Romantic 2 Flashcards

Terms Definitions
German.  "Bar-rhythm", "alliteration".
Alliteration was the oldest German verse-forming principle, used for both euphony, cohesion and as a means of emphasizing conceptual connections.
It was rivied by Wagner, in Tristan and Isolde but with special rigour in Der ring de Nibelungen, as an answer to his need for a heightened poetic utterance that could link the sensuous and the conceptual: "the poet... has sought by the consonantal Stabreim to bring [his row of words] to the feelings understanding in an easier and more sensuous form" (Oper und Drama).
Wagner's Stabreim normally consists of two or three alliterated Hebungen (Strong beats, or arises), with freely arranged, non-alliterative Senkungen (weak beats or these).
Despite precendents in 14th c English verse (Piers Plowman), the use of the device in English opera has not been effective, wheather in translation of Wagner (H. and F. Corder) or in orginal texts (Holst's Sita)l nor has it proved fruitful in German opera after Wagner
Verdi, Giuseppe
1813-1901.  Italian composer.
Several of his oepras have from the time of their first performances remained in the international repertory in a sustained way unmatched by those of any other composer save Mozart and Wagner.
From the start, he had the opera composer's most necessary gift, the ability to write melodies that communicate a character's emotion and stir emotion in those who listen..
During a long career, he acquired a command of instrumentation and of musical and dramatic form that enable him to express, with ever-increasing subtlety and eloquence, his well-defined ideas about what an opera should be and do.
Reminiscent motive.  Accomp recitative, orchestral role.  Political influence "VIVA VERDI"
Composed well-known operas such as Nabucco, Rigoletto, Il trovatore, La Traviata, don Carlos, Aida, Otello, and Falstaff
Richard Wagner
1813-1883.  Composer.
Receptive to literary, philosophical and political as well as musical influences.
He began as the author and composer of operas in the German Romantic manner, enlarged the expressive powers of the genre with Der Fliegende Hollander, Tannhauser and Lohengrin.
He created a new synthesis of music and drama on the largest scale in his vast tetralogy Der Ring des Nibelungen, as well as in Tristan un Isolde, Die Meistersinger von Nurnberg, and Parsifal.
The difficulty of staging these adequately prompted him to construct the theatre at Bayreuth that is still used for the presentation of his works under ideal conditions.
His expressive recourses included an increased and more refined use of a greatly augmented orchestra, the training of a more dramatically powerful kind of singer, the extension of thematic and motivic development to assure a newly important, imaginative and structural role, and a widened range of chrmatic harmony.
He pursued his artistic aims with ruthless determination in his public and private life as well as in his many critical theoretical writings.
The most controversial figure in the 19th c, initiating and generating vigorous polemincs, he is now accepted as one of the outstanding composers in the history of music, one whose works may be said to crown the musical achievements of German Romanticism
i.e. The folklike lied.
cultivated by composers such as Schulz, Reichardt, and Zelter beginning in the later 18th c. 
Such songs were often marked im Volkston
A Hungarian dance orginating in the second half of the 18th c and used in the recruitment of soldiers until the advent of conscription in 1849.
The dance and its associated music have nevertheless survived, principally in the closely related csardas.
Music was provided by Gypsy bands, who added their characteristic performing style to a repertory of folk tunes.  The result was a central part of what is usually termed Gypsy music.
At first largely improvised, music in this style reached a peak in the first part of the 19th c in the works of violin viruoso Janos Bihari (himself of Gypsy orgin), Antal Gyorgy Csermak.
The verbunkos itself typicall includes an alteration between a slow introductory section (lassu) and a section in fast tempo (friss).
composer of art music drawing on this tradition include Liszt (Hungarian Rhapsodies), Brahms, Barok and Kodaly
Mendelssohn, Fanny
1805-1847.  Felix's sister
Received an excellent musical education at home with her brother, and also became a composer.
She published four books of songs, a collection of part songs, and Lieder ohne Worte for piano, and is believed to have excercised considerable influence on her brother's composition
The quintessential German Romantic poet.
Goether settled at the court of Weimar, but his poetry was known all over Europe and insired some of the finest musical work of the 19th c, most of which were Lieder (Schuber, Schumann, Wolf Kennst du das Land) and operas ( bast on Goether's Faust by Berlioz, Schumann, Liszt, Gounod, Wagner)
Grieg, Edvard
1843-1907.  Norwegian nationalist composer, whose best works are his short piano pieces, songs, and incidental orchestral music to plays (Ibsen's Peer Gynt, 1876).
His handling of larger forms was less successful; longer pieces include a piano concerto in A minor, a piano sonata, three violin sonatas, a cello sonata, and a string quartet that apparently influenced Debussy in his own quartet.
Grieg tends to write consistently in two and four-bar groups.
His nationalism is most apparent in some of his vocal works, and some of his piano works, with their Norwegian folk elements of modal melody and harmony (Lydian raised fourth, Aeolian lowered seventh, etc), drone basses, etc.
His piano style is reminiscent of that of Chopin
Offenbach, Jacques
1819-1880.  French composer/conductor most known for his light, entertaining operettas.
Began career as cellist in the orchestra of the Opera-Comique (1840) and was appointed conductor at the Teatre Francais in 1850.
In 1855 he rented a small theater for performances of his own works.  The theater became known as the Theatre des Bouffes-Parisiens and from then until 1867 he dominated the fashionable musical scene.
He satirized politics, foibles, and epitonized the developing cosmopolitanism and moral licence in his operettas.
Among his greatest successes are La belle Helene, La vie Pariesenne, La Grande-Duchesse de Gerolstein, La Perichole, and the 1877 five-act opera Les contes d'Hoffmann
A Spanish theatrical genre characterized by a mixture of singing and spoken dialogues.
Throughout its history, the zarzuela has included elmenets form the Spanish popular tradition.
