Egypt Flashcards

Social studies
Terms Definitions
cataracts
rapids
visier
chief advisor
cataract
a waterfall
Peasants
they were farmers
Afterlife
Life after death
hieroglyphics
Egyptian picture writing
pylon temple of horus
Geography
___________helped early Kush civilization develop in Nubia
Isis
Egyptian goddess of fertility
Calm
The White Nile is
Old Kingdom
Early Period-_______-1st Intermediate Period-Middle Kingdom-2nd Intermediate Period-New Kingdom-3rd Intermediate Period- Late Period
engineering
the application of scientific knowledge for practical purposes
Pyramids
served as a pharaohs tomb
Step Pyramids
constructed the architect/vizier Imhotep
pharaoh
a ruler of ancient egypt
Ra
The sun god in egyptian mythology.
reliefs
carved, painted scenes on tomb walls
Julius Caesar
Roman general, statesman, and historian who invaded Britain crushed the army of his political enemy Pompey ,pursued other enemies to Egypt, where he installed Cleopatra as queen returned to Rome, and was given a mandate by the people to rule as dictator for life .On March 15 of the following year he was murdered by a group of republicans led by Cassius and Brutus, who feared he intended to establish a monarchy ruled by himself.
sphynx
What statues of imaginary creatures are found along the path leading to the entrance of many Egyptian temples?
Hieroglyphs
Egyptian picture writing used for formal purposes
4
How many coffins protected Tut's mummy?
Upper Egypt
A contrast would be: _______________vs. Lower Egypt
Mummies
specially treated bodies wrapped in cloth
narmer
pharoah who united upper and lower egypt in 3100 BC.
relief carvings
sculpture consisting of shapes carved on a surface so as to stand out from the surrounding background
Akhenaten
atempted to create the world's first monotheistic religion, wanted people to only worshipp aten
Who weighed your heart after you died?
Osiris.
Zoser/djoser
the first king of the 3rd Dynasty
ankh
a symbol for everlasting life often worn as an amulet on the wrist or ankle its a cross with a loop at the top
Papyrus
A reed growing along the Nile River
Menes
The king of lower and upper Egypt
What does Polytheistic mean?
Belief in many gods
nile
life giving miracle, river, gave food water and protection--> allowed egypt to become rich
Tutankhamen
Boy pharaoh of Egypt around 1358 BC
when was the old kingdom started
2575 B.C.
Yes
The ancient egyptians had a high degree of unity. Yes/No
When does the Roman Period end?
365 AD
Ka
unknown god. Lived on after the death of the body.
Identify who were the Hyksos?
Invaders from western Asia.
mummy
a dead body preserved in a lifelike condition
Khufu
The Great Pyramid was built for this pharaoh
3 Achievements
the 3 greatest achievements of the Egyptians-calendar, medicine, and arts
Piankhi
also known as "Piye" and a successful military leader in ancient Kush
Who was Osiris?
god of death, resurrection, and fertility
mummification
the process of preserving a dead body through embalming and drying
Class structure in Egypt
Pharoh, Government Officials, Priests, Scribes, Artisans, Peasants
Rosetta Stone
A stone that had three written languages on it; heiroglyphics, late Egyptian and Greek. Because scholars could read the Greek language, they were able to interpret the meaning of heiroglyphics. Thus, unlocking the key to ancient writings and understanding the past lives of ancient people.
co-regency
a practice in which a royal successor is chosen and rules alongside the reigning king to ensure a competent transition from one to the other
bier
boat-like sled to move body to tomb, like Ra the sun gods sun boat
winds
allowed people to travel south on the Nile
Pyramid
a massive memorial with a square base and four triangular sides
What was used for heavy work?
Donkeys, and oxen.
Great Pyramid
pyramid built for King Khufu at Giza around 2540 BC (tomb for mummified bodies)
is the nile river delta in the upper or lower part of egypt
lower
Book of the Dead
A collection of ancient Egyptian funerary texts from various periods, containing prayers, magic formulas, and hymns to be used by the soul of the deceased for guidance and protection on its journey to the afterlife.
Rossetta Stone
a huge stone stone stab incribed with hieroglyphics
King Tutankhaman--"King Tut"
Boy King--His tomb was founded in 1922
deities
the word used to refer to gods and goddesses. Hundreds of different deities were worshipped in ancient Egypt. Some were common to all of Egypt and some were particular to a town or city.
book of dead
contains major ideas and beliefs found in the ancient Egyptian religion
Cleopatra 7 (VII)
the Egyption pharaoh who made a deal with Marc Anthony to try to take control of Egypt from her brother. Committed suicide when she lost.
Red Land
the West side of the Nile River, which gets its name from the hot, hard-to-live-in climate and the color of blood. also seth, the god of the desert and death was said to live there
Osiris
Ruler of the dead and god of rebirth & vegetation
