Educational Psychology Exam Flashcards

Terms Definitions
direct instruction/teaching
cooperative/collaborative learning
Classical conditioningInvoluntary responsesDOGS
Integrity vs despair
personality development
self-image and self-esteem
Propositional logic
if then logic
observational learning
learning by watching
episodic memory
memory of specific events
Gagne's theory of instruction1. taxonomy of learning outcomes-verbal information-intellectual skills-cognitive strategies-attitudes-motor skills2. conditions for learning-internal (individual characteristics)-external (environmental characteristics)3. events of instruction-gain attention-inform learners of objectives-stimulate recall of prior knowledge-present content-provide "learning guidance"-elicit performance-provide feedback-assess performance-enhance retention and transfer
you've gotten into the community
Critical Thinking
Evaluating accuracy and reasoning
Frequently threats, harasses, or causes injury to another person
Ethnographic study
in-depth description and interpretation of behavior in an ethnic or a cultural group that includes direct involvement with the participants
the reinforcement of successive approximations to a target behavior
Would individual strives to accomplish
person's beliefs about their own abilities and skills
Inductive reasoning
based on developing generalizations from a limited number of specific observations or experiences (Qualitative)
multiple perspectives
learn to classify and differentiate
Process through which a learner gradually incorporates socially based activities into his or her internal cognitive processes
Characteristic ways in which an individual behaves in a wide range of circumstances – result of heredity and environmental factors
Characteristics of peer relationships
-Friendships-larger social groups-gangs, -romantic relationship-popularity -social isolation
the inability to distinguish between ones own perspective and someone else's prespectiveex. a child standing infront of the television when someone behind them was watching
Signaling Devises
"in contrast"
"as a result"
First, second, etc
helps lower level readers comprehend
Teacher interview
identify teacher percieved problems, nature of problem,duration of problem previous attempts aimed at problem remediation
removing the child from the reinforcing environment to an environment where thhere are no reinforcers for the child
orderly, adaptive changes we go through from conecption to death
Attribution theories
descriptions of how individuals’ explanations, expectations, justifications, and influence their motivation and behavior
“I” Message
clear, nonaccusatory statement of something is affecting you
 The study of teaching and learning with application to the instructional process.
Discriminations are often learned by a behavior being reinforced in the presence of one stimulus and being punished in the presence of another. Fading out discriminative stimuli used to initially establish a desired behavior. (Desired behavior still occurs without the stimulus)
set the conditions for responding BUT consequences of the response are critical in determining whether it ever happens again
sensory memory
functions to hold information very briefly, just long enough for the information to be processed
knowledge is equated with truth and absolute
iconic representations
summarize events by the selective organization of percepts and images
existing schemes or operations must be modified to account for a new experience
thicker and thicker fatty coating on connections when they are strengthened. the thicker the mylination, the quicker the responserubber on outside of wiring
Cell in brain,part of the nervous system that transmits info to other cells
Firm commitment to an occupation, a particular set of beliefs, choices mostly based on what parents say without exploration for themselves
general theory of human motivation and is concerned with the choices people make with their own free will and full sense of choice, without any external influence and interference
Educational Psychology
The branch of psychology that specializes in understanding teaching and learning in educational settings
Experimental Groups
the group whose experience is manipulated in an experiment
intrinsic motivation
the internal motivation to do something for its own sake (an end in itself)
(Task Value)
When an activity confirm/ disconfirms the importance aspects of thieir self- schemas
Reading Reliablity and Validity
test-retest reliablility, parallel from estimates and interrater agreement are excellent (range .82-.99), correlations wti hcriterion referenced and nrom referenced tests range from .63-.91 with most correlation coefficients above .80
Stimulus discrimination
process whereby the organism learnes to tell the difference between two similar stimuli
Identifying rewards
running errands, extra free time, positive note home to parents, choosing an activity for the class, oops card, wear hats in clas
action research
systematic observations or tests of methods conducted by teachers or schools to improve teaching and learning for their students
Characteristics of Social Constructivist Classrooms
-construction of collaborative meaning-teachers closely monitor student’s perspectives, thinking, and feeling-the teacher and students are learning and teaching-social interaction permeates the classroom-the curriculum and physical contents of the classroom reflect student’s interests and are infused with their culture
Formal operational stage
Logical reasoning processes are applied to abstract ideas, as well as to concrete reality; ability to reason about abstract, hypothetical and contrary-to-fact ideas; formulation and testing of multiple hypotheses; separation and control of variables; proportional reasoning
Scripted cooperation
learning strategy in which two students take turns some writing material and critiquing the summary
Differentiated instruction
flexible coach teaching that much content, process, and products based on student differences in readiness, interests, and learning needs.
External Validity
Degree to which results of an experiment can be applied to real-life situations. 
schema doesn't work at all, need to abandon it and find a new one
potential development
ZPD, what they can do with supports
State of being able to address new events with existing schemes
Preconventional morality
Lack of internal standards about right and wrong, decision based onwhat is best for oneself
cognitive evaluation theory
suggest that events affect motivation through the individual's perception of the events as controlling behavior or providing information
7, generativity vs stagnation
transmitting something positive to next generationmiddle adulthood
hierarchy of needs
maslows concept that individual nees must be satisfied in this sequence: pysiological, safety, love and beloningness, esteem and self actualization
Neuroscientific basis of writing
handwrigting is complexcognitive and motoric process.
lesions in left parietal-occipital area cause retrieving abstract letter forms
3 Dimensions of Attribution Theory
Locus ( Location)
Stability (Whether or not the cause can change)
Control (Accept responsiblity for their sucess/ failure) ( Learning Situation)
quantity discrimination
given two numbers and the individual must pick the larger number
insturction/ intervention of the acquistion stage
modeling, prompting, practice, immediate feedback
Establishing Operation
a variable that temporarily alters the effectiveness of a reinforcer; for example drinking fluids and exercising heavily for a period of time are EO's for increasing the effectiveness of water as a reinforcer for drinking behavior and behaviors associated with obtaining the water
non-exclusionary time-out
removing the child from te reinforcing situation, but the child may still observe the ongoing activity in the classroom
Level 3: Post-Conventional
Stage 5: Morality of social contract
Stage 6: Universal Ethical
Low-Road vs. High-Road Transfer
Low-Road Transfer – previous learning automatically transfers to another situationHigh-Road Transfer – conscious and effortful transfer of learning to a new situation
set of rules that one uses (often unconsciously) to put words together in a sentence
Lesson study
as a group, teachers develop, test, improve, and retest lessons until they are satisfied with the final version.
Group discussion
conversation in which the teacher does not have the dominant role; students pose and answer their own questions
memory capacity
can only process so many things in working memory
Conservation of quantity/numbermass/volume/density
start with number, then mass and volume density is last
Moral dilemma
Two or more peoples rights or needs may be different and morally correct action is not clear-cut
1. trust vs. mistrust
developed through consistent love and support0-2yrs
the psychomotor domain (blooms taxonomy)
reflex movements, basic fundamentals, perceptual abilities, physical abilities, skilled movements, nondiscussive behaviors
(Task Value)
The negative aspect of engaging in a task
Content validity
how well it assesses the domain of interest
Approaches to intervention standard protocol
commercially packaged, addresses all critical areas (not individualized), standard implementation, students move in and out of intervention
fixed ratio
when a behavior is reinforced after a fixed number of occurrences
Essentials of behavior managment consists of
clearly communicated rules and expectations, regular feedback, progress monitoring, and evaluation of implementation
Operant Conditioning
A form of learning in which the consequences of behavior produce changes in the probability that the behavior will occur
Preferred Learning Styles
The different ways or situations that people are accustomed to or prefer to gain information.
Authentic tasks
task that has some connection to real life problems the students will face outside the classroom
Failure avoiding students
students who avoid failure by speaking to what they know, by not taking risks, or by claiming not care about their performance
Continuing motivation (volition)
Acting with a sense of choice. "I acted on my own volition"
community of practice
what others do affects you in the communityPractice fields: aren't real, but a contrived learning opportunity, try to make authentic as possible
expectation that the reader also has the same schematized knowledge
CBM Reading: Early Literacy examines
letter naming fluency, initial sound fluency, phoneme segmentation fluency, nad nonsense word fluency
Two types of learning or conditioning
classical conditioning and operant conditioning
What are 2 ways psychologists study learning?
1.Quantitative Methods-factors of interest can be put into terms of numbers (i.e. does classroom affect test scores?); data are analyzed statistically (grades vs temp in room).