Originiated in the 17th c musical court plays, the zarzuela increasingly approximated the musical styles and conventions of contemporary opera seria in 1710-1750, which quickly replaced zarzuela as the favorite court entertainment.
After 1710, zarzuelas were largely commissioned for the public theaters, and the demands of the theater-going public became more important than royal taste.
Around 1760, it became nationalistic.
It disappeared for roughly 50 years in Spain and during the Rossini epoch in Italian opera.
In the 19th c, zarzuela was rivied by Basilio Basili (1803-95) and Manuel Breton de los Herreros, a decalred enemy of Italian opera.
In early 20th century, the zarzuela continued as popular theater and attracted many talented composers in Spain
1770-1831, German writer and philosopher who wrote Lecturer on Aesthetic (pub 1835-38)
He portrayed the arts as the embodiment of Geist, which refers both to the human mind and the entire universe.
He described a progression of arts from "symbolic" arts, such as architecture, to "classical" arts , such as sculpture, and finally to the "romantic" arts: painting, music, and poetry, in ascending order.
For Hegel, the ideal was spiritual content over form.  Music which is supported by poetry is thus strenthened
composed by Bizet. Cobination of exoticism and realism. It was set not in Asia but in Spain, considered as exotic by Parisians despite its proximity. Originally classified as an opera comique because it contained spoken dialogue (later set to recitative), it was a stark realistic drama ending witha tragic murder. That such an opera could be called comique shows that the distiction between opera and opera comique had become a mere technicality.
The Spanish flavor was embodied especially in the character of Carmen. Carmen is a Gypsy who works in a cigarette factory and lives only for the pleasures of the moment. Her suggestive costume and behaviour, her provocativesexuality and language, and Bizet's music all characterize her as outside of normal society, making her both dangerous and enticing. Bizet borrowed three authentic Spanish melodies, including Carmens famous habanera L'amour est un oiseau rebelle (Love is a rebellious bird).
German opera
Differs sharply from contemporary French and Italian opera. But its musical styles and forms draw directly from those oof other countries, while the use of simple folklike melodies introduces a distinctly German national element. These operas also display increasingly chromatic harmony, the use of orchestral color for dramatic expressionm, and an emphasis on the inner voices, in contrast to the Italian stress on melody.
Graded studies such as Clementi's Gradus ad Prnassum (Steps to Parnassas) consisted of one hundred exercises on increasing difficulty. Method books by Beethoven's student Carl Czerny also fit this genre. Chopin's were the first with significant artistic content and as such were often played in concert, inaugurating the genre of the concert etude.
Eighteenth century orchestras were led from the harpsichord or by the leader of the violins, but in the nieteenth century, this role was tanek over by a conductor who used a baton to beat time and cue entrances. Although at first the conductor simply kept the orchestra together, by the 1840's conductors were drawing attention to themselves as interpreters of the music, exploiting the Romantic cult of the ndividual. Conductors like Louis Jullien formed their own orchestras and becam stars on the same order ast he instrumental virtuosos.
Entertainment in large msuci halls such as Folies - Bergere and Moulin Rouge which were strugn together dances, songs, comedy and other acts often united by a common theme.
Piano Character pieces written by Chopin which dipict the Polish dance. These are dances in 3/4 meter often marked bya rhythmic figure of an eighth and two sixteenths on the first beat. Chopin's go beyond the stylized polonaise of Bach's time to assert a vigorous, at times militaristic, national identity.
Kalkbrenner, Friedrich
1785-1849.  French pianist, teacher and composer of German extraction.
He undoutedly had an overweening fondness for honours and a well-developed senes of his own superiority; he also had a mercenary streak to his nature.
On the other hand, he was cultured, sociable and amiable.
He was one of the first performers to achieve an independent international career and, for at least a decade, enjoyed unprecedented success.
His playing has oustanding for its masterly clarity and beauty of tone.  His public performances were confined almost exclusively to his own works, as was customary at that time.
As a teacher he lest a lasting influence: "Kalkbrenner's technique" - parallel to the keyboared, the forearm rested, the independence of fingers.
Among his pupils were Mme Pleyel, Geroge Osborne and Camile Stamaty.  The latter two did a great deal to publicize his Methode.  Stamaty used it in teaching the young Saint-Saens.
A prolific and varied composer, he concentrated mainly on the piano; virtosity, use of the whole range of the keyboard and of octaves, particularly in the left hand. His work sometimes forshadows Chopin;  His pianistic writing prefigures that of Saint-Saens in its paucity of counterpoint, its abundance of rhetorial formulae and its use of ornamentation and virtuoso figuration in an easily recognizable melodic framework
Czerny, Carl
1791-1857.  Bohemian pianist, teacher and composer born in Vienna.
Pupil and friend of Beethoven.
He became rather well-to-do from his teaching; he taught Beethoven's nephew and Liszt.
He is remembered for his prodigious output of keyboard exercises, and for his observant reminiscences of Beethoven.
He also edited keyboard music of Bach and Scarlatti, and made piano arrangements of many works of Beethoven, Haydn, Mozart, etc.
Piave, Francesco Maria
1810-1876.  Poet and librettist.
Met Verdi in the early 1840s and wrote libretti for ten of Verdi's operas.
A few are: Macbeth, Rigoletto, La traviata, and La forz del destino
d'Indy, Vincent
1851-1931.  Fr. composer who conducted at Lamoureux with Chabrier.
Wagnerian admirer and wrote the libretti for his own operas Fervaal and L'Etranger.
Text setting in Fervaal is almost completely syllabic and the music is continuous throughout, though there is some distinction between recitative and arioso.
D'Indy's harmonic language mixes "impressionistic-sounding" with Wagnerian chromaticism, symptomatic of French music at the fin de siecle.
Bruckner, Anton
1824-96.  Austrian organist and composer who wrote many sacred works, nine numbered symphonies (the last is unfinished), and two earlier symphonies.