Egyptian national life/history
king's list, list of nomes of Upper Egypt, and inscriptions and designs on pottery...
strongly suggest Egyptian national life and history began with the unification of Egypt about the year 3100 BCE
Who is 2nd in rank on the social pyramid?
priest and nobles
The Middle Kingdom is best described as a time when Egypt ___________.
Increased contact with other cultures
"The Gift of the Nile"
a nickname for Egypt referring to the life giving feature of the Nile river
How did Mesopotamia and Egypt differ based on the very different flooding patterns of their rivers?
The Tigres & Euphrates rivers flooded unpredictably, causing the people to be afraid of the rivers; people tried to appease the gods. The Nile had regular flooding patterns which helped the people of Egypt to live, they worshiped the Nile, which led to them loving life.
What animals made home to the west of the Nile?
Vultures, falcons, jackals, wild dogs, lions, gazelles, and antelopes.
Shanakdakheto
Shanakdakheto
pharaohs
The Egyptian kings.
Giza
Khufu old kingdom
baset
protector of pharaoh
Amon
father of the pharaohs
Menes (Narmer)
1st dynasty pharaoh
Cartouche
an ovel loop around hieroglyphics
4000 miles
lenght of the Nile
Egypts rule of Kush..
450 years
Thutmose III
Hatshepsut's nephew. Expanded Egypt's borders north to the Euphrates river and south, regaining control over Nubia.
Nubia
an ancient region of northeastern Africa (southern Egypt and northern Sudan) on the Nile
hieroglyics
ancient egyptian writting composed of picture like symbols
Hatshepsut
the first female pharaoh of Egypt
Two Lands
lower and upper Egypt separate
Middle Kingdom
Constructed buildings and irrigation projects
Thutmose
the nephew of Hatshepsut. a pharaoh
Kahun Papyrus*
Gynecological text dealing with pregnancy and maladies of reproduction; cancers.
Define nobles
People from rich and powerful families
Canopic Jars
held the waste organs of mummies
Egypt
*Located on the northeastern coast of Africa
*Desert country with little rainfall
*Lower Egypt is located in the north and Upper Egypt is located in the south due to the flow of the Nile River
*Its very existence depends on the Nile River
Did the Pharaoh ever have written laws?
no
sabbath
sunday- weekly day of worship and rest
sphinx
massive monument bulid with the body of a lion with the head of the pharoah
Ebony
a type of dark wood, heavy wood
nilometer
calculated the taxes people owed based on their crops
mastaba
an arabick word meaning mud brick bench;some egyptian tombs are mastabas.
Sphinxes
imaginary creatures with the bodies of loins and the heads of other animals or humans
Meroe
Farther south than Napata and out of the Assyrians reach, this city became the new capital of Kush.
King Menez
known for combining upper and lower egypt
This god weighed the heart and guided the dead
Anubis
delta
a low triangular area where a river divides before entering a larger body of water
obelisk
A tall four sided pillar that pointed on top
dynasty
or series of rulers from the same family
king tutankhamen
king tut, his tomb was discovered filled with treasures, we have learned much about egyptian life due to this discovery
periods of history
Archaic Period, Old Kingdom, First Intermediate, Middle Kingdom, Second Intermediate, New Kingdom (Empire).
North, Mediterranean Sea
The Nile flows from the____________to the__________
silt
a mixture of rich soil and tiny rocks
barge
a large, strong boat built to carry material
The largest and greatest pyramids was built in 2540 BC
The Great Pyramids
Tutankhamun
the only king whose tomb was found in perfect condition-known as King Tut
What is anarchy?
a state of society without government or law
shadoof
used to lift water from the river for irrigation (still used)
An unfinished burial chamber. The pharaoh most likely changed his mind and decided to be buried in the body of the pyramid.
What was an Underground?
menes/ narmer
1st dynasty of egypt
upper and lower egypt
Criminal law
A branch of laws that deals with murder, assault, robbery...
Mixture of tiny bits of soil and rock left behind as over drain
silt
The people of Egypt and the people of Nubia first came in close contact with each other __________________________________.
through trade
Deserts of Ancient Egypt
The deserts of ancient Egypt were called the "red land", spread out on either side of the river. Sahara lay to the west and the part of the Sahara called the Eastern Desert to the east. Although these hostile deserts were useless for farming, not friendly to human life, and a risk to travel, they were a blessing to the Egyptians and Nubians because the hot sands shielded Egypt and Nubia from foreign attacks.
power of pharoahs
he belief that the pharaoh is god incarnate, and thus had complete authority and also was owner of all of Egypt's land. He embodied the law and holds the most powerful monarchial position of history.
How did the physicians' hierarchy go?
Senior doctor

