the muscle allows for regulation of the lumen.
What structural difference can be observed to distinguish respiratory bronchioles from terminal bronchioles?
Breaks in the wall are visible in respiratory bronchioles.  These lead into alveolar outpocketings.
What is the benefit to the many capillaries found in the conducting portion of the respiratory system?
Release heat, thereby warming the air
Why is the nose a particularly susceptible place on the human body?
It is the only region where neurons have direct contact with the outside environment.  These olfactory neurons provide a passageway/tract from the outside environment directly to the brain.
How can you distinguish in an image the difference between the trachea, the bronchi, and bronchioles?

-As you get into the bronchi, you get plates of cartilage, as you go lower into the airway into the bronchioles, the cartilage disappears.
-Bronchioles are smaller in diameter, no cartilage, as soon as you see this you know you are viewing the bronchioles.
-Due to the amount of cartilage in the trachea, you can tell difference b/w trachea, bronchi and bronchioles based on the size of the structure and also the presence of cartilage and what form the cartilage is presented in.
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