His sacred music shows the influence of Mozart and of the Cecilian movement, which urged the emulation of older styles of church music, including Gregorian chant and sixteenth century polyphony, esp that of Palestrina.
Bruckner often juxtaposed this older style with passages in more modern, late Romantic style, as in his Mass in E of 1866.
Bruckner openly admired Wagner, dedicating his third symphony to him, and thus he unwittingly became a focal point in the Wagner-Brahms conflict.
His symphonies are all in four movements, the first and last normally in extended sonata-allegro form.  His scherzos often are influenced by upper Austrian folk music.  Often the outer movements are thematically related.
His first movement often seem to grow out of nothing - a soft indistinct harmonic or tremelo in the strings.
His symphonies have a feeling of monumentality achieved through a slowing of usual musical processes, through great stretches of leisurely development and expansive sections of stactic harmony.
Cui, Cesar
1835-1918.  A russian miliary engineer and composer of Lithuanian birth and French descent, now the least known of "The Five".
He wrote six full-length operas and a number of shorter dramatic works.
Though he wrote many articles in favor of Russian musical nationalism, his music shows very little influence from Russian folk music or subject matter.
He also wrote short piano and chamber compositions
Symphonic Fantastique
Berlioz's 5-movt masterpiece of 1830
A self-portrait describing an artist and his hopeless love.
He was secretly infatuated with the Irish actress Harriet Smithson.
The 5 movement, Reveries-Passons, Un Bal, Scene aux Champ, Marche au Suuplice, and Witches Sabbath, is not the 4 movt of the standard symphony.
It also has a program, helped along by the idee fixe, a musical theme that represented the artist-beloved.
It reappears in different parts of the piece, making this piece cyclic as well
Hoffmann, ETA
1776-1822.  German writer and composer.
His fantastic tales epitomized one aspect of Romanticism, esp the fascination with the supernatural and the expressively distorted or exaggerated.
As a critic, he placed his sharp mind at the service of a consistent view of Romanticism, and wrote vivid and forceful review of the music of his time.
His works as a composer has been neglected.
He was also a gifted artist (sketches, and caricatures).
He influenced several generations of artists, writer and composers.
His reviews of Beethoven's works for the AMZ, which were widely read and contributed greatly to his contemporaried understanding of the breakthrough contained in the composer's style.
His reviews for the AMZ mark the end of the old fashioned doctrine of the Affections in music aesthetics;
His works were used in R. Schumann's composition such as Kreisleriana, op.16 and Humoresque Op.20. The story contains two opposite personalities: Prolestan and Oisebius.  Thus, Schumann's music on this story carries the contrasting qualities which switch around pretty often, and therefore demands a highly trained skills from performers.
a strophic narrative song, with sentimental text, usually in moderate or slow tempo, and often in a form consisting of two or more 16-measure strophes, each followed by a 8-bar refrain, the whole sometimnes referred to as a ballad/refrain.
19th c examples include the ballads of Carl Loewe, modeled after the ballads of Zumsteeg
A style of operatic ocmposition prevalent in Italy in the 1890s, with repercussions extending to other European countries and later decades.
Verismo in italy began as a literary movement, exemplified by the novels and plays of Giovanni Verga.
The landmark veristic opera, Mascagni's Cavalleria rusticana (1891), is based on story by Verga.
The veristic operas that followed, such as Leoncavallo's Pagliacci (1892), Giordano's Mala vita (1892) and Puccini's Il tabarro (1918), have certain traits in common.
The settings are contemporary; the characters are often rural and generally impoverished; the passions run high and lead to violence.
Verismo is also used, more loosely, to describe any of the operas by Mascagni, Leoncavallo, Puccini, Giordano, and Cilea, who were also collectively referred to as the young school (nuove giovane).
The term then expands to include Puccini's Tosca, Cilea's Adriana Locouvreur, and Giodano's Andrea Chenier, although they have historical setting;
Puccini's Madama Butterfly and Mascagni's Iris, which have exotic settings;
And Puccini's La boheme, which setimentalizes its characters in a way alien to ideals of realism or naturalism
Leoncavallo, Ruggiero
1858-1919.  Italian composer of operas in the verismo style.
He wrote libretto and music of I pagliacci (Milan, 1892).  The music for this opera is characterized by rich harmonic language, with many V7 and o7 chords, and a continuous flow, blurring the lines of recitative and arioso
Chopin, Frederick
1810-1849.  Polish pianist and composer who settled in Paris.
Unlike Liszt, most of his performing career was in private salons rather than on the concert stage
He also supported himself through printing his works.
He composed almost exclusively for his instrument: other than piano solos, his works include two piano concertos, a few other works for piano and orchestra, a piano trio, a cello sonata, and nineteen Polish songs.
His solo piano works avoid the extramusical associations typical of Liszt, and most fall into neat musical catergories: three sonatas, 24 Preludes, two sets of Etudes, 22 noctures, 4 ballades, three impromptus, a fantasie-impromptu, and music derivative of dance (Mazurkas, Polonaises, and Austrian Waltzes).
His style is characterized by an exploitation of the romantic piano sonority and a proclivity for obscuring tonal syntax by means of linear chromatic motion (Prelude no.4)
Elgar, Edward
1857-1934.  The first strong native-English composer to appear on the scene since the early 18th c.
His only major composition written in the 19th c was the Enigma Variations (1899).
Some of Elgar's orchestral textures are remeniscent of Brahms, but his harmonic language comes closer to mature Wagnerian style
Dvorak, Antonin
1841-1904.  Czech composer and violist/violinist.
Due to the support of influential people such as Brahms and Hanslick, he achieved a considerable reputation relatively early, which was rare for a composer of a "peripheral" nation.
He traveled to England and Russia, and spent three years in the U.S.