Overseers of the physicians (in one nome)

Master of physicians (over several nomes)

Chief of physicians of the South and the North

Royal and palace doctors
Characteristics of the Noble
Very little room for a noble class; instead of relying on nobles, Egypt relied on professional military forces, government officials, and tax collectors who served the central government
What are some things you might find inside an Egyptian temple?
Sphinx's, obelisks, huge columns supporting the ceiling, pictures and hieroglyphics, statues, and a sanctuary.
What are the two major rivers that flow through Mesopotamia?
The Tigris and Euphrates river.
What is the "Epic of Gilgamesh"?
A story that tells about the great flood of Sumer
How did the Nile River affect ancient Egyptian life:
By creating rich farmland in the river valley.
vizier
chief minister
basins
bowl-shaped holes
ritual
A religious ceremony.
Set
evil brother of Osiris
smooth walled stacked mastabas
pyramid
reign
a time of rule
pharoah
in ancient Egypt, a god-king
pyramid of Giza
most famous pyramid
When did Ramses II rule?
1279-1213
herbulisim
act of creating medicines from plants
three
How many rivers formed the Nile?
Pharaoh who succeeded Hatshepsut and was a great conqueror
Thutmose
Hyksos
used horse-drawn chariots and bronze and iron weapons (ruled for 150 years)
Kush
powerful rulers from here took over Egypt's southern lands
Inundations
Floods (crucial to Egyptian life. The annual flooding of the Nile brought rich fertile soil that allowed Egyptians to develop an advanced agricultural system)
Lower Egypt
Covered delta region in northern area
power of Pharoh #5
often buried in pyramids
Nile River
longest river in the world; brought all water to Egyptian settlements
Narmer Palette
showed Narmer taking over Egypt and unifying it, he's much bigger
Ramses the Great
Egyptian pharaoh who fought the Hissites in the 1200 BC
Jean Francois Champollion
Frenchman and Egyptologist who studied the Rosetta stone and in 1820 became the first person to decipher Egyptian hieroglyphics (1790-1832)
Namer/Menes
conquerer of Upper & Lower Egypt; from Upper Egypt, married Lower Egypt princess
Luxor
a city in central Egypt on the east bank of the Nile River that is a center for visitors to the ruins of and about Thebes
Egypt called Nubia ...
Land of the Bow (skillful archers)
Thoth
the ibis - He was the god of scribes and learning, and was thought to have invented writing, arithmetic, and the calendar
a- frame
frame used to keep walls level when in construction
Steps of Embalming
Clean the body, go to the wabet, take out the brain, take out many internal organs, liver, lungs, stomach and intestines are washed in natron, body stuffed with natron, the body dries and is brought to the per nefer. The body is washed again in Nile water, then coved in oils
Foreign powers ruled Egypt during what centuries
4th century B. C. to the 20th century A.D.
"gold"
Nubia
Horus
Sky god
nyphthys
protector of the dead
hieroglyph
letters in the egyptian language
Memphis
was the capital of Egypt's old kingdom
polytheism
the belief in a number of gods
punt
a land famous for precious items name used by egyptians to describe a region of east africa to which trading missions was sent from at least the 5th dynasty
pyramids at giza
it included khufu, khafre and menkaures pyramid. there were three small pyramids near by for the pharoahs wife and kids.
queen hatshepsut
female king of egypt, ruled in place of her step son thutmose III for nearly 20 years
King Khufu
The pharoah who the Great Pyramide was build for, Cheops
cheops, khufu
king of egypt during dynast 4, know to the greeks as cheops, built the first of the 3 pyramids at giza
What are the 2 most important gifts of the Nile River are
1. Water
2. Black Mud/Silt
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