2.Qualitative Methods-data collected by observation, interviews, focus groups, etc. Data may be be grouped into categories, general impressions described (i.e. What is student life like in American vs Canadian schools).

Concept Formation
Define the Concept – link it to a superordinate concept and identify its key features or characteristicsSuperordinate Concept – a larger class into which a concept fitsClarify Terms in the Definition – make sure key features and characteristics are will understoodGive Examples – give examples that fit into the concept and some non-examples can help to understand what does not fit into a conceptProvide Additional Examples – ask students to categorize concepts, explain their categorization, or have them generate their own examples of a concept
origins of trust, according to Erickson
during infancy period, major development task is to learn whether or not others, especially primary caregivers, regularly satisfy basic needs of food, comfort and affection
Entity and incremental theories of intelligence
Entity: see your abilities as fixedIncremental: your abilities can change intelligence
basic skills and phonetics approach to reading
involves teaching both phonemic awareness (breaking apart and manipulation sounds in words) and phonics (learning that sounds are represented by letters of the alphabet, which form words)reading materials should be simple, after they have learned phonological rules should they then read poems and books
Most common functions of behavior in school settings
teacher attention, Peer attention (both positive and negative) and to escape, avoidance, delay and reduction of social attention, task demands/assignments
Is all learning the same?
What are the different levels?
What does Bloom taxonomy say?
 1. No
2. deep vs shallow (memorizing)
3. Bloom’s Taxonomy - Level: 1.Knowledge 2.Comprehension 3. Application 4.Analysis 5. Synthesis 6.Evaluation
Fixed Ratio Schedule of Reinforcement
Behavior is reinforced after a set number of responses
Expectancy x value theory
If I succeed once, I expect to succeed again, but I have to value the success.
Letter naming fluency
ask the child to look at a line of letters (upper and lower case) and name each letter
Eric Erikson's Stages of Man
Stage Three
Initiative vs. guilt (3 to 6 years)

initiative adds to autonomy the qualities of understanding and planning tasks
play and fantasy take on importance
psychosocial strength purpose within limits one can act on the world intentionally
offer a choice and a voice
parent's challenge is to not have their child loose zest for doing
Norm Reference tests answers this question
How well did this person do in comparison to other similar persons
What are 2 types of variables in the goals of education?
-Cognitive Variables (IQ, Speed of processing, reasoning, etc)
(Dr.Linderholms expertise)
-Non-cognitive variable about whether or not someone learns well (i.e. socioeconomic status, motivation)

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