His earliest style relies on the classical models from Beethoven and Schubert, and in general his work is of a conservative vast.
He was sporadically influenced by Wagner, as is evident in a few of his early symphonies, such as the second, with patches of advanced Wagner-like orchestration.
Dvorak was also strongly influenced by the folk music of his native Bohemia.  This is evident in his use of the modal-sounding flat seventh in minor, drone accompaniment, and stark root-position sonorities. 
He wrote in a wide range of genres, but he made his mark most decisively in the traditional large insturmental genres: symphony, string quartet, and chamber compositions with piano.  He also wrote piano pieces, concerti  (one for cello and one for violin), songs, an oratorio, cantate, and operas (Rusalka, 1900)
Marchen meaning "tales; pieces of music with some suggestion of traditional or legendary forms.
Oper meaning opera
Fanz Liszt
1811-1886. The most astoundsting piano virtuoso of his era and one of t its most important composers. A child prodigy i Hungary and Vienna. As a young man he frequented the salons that formed the core of Parisian intellectual and artistic life. There he met many of the most notable writers, painters and musicians of the day. Was lover with the countess Marie d'Agoult and lived together in Switzerland and Italy from 1835 to 1839. Wrote for piano and orchestra.
Created programmatic genre symphonic poem. Wrote 12 symphonic poems each a one-movement work with sections of contrasting character and tempo, presenting a few themes that are developed, repeaed , varied or transformed. These pieces are symphonic in sound, weight, and developmental procedures and are poems by analogy to literary poems.
Devised a method of providing unity, variety, and narrative-like logic to a composition by transforming the thematic material to reflect the diverse moods needed to portray a programmaic subject known as Thematic transformation.
Wrote choral music including oratorios.
John Philip Sousa
Conducted the United States Marine Band (1880-1932). Raised it to national prominence through tours and savvy promotion. He organized his own band which made annual tours of the U S, serveral European tours and a world tour. Wrote more than a hundred marches, including his most famous, The Stars and Stripes Forever along with more than a dozen operettas and some seventy songs.
symphonie fantastique
By Berlioz. Program piece. 5 movements. Depicts the story of a composers passion aroused by his thoughts and fantasies about a woman whose love he hopes to win. He based the story on his own infatuation with the English actress Hariet Smithson. Beethoven had subjected the main theme in both his Third and fifth Symphonies to a series of exciting adventures,. Berliez followed this precedent in his device of the idee fixe (fixed idea), a meloldy taht he used in each movement to represent the obsessive image of the hero's beloved , trasforming it to suit the mood and situation  at each poin in the story.
Leipzig Conservatory
Founded by Mendelssohn. Clara and Rober Schumann were both on faculty there. Mendelssohn had also been the music director and conductor of the Gewandhaus Orchestra.
Short mood piano piece with beautiful, embellished melodies above sonorous accompaniments. Chopin's initial conception of the nocturne owed much to the nocturnes by Irish pianist-composer John Field. Both composers also drew inspiration from the vocal nocturne for two or more voices with piano or harp accompaniment, so that the nocturne for piano was essentially a song without words.
Paris was also famous for popular musical theaters. Night clubs such as Chat Noir (Back Cat) offered serious or comic sketches, dances, songs and poetry often with the intent to foster innovation and draw together artists and the public.
Anton Rubinstein
Virtuoso pianist and prolific composer who founded the St. Petersburg Conservatory in 1862 with a program of training on the Western model. In Russia at this time, there were two types of approaches one was to train in the Western mode and those who opposed academic study as a threat to their originality.
Nikolay Rubinstein
Founded the Moscow Conservatory in 1866. Brother of Anton Rubinstein. Program was a training on the Western model like his brother. Their work raised the standards of musicianship all over Russia and ed to a strong tradition of Russian pianists, violiniss, composers and other musicians that continues today.
Bedrich Smetana
National Theater conductor in Bohemia (Czech Republic). Won state sponsored contest for the best historical and comic opera, The Bartered Bride.Created a Czech national style by using folklike tunes and popular dance rhythms like the polka and by avoiding many of the stylistic conventions of Italian and German opera.
Giacomo Puccini
The most successful Italian opera composer after Verdi. The son of a church organist and composer, he was slated to follow his fathers footsteps but chose instead to focus on opera. Studied at the conservatory in Milan, attracted attention with his first opera in 1884. His third opera, Manon Lescaut catapulted him to international fame and established him as one of the rising stars of his generation. Used Wagner's element of leitmotives in his operas. Wrote La boheme and Madama Butterfly.
Gottschalk, Louis Moreau
1829-69.  Virtuoso pianist and composer from New Orleans (He was half Creole) whose elaborations of Creole melodies first excited French audiences in 1844.
His piano piece, The Last Hope (1855), was one of the most popular parlor pieces of the time
Hugo, Victor
1802-85. French poet, novelist and playwright who was part of a Parisian group of artists that included Liszt.
In the preface to his play Cromwell (1828), he challenged the Classical prescriptions for language and manners.
Hernani of 1830 caused an uproar, because, Hugo's violation of "the unity of place", his breaking of established poetic rules, and his use of every-day speech for exalted characters.
His followers in this debate included the musicians Berlioz and Liszt
Schumann, Clara
1819-1896.  Nee Wieck, wife of Robert, a viruoso pianist and composer.
She married Robert in 1840;  made her piano debut at age 9 and at 13 was touring Europe.
Except for the years during which she bore their seven children, she continued to tour regularly for more than 50 years.
She also taught piano and she directed several music schools.
Much of her time and energy were devoted to promoting her husband's music.  She saw to it that his works were published and performed, and she played much of his piano and chamber music herself.
Her known compositions include a piano concerto, chamber works, including Piano Trio in g minor, numerous shorter piano works, and songs.
Sand, George
Real name Aurore Dudevant.
A 19th c woman writer, a musculine character compared to f.Chopin's feminine character.
They fell in love and went to Majorca for a love-affair refuge and Chopin's composition in 1838, where Chopin completed his 24 Preludes for piano.
Later they broke up due to Sand's child problem, and eventually remained comradship
idee fixe
Berlioz's term for the recurring musical idea linking the several movements of his Symphonie fantastique and associated in its program with the image of the beloved.
Symphonie Fantastique: Berlioz's cyclic program symphony which includes the recurring idee fixe and the use of the Dies Irae. 
Unity is acheived both through the recurring theme and through the evolution of the dramatic idea of the program
Massenet, Jules
1842-1912.  French composer of highly popular operas that made him one of the richest musician of his time. 
Herodiade (1881), Manon (1884), Le cid (1885), werther (1892) and Thais (1894) show his gifts at their best, being works of charm and theatrical effectivemenss.
Entered Paris Conservatoire at age 9, specializing in piano.  11 years later won the Prix de Rome (largely on the recommendation of Berlioz). 
Became youngest member of the French Academie (at 37), eventually becoming its President.
Taught in the Conservatoire and had a number of distinguished pupils, including Hahn, Koechlin, and Schmitt
a popular type of entertainment with spoken text and pictorial accompanying music cultivated by George Benda and Zumsteeg.
Procedures in melodrama are similar to those in melodrama are found in 19th c. Lieder
Mendelssohn, Felix
1809-1847.  A German composer and conductor remembered mainly for his songlike melodies and his beautifully constructed compositions in a number of musical forms.
He showed his great talent at an early age, giving his first piano recital at nine, and composing the overture to Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream at seventeen.
His last three symphines are in the standard repertory today (No.3, the Schotch; No.4, the Italian, and no.5 the Reformation);  the concert overtures "The Hebrides and "Calm Sean and Prosperous Voyage; two piano concertos; Violin concerto; oratorios St. Paul and Elijah, eigh books of Lieder ohne Worte; dozens of songs, and numberous chamber works.
As a conductor of Gawandhaus Orchestra, he helped found a conservatory in Leipzig; helped revive the music of Bach, conducting a performance of Bach's St. Matthew Passion in 1829
Bizet, George
1838-1875.  French composer at the end of the 19th C, mostly known for his operas, esp the masterpiece Carmen.
This is a landmark opera (1875) in that though it is classified as an opera comique because it had spoken dialogue (later set to recit by another composer), it was such a stark and realistic drama that it was an opera comique in name alone.
Bizet rejects the sentimental and mythological plot of his present day opera, and this anti-Romantic sentiment foreshadows the verismo movement that follows soon afterward.
He died soon after Carmen was performed
A bowed guitar invented by J.G. Staufer in 1824.
It is essentially a bass viol, fretted fingerboard, and six strings tuned like those of a guitar.
Schubert's Sonata in A minor, D. 821 (1824) was written for the arpeggione.  Because the instrument is no longer played, this sonata is now played on the cello and viola, though it is quite a bit more difficult since these instruments have only four strings and are obliged to go higher up the fingerboard to finger the notes.
Bellini, Vincenzo
1801-1835.  Italian composer of ten opera seria.
Student of eminent opera composer Zingarelli.
His principal librettist was Romani.
His last opera, I puritani, composed for the French stage, was to a text by Italian exile poet Count Carlo Pepoli.
He composed almost no nonoperatic music after his student days.
Norma (1831) is today the best known of his operas. Subjects are typical of Romantic opera: hopeless love, violent deaths, etc
His arias are more variable than those of Donizetti, with sinuous, decorated melodies, but his recitative is less flexible than Donizetti's
A descendent of the Verbunkos, the csardas is a Hungarian dance form first known about 1840 almost exclusively in the ballrooms of Pest, the Hungarian capital.
The Verbunkos was a style of dance music sometimes used for military recruiting, with alternating slow and fast sections (lassu and friss), sharply accentuated rhythms with many dotted figures and triplets, and colorful violinistic ornamentation and paraphrase
Bennett, William Sterndale
(1816-1875) English composer and viruoso pianist who studied compostion at the Royal Academy of Music.
He was influenced by Mendelssohn and in 1849 he founded the Bach society, which he conducted, giving the English premiere of the St. Matthew Passion.
He composed piano concertos, symphonies, concert overtures, piano pieces, cantatas, and sacred music.
His sacred cantata, The Woman of Samaria (Birmingham Festival, 1867) is typical of this genre in that it is deliberately written in a style simple enough for satisfactory performance by amateurs, with plain narrative recitative alternating with set pieces in simple diatonic style
Carnicer, Ramon
1789-1855.  The most admired Spanish composer of the first half of the century.
He wrote operas in an Italian style to Italian librettos, several of them, such as Cristoforo Colombo (1831) by Felice Romani
Brahms, Johannes
1833-97.  German composer, who was praised glowingly by Schumann in the Neue Zeitschrift, thus pitting him against the "New German School" of Lizst and Wagner.
His style tends to be more conservative and "classical" than that of many of his contemporaries, esp. in terms of form.
His music shows a preference for dense sonorities with many parallel sixths and thirds, frequent pedal points, "flat side" harmonies, and metric displacement.
His work include four symphonies, a violin concerto, two piano concertos, a double concerto for violin and cello, string quartets, quintets and sextets, piano trios, quartets and a quintet, a trio with horn , a trio with clarinet, sonatas for solo piano, violin cello and clarinet, songs, chorale preludes for organ, and other orchestral and choral works (including his Ein Deutsches Requiem)
shape-note singing
Tradition in United States of shaped notes which were used in collections such as Kentucky Harmony, The Southern Harmony and The Sacred Harp. These shaped notes indicates somization syllables, allowing for easy sight-reading i parts. This notational system is an inventive American reconception of the syllables introduced by Guido of Arezzo
The staple of the band repertory: a brief introduction, usually of four measures; two strains or periods, each repeated; a trio in a contrasting key, most often in the subdominant, with an optionnal introduction and two repeated strains; and then a da capo repetiton of the march up to the trio. The strains are typically sixteen measures long and often the second half of a strain varies its first half. The firs strain of the trio tends to be soft and lyrical in contrast to the other strains.
The staple of smaller mixed, mens and womens choirs which parralleled to the Lied or parlor song. Like solo songs, these were also used in domestic music making. Schubert, Mendelssohn, Schumann, Liszt, Hensel and nearly every other compser in Europe produced these and choruses on patriotic, sentimenta, convivial and other kinds of verses. Nature was a favorite subject.
symphonic poem
Genre named by Liszt. Symphonic in sound, weight, and development procedures and are Poems by analogy to literary poems. Often the form has vestiges of traditional patterns such as sonata form or the contrasts in mood and tempo found in a four-movment symphony but was only a one-movement work.
The content and form was usually suggested by a picture, staue, play, poem, scene, personality, or something else, identified by the title and usually by a program.
Johannes Brahms
Leading German composer of his time. Born in Hamburg to a family of modest means. Father played bass and horn in dace halls and local ensembles. Brahms studied piano, Cello and horn as a child and through lessons in piano and music theory developed a love for music of Bach, hayd, Mozart and Beethoven. Earned mony playing popular music at restaurants and taverns which fostered a lifelong taste for folk and popular music.
Wrote four symphonies, concertos, chamber works including seven works for piano and strings. Wrote many piano solo pieces as well as songs or Lieder. In addition he wrote choral works including his greatest choral work Ein Deutsches Requiem (A German Requiem) for soprano and baritone soloists, chorus and orchestra.
Berlin Singakademie
ONe of the first choral societies. Began as a singing class for wealthy women. In 1791 men were acceped as well, and the group gave its first concert. By 1800, under the direction of Carl Friedrich Zelter (Felix and Fanny mendelssohn's teacher), the chorus had quitupled in siz to almost 150 members. Zelter added an orchestra to allow the group to sing oratorios, and by his death in 1832 the chorus had over 350 memebers.
Giuseppi Verdi
One of the greatest Italian opera composers. Wrote Nabucco, la traviata, Luisa Miller to name a few. Had the most operas performed in recent decades.
Paganini, Niccolo
1782-1840.  A towering figure of the 19th C, he was a spectacular violin virtuoso whose playing so enthralled audiences that some siad he was possessed.
His exceptional skill, development of technique, and personal magnetism had a direct influence on the 19th C composers and audiences, specifically Liszt.
Liszt resolved to push the technical limits of the piano music the same way Paganini did to the violin.
Famous examples of Paganini's works include his 24 capprices for solo violin, a virtual compendium of teachnical virtuosity, and his popular Concerto No.1 in D major
Sarasate, Pable de
1844-1908.  a Spanish vioilinist and composer who is remembered mainly for his virtuoso playing.
Numerous composers wrote violin compositions esp for him, among them Edouard Lalo (Symphonie espanole) and Max Bruch (Schottische Fantasie and Violin Concerto no.2).
Most of Sarasate's own compositions are of slight quality, but one of them, Zigeunerweisen (Gypsy Melody), has remained quite popular
Scribe, Eugene
1791-1861. 19th C French dramatist and librettist.
One of the most porolific and influential librettists of the 19th c; wrote the libretto for Rossini's Le Comte Roy.
In his earlier period, he wrote for opera comique, and later contributed to French grand opera.
Within a clever dramatic framework, Scribe brought together all the elements that characterize the Romantic novels and dramas popular in the first half of the 19th c: emotion runs hot, love is always passionate and frequently tragic, stirring conflicts between races, religions and classes in a period setting (mostly Middle Ages or Renaissance).
His librettos were set by Auber, Bellini, Donizetti, Gounod, Halevy, Offenbach and Verdi
Spanish.  A type of short comic opera that was popular in Spain from about 1750 to 1850.
Replacing the older and more complicated zarzuela, the tonadilla originated much as the Italian comic opera did, that is , as a humorous interlude inserted in a serious play or opera that eventually became an independent work.
Mystic chord
Also known as Promethean chord.  Name given to the chord c-f#-bb-e-a-d (superposed fourths) by the Russian composer Skryabin.
It forms the harmonic basis of many of his works, including the tone poem Promethee (1911), from which work the chord takes its alternative name
A figure from that appears in both Germanic and old Norse literature, and who is inextricably tied to the figure of Brunnhilde.
He is known to have superior strenth and courage.
The figure plays a major part in the Ring der Nibelungen of Richard Wagner, and is the title of the 3rd opera of the 4-opera cycle
Whereas lieder of the 18th c were short, idllic and strophic, 19th c. composers preferred a new type of song used by Zumsteeg (1760-1802), the ballad, which was long and often involved alternation narrative and dialogue, romantic adventure, and supernatural incidents.
The greater length of the ballded necessitated greater variety of themes and textures, and thus some means of imposing unity on the whole.
The contrasts of mood and the movement of the story were captured and enhanced by the music.
The piano part rose in prominence, sharing the task of portraying the text
Loewe, Carl
1796-1869. One of the most prolific German ballad composers of the early-mid 19th C.
He frequently toured Europe singing his songs to great success, often called the "North German Schubert".
His setting of Goethe's Erlkonig is particularly fine.
Grand Opera
In response to the rising middle class, opera in France after 1820 strove to appeal to the uncultured masses by stressing the spectacular, with an increase in the number of ballets, choruses, and crowd scenes.
Leaders of the school included the librettist Eugene Scribe (1791-1861), the composer Giacomo Meyerbeer (1791-1864) and the direct of the Paris Opera Theater, Louis Veron (1798-1867).
Meyerbeer's operas in this style included Robert le diable, 1831 and Les Huguenots, 1836.
Other composers of grand opera include Auber (La muette de Portici, 1828), Rossini (Guillaume Tell, 1829), Bellini (I Puritani), Verdi (Les vepres siciliennes, Aida), Wagner (Rienzi), and even 20th century composer such as Milhaud (Christophe Columb) and Barber (Anotony and Cleopatra)
Gilbert and Sullivan
composers of English operettas which proved to be the most distinctive English musical dramas of the century.

Sullivan (1842-1900) was an English music student who studied at the Leipzig conservatory at the same time as Grieg.
In 1875, he first entered into partnership with W.S. Gilbert to write an one-act "afterpiece" to an Offenbach opera.
Broad parody and witty absuditites in Gilbert's texts are matched by Sullivan's array of borrowed and adpated style (ranging form Handelian recitative to Gounod-like sentimental airs, to Italian bel canto styles).
These two men almost single-handedly created the tradition of English operetta
Endless melody
Wagner's ideal, outlined in Oper und Drama, of musical continuity, and avoidance of cadences, creating a sense of continuous melody
Donizetti, Gaetano
1797-1848.  A bel canto Italian opera composer of a slightly younger generation than Rossini.
He first wrote instrumental and church music and then began a long and fruitful relationship with the librettist Felice Romani (I Pirate in Milan 1822).
His first opera to attract internation attention was Anna Bolena (1830).
Donizetti, like all noted Italian opera composers of this era, accepted an invitation to the Theatre Italien in Paris, for which the best of his late works were written.
Donizetti's harmonic language tended to be quite simple and his use of melody more sterotyped and less adorned than that of Bellini.
In addition, Donizetti's recitative tends to be more flexible than Bellini's but less apt to burst into arioso style
Zumsteg, Johann Rudolph
1760-1802.  Primarily known for his work on cultivating the lied in Germany.
He wrote over 300 songs and had a significant influence on Schubert and his contribution to lieder.
Tchaikovsky, Pyotr Il'yrich
1840-1893.  He stands outside the nationalist circle of composers around Balakirev.
His formal conservatory training instilled in him Western-oriented attitudes and techniques, but his essential nature, as he always insisted, were Russian: both in his actual use of folksong and in his deep absorption in Russian life and ways of thought.
His natural gifts, esp his genius for what he called the lyrical ideal, the beautiful, self-contained melody, give his music a permanent appeal.
It was his hard-won but secure and professional technique and his ability to use it for the expression of his emotional life, which enable him to realize his potential more fully than any of his major Russian contemporaries.
He had a period of High nationalism (1870-1874) - use of flksongs in larger works such as Romeo and Juliet
A widespread movement of the 19th c that emphasized national musical characteristics, esp as found in a country's folk songs, dances, and legends.
The use in art music of materials that are identifiably national or regional in character.  These may include actual folk music, and non musical programmatic elements drawn from national folklore, myth or literature.
The movement was associated with the political nationalism of 19th c Europe, particularly in such countries as Russia, Bohemia (now a part of Czech), Norway, Finland, Hungary, Romania, Spain and England. Mainly by composers of peripheral countires.
The earliest important example is Glinka's opera, A Life for the Czar, completed in 1836;
Russian Five: Mussorgsky's opera Boris Godunov;
Smetana's The Bartered Bride combines a plot based on an episode from Bohemian peasant life with folk dances and other elements of folk music
Grieg in Norway, Dvorak in Bohemia, and Sibelius in Finland omposed with the materials from their native lands.
Albeniz, Granados, and de Falla used Spanish dance rhythms.
Janacek in Moravia; Bartok and Kodaly in Hungary; Enesco in Romania; Szymanowski in Poland; Elgar and Vaughan Williams in Great Britain; Chavez in Mexico; and Grofe in the US.
By 1900 this movement had declined; esp due to the turned to the techniques of twelvetone and serial music.
Der Freischutz
"The Freeshooter", an opera by Carl Maria von Weber, which is considered the first great German Romantic opera.
It features all of the characteristics that traditionally define this genre: medieval plots, supernatural beings, mysterious nature, use of increasing chromaticism and German folk song.
These features are examplified in the famous Wolf Glen's scene.
The opera had a great influence on Wagner, who is considered his successor in this genre
Carl Maria Von Weber
His work, Der Freischutz (the Rifleman) established German Romantic opera. He used unusual orchestration and harmonies and used ordinary folk center stage, talking and singing about their concerns, their loves and their fears.
Richard Strauss
(1864 - 1949) A dominant figure in German musical life for most of his career. He was celebrated as a conductor holding positions int he opera houses of Munich, Weimar Berlin and Vienna, and conducting most of the world's great orchestras during numerous tours. As a composer, he is remembered especially for his symphonic poems, most written before 1900; his operas, all but one of which cme later and his Lieder.
Zeitschrift fur Musik
(New Journal of Music). Journal which after injuring his hand, Schumann wrote criticism for and edited from 1834-44. In his essays and reviews, he opposed empty virtuosity, urged the sudy of older music, and was among the first and strongest advocates of Chopin, Brahms, and the instrumental music of Schubert.
Die Meistersinger
The German musicians and poets of the artisan and trade classes of the 14-16th c.
In a sense they represent the bourgeois inheritors of the courtly minnesingers, though their true predecessors were probably fraternities of laymen, trained to sing church and elsewhere.
Their music, subject matter, and form remained remarkably consistent throughout the centuries.
Each stanza consisted of 2 musically identical stollen which together formed an Aufgesang, followed by an abgesang, which had a different metrical scheme.
This form was derived from the Minnesinger and is sometimes called bar form.
Usually 3 stanzas or a multiple of 3 constituted a song.
The most documented center of Meistersingers was Nurnberg, which may explain the title of Richard Wagner's opera Die Mistersinger van Nuremberg
Concert Overture
Based on the style of Romantic operas, it became an independent one-mvt work which took the form of the Classical sonata form or the free form of the symphonic poem.
Examples include Hebrides Overture by Mendelssohn, Eliot Carter's Holiday Overture.
Other times, the concert overture was written for special occasions such as Brahms Academic Festival Overture.
Other works wuch as Beethoven's Egmont Overture, was written as an introduction to a spoken play.
Reger, Max
1873-1916. A very late 19th C- early 20th c composer.
His first works were chamber music, lieder, and piano pieces.
He was particularly succesful with his organ works, as he was highly regarded as an organist.
Although he was Catholic, he worked on Lutheran chorales in Bach tradition.
Among his later works is his best-known orchestral pieces, Variations and Fugue on a Theme of Mozart, which combines both progressive and conservative elements, making it hard to place in a musical niche.
Reger and Hans Pfitzner are the two primary Post-Romantic German composers.
His harmony is mostly a post-Wagnerian style of extreme chromaticism, but his large works are confined to the bounds of Baroque and Classical strict forms
Cecilian movement
19th C German movement for the reform of the Catholic church music.
In reaction to the excesses of the Romantic music, Cecilians wanted to restore religious feeling through more intelligibility in the words and more subservience of the music to the text.
In honor of St Cecilia, patron saint of sacred music, it helped bring about the a capella style and a restoration of Gregorian chant to what was thought to be its prestine form.
The best catholic church music was by Cherubini and Schubert in the early 19th C and the best of the Protestant and Anglican was that of Mendelssohn and Wesley.
One famous encyclical was the Motu Propio of Pius X in 1903, which expressly forbade the operatic style as examplified by Rossini's Stabat Mater.
A term coined by Wagner in his essay Opera und Drama (1851).
The meaning of the term is that poetry, scenic design, staging, action, and music are seen as aspects of a total scheme.
This concept was of primary importance to Wagner's music drama which was an attempt to creating the ultimate art form which linked together all of the various arts (music, singing, dance, poetry, writing, painting, sculpture, etc.) in one complete whole.
Wagner believed this was a return to the artistic ideals of classical Greece and Rome
In ancient Greece, a song in honor of Dionysus.
Aristotle descirbed tragedy as having developed from the dithyramb.
As a title for works of the 19th and 20th c, the terms suggests music of a passionate, Dionysian character
Schiller, Johann von
The poet whose enlightement ideas of humanitarianism and bortherhood inspired Verdi, Schubert, Mendelssohn, and Beethoven.
Beethoven used Schiller's Ode to Joy in the finale of the Ninth Symphony
St. Petersburg Conservatory
Was founded in 1862 with Anton Rubinstein as the artistic director.
It has had many renowned professors, including Rimsky-Korsakov (1871-1908), Glazuno (1899-1925; from 1905 he was also director), Lyadov (1878-1914), Shteynberg, Vladimir Schostakovich and others.
Among its graduate have been Shostakovich, Sviridov....
A Life for the Tsar
First Russian opera sung throughout. By Mikhail Glinka was patriotic, pro-government drama 1836. Some of the recitative and melodic writing has a distinctive Russian character, attributable to modal scales, quotation or paraphrasing of fold songs, and a folklike idiom..
Das Judentum in der Musik
(Jewishness in Music). Written by Wagner whic appeard under a pseudonym in 1850 and under Wagners name in 1869. Claimed that music drama could help reform society and that art should not be undertaken for profit. He was a musical and philosophical nationalist, claming that German art was pure, spiritual, and profound, as opposed to the superficiality of italian and French music. What drove him to write the essay, he explained to Liszt was his antipathy toward meyerbeer, whoes music he once admired and who had used his influence to help Wagner, but wagner turned against the elder composer when critics wrote how much Meyerbeer influenced his own music. Seeking ot establish is independence, Wagner attacked Meyerbeer's music arguing that it was weak because he was Jewish and therefore lacked national roots, without which a composer could not have an authentic style. Wagner implied that the same problem affected Mendelssohn, whom he had revered in his younger days, despite mendelssohns conversion to Christianity.
Grande symphonie funebre et triophale
The Grand funeral and Triumphant Symphony by Berlioz. One of the first masterpiece band music. For military band, optional strings and chorus.
Pictures at an Exhibition
A piano suite by Mussorgsky, dedicated to his friend Victor Hartmann.
Now a celebrated orchestral work in its better known version by Ravel, done in 1922
opera bouffe
French.  A 19th c type of comic opera that is very similar to an operetta. 
The best-known composer of such works is Offenbach
Theatre lyrique
Founded in middle of the 19th c and thrived for about 2-20 years or son.
Produced operas like Gounod's Faust and Romeo et Juliet.
The term "Lyric opera", though frequently used, does not indicate a distinct genre, though the operas given at the Theatre lyrique were generally smaller and more intimate than grand opera
Piotr Il'yich Tchaikovsky
Not a part of Russian 5 but was leading Russian composer of the 19th century. Studied with Anton Rubinstein at the St. Petersburg Conservatory, was on its first students to graduae, and taught at the Mascow Conservatory for 12 years. Mad his living solely as a composer, aided until 1890 by a gernerous stipend from a wealthy and mysterious widow who he never met. Sought to reconcile the nationalist and internationlist tendencies in Russian music, drawing models from beethoven, Schubert, Schumann and other Western composers as well as from Russian folk and popular music. Wrote music for stage, including incidental music, ballets and operas. The Three most famous ballets include: Swan Lake, Sleeping Beauty and the Nutcraker.
opera comique (Romantic)
An opera on a French text with musical numbers separated by spoken dialogue. 
In the 19th c, these operas also incorporated serious or tragic events.
An example is Bizet's Carmen.  In this opera, the idea of "comique" does not refer to comic or humorous like the 18th c, but refers only to the presence of spoken dialogue
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